Presentation on theme: "Microbiology in Agriscience and Production Agriculture Competency 11.00."— Presentation transcript:
Microbiology in Agriscience and Production Agriculture Competency 11.00
What is a virus? A virus is an organism composed of a DNA or RNA core surrounded by a tough protein outer coat. –NOT CLASSIFIED AS A TRUE LIVING ORGANISM –Cannot reproduce sexually, only through division in a HOST (viruses are parasitic) –Reproduce quickly, mutate often, and can survive harsh environmental conditions
Viruses Responsible for some of the most dangerous human ailments Can be destroyed by altering DNA HIV Virus
Viruses Often used as a vector to transport genes into organisms when genetically modifying organisms.
Types of Viruses Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)-often used as a vector for genetic engineering in plants-1 long RNA molecule Bacteriophage-DNA packaged tightly in a protein head-often used in genetic engineering
Types of Viruses Common viruses –Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) –Influenza –Common Cold –Measles –Norwalk –Hepatitis –Rabies Measles
What is a prokaryotic organism? A single celled organism that has no membrane bound organelles and no distinct nucleus. Usually have very short life spans
Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms Contain free-floating DNA Can be autotrophic (produce their own energy) or heterotrophic (consume other things for energy) Also reproduce quickly and mutate often, but are not as tough as viruses
Characteristics of Bacteria Can be beneficial or harmful to humans Unlike viruses, bacteria are not PARASITES, and do not need a host Molds and funguses including yeast are not bacteria
Beneficial Bacteria Provide a benefit to human activity through normal function or manipulation through biotechnology techniques Examples: –Nitrobactus alkalikus –Lactobaccillius sp.
Nitrobactus alkalikus Bacteria occurring naturally in soil on the roots of legumes, that change nitrogen in the air to a form useful for plants –Nitrogen fixing
Lactobaccillus sp. A genus of microorganisms that have been introduced to foods (often dairy products) to aid in digestion
Harmful Bacteria Affect agriscience products and processes in a negative manner, affecting both plants and animals Example: –Eescherichia coli (E. coli) –Clostridium boutlinum –Salmonella enteriditus –Pythium spp.
Destroying Harmful Bacteria Sterilization-kills all living organisms in a or on a substance Pasteurization-kills most harmful microorganisms, leaving some beneficial organisms surviving
Multiform Bacteria Can either be beneficial or harmful to plants under different circumstances and conditions Example: –Agrobacterium tumefaciens-naturally occurring bacteria that penetrates plant cells transmitting its own DNA to the cells and causing the growth of a gall (tumor like mass) Used in genetic engineering to transmit genes
Agriscience Uses of Bacteria Pharming Bioremediation Biocontrol Biofuels
Example of Pharming Inclusion of cholesterol consuming bacteria in milk products to lower human cholesterol
Bioremediation Use of bacteria that consume contaminants in soil and water –Example- bacteria used to eat oil from tanker spills, or excess organic nutrients from animal waste
Biocontrol Use of beneficial bacteria in horticulture to kill harmful bacteria in soil, water and on plant surfaces.
Biofuels Very few applications in renewable energy or biofuels now, but lots of potential applications
What is a Eukaryotic Cell? Advanced cells characterized by the presence of membrane bound organelles and a distinct nucleus. –Usually occur in multicellular organisms, but also include a few single celled Protists.
Cell Membrane Selectively permeable membrane surrounding all eukaryotic cells. Protects the cell and controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus Center for the distribution of proteins, enzymes, and other materials through the cell –Like the post office
Mitochondria Structures inside the cell that convert simple sugars to a useful form of cellular energy through the process of respiration
Nucleus A large central segment of the eukaryotic cell that contains the cells genetic information (DNA)
Ribosomes Small structures in the cytoplasm of the cell that utilize RNA to produce proteins for cell functions
Vacuoles Specialized bubbles in cells used for storage, digestion, and excretion. Much larger in plant cells
Special Plant Cell Structures Chloroplasts-use chlorophyll to capture light energy for conversion to chemical energy Cell wall-structure outside the cell membrane that helps support and protect cells. –Not semi-permeable
Diploid Cells Includes all single celled eukaryotes and every non-reproductive cell in multicellular eukaryotes (plants and animals) –Examples: Skin cells, muscle cells, nerve cells
Haploid Cells Specialized reproductive cells in eukaryotes that contain ½ the amount of genetic material of normal (diploid) cells –Also called gametes or sex cells –Haploid cells combine during sexual reproduction to create a fertilized egg –4 distinct types Male-sperm or pollen Female-egg or ovum
Stem Cells Produced from the union of haploid cells Special cells that differentiate into all diploid cells in the body.
Ideal Bacterial Environments Most bacteria prefer warm moist environments, though specific species require different culturing conditions Bacteria thrive in the harshest environments on earth –Deep sea ocean vents with no sunlight and little useable oxygen
Bacteria Testing Methods Swabbing-method used to test surfaces for bacteria –A sterile cotton swab is dipped in a dilution solution and rubbed across the surface to be tested. –The end of the swab is cut and dropped into the solution –The infested solution is swirled at.1 ml extracted for plating
Plating The process of physically spreading bacteria on an agar based culture media
Plating Process To produce agar plates, heat a clear solution in a water bath. Next, proceed to pour the solution into Petri dishes and immediately seal. Bacteria can be spread using an inoculating loop or glass hockey stick Plates should be sealed and incubated at 30 degrees Celsius to avoid the growth of most bacteria harmful to humans (35-37 degrees for Salmonella)
Identifying/Counting Bacteria Different agar mixes can be used to culture specific types of bacteria. Gram staining is used to broadly identify certain types of bacteria. Identifying individual strains is much more difficult.
Cleanup of Labs Cultures should be placed in a biohazard bag for sterilization in an autoclave set at 121 degrees Celsius and 15 pounds per square inch (psi) for 15 minutes. Agar should be disposed of according to lab protocol-not poured down sinks, as liquid agar can quickly solidify and clog drains.
Cleanup of Labs Individuals should always wear latex gloves and immediately dispose of them after use. This is due to the hands being the most common point of contact.