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A Puppet’s Perspective

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1 A Puppet’s Perspective
One Spin on Reciprocal Teaching in the K-5 Classroom

2 Research It “is an instructional procedure originally designed to enhance students’ reading comprehension” (Palincsar, 1984). An instructional activity that includes dialogue between students and teachers about segments of text… (Palinscar, 1984). The dialogue is structured around four strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. Students and teachers take turns assuming the role of teacher using these strategies (Palinscar, 1984). Students participate in thinking dialogues with other students and a dialogue leader. (Vygotsky, 1978).

3 Research Gradual release of responsibility (Duke and Pearson, 2002).
More effective than teaching components separately (Duke and Pearson, 2002).

4 Research Increase in reading comprehension across a range of elementary to high school students (Kelly, Moore, & Tuck, 1994).

5 Research Kindergarten students need the critical skills of comprehension (Myers, 2005). These strategies can be taught to Kindergarten nonreaders through the use of read-alouds. (Myers, 2005).

6 Research The same strategies used with Kindergarten nonreaders in reciprocal teaching can be used with secondary students in a problem-solving activity(Alfassi, 2004). This type of interaction found through reciprocal teaching at the secondary level allows novice students to learn from more capable peers and to expose all learners to differing points of view. (Alfassi, 2004).

7 The Magic Fish Retell

8 Components Predicting Questioning Clarifying Summarizing
(Palinscar, 1984; Myers, 2005)

9 Petey Predictor My name is Petey Predictor. My job is to predict what I think will happen in the story. I always explain why I think it will happen. I like to find out if my prediction was right, even though sometimes it is wrong. That’s okay though, because a good prediction is my best guess based on what I already know. Myers, 2005

10 “Petey” Predictor Talking Drawings:
-Utilize prior knowledge in the improvement of recall and comprehension -Students draw pictures of their mental images of a topic, character, or event before and after reading a selection -Students discuss and analyze drawings with a partner as the second drawing depicts the newly learned knowledge McConnell, 1992; Wood & Taylor, 2006

11 “Petey” Predictor Story Predict-o-Gram:
-Students utilize prior knowledge and understanding of key concepts in order to predict the content of a story -Students are given key words or concepts from the story before reading the selection -Students place these words/concepts on a chart underneath one of the major story elements: setting, character, problem, solution, ending -During and after reading students may move the words/concepts accordingly to fit the story (Beers, 2003)

12 The Magic Fish Predict-o-Gram
Setting Characters Problem Solution Ending -sea -hut -castle -fisherman -wife -magic fish -not happy -wants too much -wishes for things -left with hut

13 “Petey” Predictor Imagine, Elaborate, Predict, and Confirm (IEPC):
-Students use visual imagery to enrich their understanding of information that is viewed, listened to, or read -Used to help students increase understanding and recall by using visual imagery to predict events in a selection -Teacher models how to imagine a scene, how to add details, and how to use student thinking to predict a possible story line -After reading, students confirm or disprove their original predictions (Wood & Endres, 2004/2005; Wood & Taylor, 2006)

14 The Magic Fish IEPC Imagine Elaborate Predict Confirm
The fish is colorful and magical. The fish changes colors and can disappear as it swims through the water. The fish will try to escape the fisherman. The fish grants wishes for the fisherman. The fisherman will catch the fish and take it home. The fisherman has a large fishing rod. The fisherman casts the rod into the water. The fisherman talks to the fish for his wife’s wishes.

15 “Quincy” Questioner My name is Quincy Questioner. My job is to ask questions. I ask questions to make sure that you are paying attention to what happened in the story. The answers to my questions can always be found in the book, so I am sure to tell the page number where it can be found. (Myers, 2005)

16 “Quincy” Questioner QAR (Raphael & Au, 2005)
In the Book: Right There/Think and Search In my Head: Author and Me/On my Own Thick/Thin Questions (Singer & Donlan, 1989) Learning-From-Text Guide (Singer and Donolan, 1989) 3 Levels: Literal/Inferential/Generalization/Evaluation Spinners/Cubes/Beach Balls/Fortune Tellers Use these to practice a variety of questions whole class or within RT groups AR

17 QAR The Magic Fish In the Book In My Head Think and Search:
Why does the wife call the farmer a “silly man”? He didn’t ask the magic fish for a wish. Author and Me: What does the author want us to know about the farmer’s wife? She is greedy. Right There: What did the fisherman pull on his line? A big fish On My Own: What wish would you ask for from the magic fish? A new car, to hit the lottery, no more EOGs, etc.

18 Thick (Clara) or Thin (Quincy) Questions
What does the fisherman do with the fish when he first meets him? THIN What kind of house do they live in? How would you react if you were the fish? THICK If you were a fisherman would you have let the magic fish go? (Hashey & Connors, 2003)

19 Learning-From-Text Guide
Similar to QAR but uses Literal (Right There), Inferential (Think and Search), and Generalization/Evaluative (On My Own/Author and Me) categories (Singer & Donolan, 1989) Literal Level (Answers found in book) What did the farmer’s wife want first from the magic fish? (pg 11) A new house Inferential (Think about what you read and search for the answer). Why did the farmer’s wife’s happiness only last a week? She was greedy Generalization/Evaluative (These are answered on your own by thinking and applying what you know) What would you predict would be the farmer’s wish for himself? A new wife, a bigger boat, a better fishing rod, etc.

20 “Clara” Clarifier My name is Clara Clarifier. My job is to ask questions, but not easy ones. I ask questions that make you think. The answers may or may not be in the story, so there is not always a page number from the book. Many times the answers come from something I learned in another book, or something that I’ve experienced in my life. (Myers, 2005)

21 “Clara” Clarifier Extremely important for students with comprehension difficulties. Using metacognition to understand when something doesn’t make sense. (Beers, 2003) Bookmarks/Posters Fix-Up Strategies, Clarifying Ideas, Clarifying Words Handy Tips for younger students

22 “Clara” Clarifier It Says-I Say Visual Scaffold
Helps students make inferences by organizing and connecting their thoughts to prior knowledge. Great for struggling readers! (Beers, 2003)

23 It Says-I Say (Beers, 2003) Question It Says I Say And So “Quote Text”
1. Read the question. 2. Find information from the text that will help you answer the question. 3. Think about what you know about that information. 4. Combine what the text says with what you know to come up with the answer.

24 Fish story example Question It Says I Say And So…
1. Was the fish right to take back all of the wishes? They lived there still this day. They were happy before he met the fish The wife was being greedy and should have been thankful for what she had. I think the fish was right to take back the wishes!

25 “Summer” Summarizer My name is Summer Summarizer. My job is to summarize what has happened so far in the story. I don’t tell every single detail, or that would be retelling the story instead of summarizing. I tell the most important things that happened. Sometimes my job is hard because it is difficult to decide what is important and what is just an extra detail. (Myers, 2005)

26 “Summer” Summarizer Gist (Cunningham, 1982; Wood & Taylor, 2006)
SWBS (Beers, 2003) Book Acting (McGee, 2003)

27 Gist (Cunningham, 1982; Wood & Taylor, 2006)
Step One Teacher selects paragraph for modeling Step Two Reveal first sentence (or part) Identify most important or key concepts Who, what, when, where, why, how In 20 words or less, write brief summary of first sentence (or part) Teacher writes summary statement on overhead or chalkboard

28 Gist (continued) Step Three Step Four Step Five
Reveal second sentence (or part) Erase first summary statement Create a summary of both sentences (or parts) in 20 words or less Step Four Repeat until entire paragraph (section) is summarized in 20 words or less Step Five Guided Practice with new paragraph Cunningham, 1982, Wood & Taylor, 2006

29 Gist Example: The Magic Fish
Once upon a time there was a poor fisherman. He lived with his wife in an old hut by the sea. “A poor fisherman and his wife lived in a hut by the sea.” (13 words)

30 Gist (continued) Everyday he went fishing. One day the fisherman felt something on the end of his line. He pulled and he pulled. And up came a big fish. Combined Summary: “A poor fisherman and his wife lived in a hut by the sea. One day he caught a fish.” (19 words)

31 Somebody Wanted But So (Beers, 2003)
The fisherman Wanted to make his wife happy But she only stayed happy for a little while He asked the magic fish for more wishes. The fisherman’s wife Wanted to be rich and powerful But she was too greedy So the fish took all of her wishes away.

32 Book Acting (McGee, 2003) Young students Retelling
Improves literacy and language development Improves Comprehension Vocabulary Grammar Social skills

33 Book Acting Continued Step One: Preparation
Choose book (repetitive, familiar) Gather props Step Two: Multiple Read Alouds Step Three: Model and Guide Step Four: Observe Story sequence Book language in retell McGee, 2003

34 Second Grade Example

35 Kindergarten Examples

36 Kindergarten Examples

37 Sources Alfassi, M. (2004). Reading to learn: effects of combined strategy instruction on high school students. The Journal of Educational Research,97, 171 – 184. Beers, K. (2003). When kid’s can’t read: What teachers can do. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Cunningham, J. (1982). Generating interactions between schemata and text. In J. Niles & L. Harris (Eds.), New inquiries in reading research and instruction, thirty-first yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp ). Washington, DC: National Reading Conference. Duke, N. and Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In Farstrup, A. & Samuels, J. (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction 205 – 242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Hacker, D. and Tenent, A. (2002). Implementing reciprocal teaching in the classroom: Overcoming obstacles and making modifications. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 699 – 718.

38 Sources Cont’d Hasey, J. & Connors, D. (2003). Learning from our journey: reciprocal teaching action research. The Reading Teacher, 57, 224 – 232. Kelly, M., Moore, D., & Tuck, B. (1994). Reciprocal teaching in a regular primary school classroom. The Journal of Educational Research,88, Littledale, Freya (1966). The Magic Fish. New York: Scholastic. McConnell, S. (1992/3). Talking drawings: A strategy for assisting learners. Journal of Reading, 36(4), McGee, L. (2003). Book acting: storytelling and drama in the early childhood classroom. In Barone, D. & Morrow, L. (Eds.) Research-based practices in early literacy ( ). New York: Guildford Publications.

39 Sources Myers, P. (2005). The princess storyteller, Clara clarifier, Quincy questioner, and the Wizard: Reciprocal teaching adapted for kindergarten students. The Reading Teacher, 59, Palinscar, A. and Herrenkohl, L. ( 2002). Designing collaborative learning contexts. Theory Into Practice,41, 26 – 32. Raphael, T.E. & Au, K.H. (2005). QAR: Enhancing comprehension & test taking across grades & content areas. The Reading Teacher, 59, Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wood, K.D. & Endres, C. (2004/5). Motivating student interest with the Imagine, Elaborate, Predict and Confirm (IEPC) strategy. The Reading Teacher, 58(4), Wood, K.D. & Taylor, D.B. (2006). Literacy strategies across the subject areas. 2nd Edition. New York: Pearson. Wood, K., Lapp, D., Flood, J. and Taylor, D. (2008) Guiding readers through text: strategies for new times (2nd ed.) Newark, DE:  International Reading Association.

40 Website Resources

41 Questions

42 Evaluation

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