Presentation on theme: "Foreign Policy (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post-Cold War era. (2). Define the following key FP terms:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Foreign Policy(1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post-Cold War era.(2). Define the following key FP terms: Monroe Doctrine, globalism, containment Truman Doctrine, NATO, 3rd World, détente, enlargement, and neo-isolationism.(3). Define national interest; contrast decision making for FP w/that for domestic policy.(4). Discuss the enumerated & implied powers set by the Constitution for making FP.(5). Examine the inherent advantage of the President in making foreign policy.(6). Outline the role of the White House, the Bureaucracy, the Congress, and the Public in shaping American foreign policy.(7). Discuss the US National Security structure and key DOD organizations & leaders.(8). Discuss Foreign Policy challenges facing the U.S. in the Post-Cold War era.(9). Assess the future direction of US National Security Policy and Military Strategy, required military Force Levels, Mission Creep, Multi-nationalism, WMD, and BMD.(10). Discuss current foreign policy issues and their political impact on the U.S.- War on Terrorism; War with Iraq; - North Korea; - Arab-Israeli conflict Domestic economic slump; the uncertain future;
2 US Foreign Policy (FP) A Brief History The Isolationist EraWorld War II (start of “Globalism”)The Cold War1990-present Post-Cold WarNew category after 9/11/2001Let’s examine these periods in greater detail
3 Brief History of U.S. Foreign Policy Isolationism*A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries.The Isolationist Era1st 150 yrs of US HistoryAdherence to guidance of Washington’s Farwell addressStressed avoiding political connections overseasPursue commercial trade ties onlyUS militarily weak & focused on expansion westwardNot interested in global role (2 oceans of separation)What FP Doctrine* asserted US interests for the first time outside America, primarily throughout Western Hemisphere (1823)?
4 The Monroe DoctrineA basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.The image is from the National Archives.
5 Monroe Doctrine (1823) Invoked 1895: early FP involvement outside US Aim: Protect US interest in Western HemisphereUS involvement overseas primarily in LATAMUS Military Intervention escalated beginning in 1900:
6 World War I US deviated from Isolationism briefly during WWI WW1 (W. Wilson)=> make world “safe for democracy”After WW1=> isolationism returns w/vengeanceSenate rejects League of Nations & Versailles treatySets the stage for next global war => ?
7 World War II WWII=> US stays out of War as Hitler first attacks Why does US change its mind about involvement?
8 “Air Raid Pearl Harbor” 7 December 1941 Impact on American Public Opinion?Following WWII=> US rethinks previous isolationism
9 Globalism Era => The Cold War US should be prepared to use military force around the globe to protect its political & economic interestsFollowing WWII => who emerges as primary thereat to US political & military interest?Presidential doctrine formulated as a result?Truman Doctrine:US would actively oppose communists’ attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist nationsUS Foreign Policy that emerged from the Truman Doctrine?*
10 ContainmentA bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from mid 1940s to early 1990s that emphasized the need to contain any further Soviet territorial & communist ideological expansion.What was the economic instrument of Containment?Marshall Plan: US commitment to rebuild Europe$100 Billion+ appropriated for task in today’s $$$Soviets initially invited to participate (reaction?)
11 Soviet Threat Containment IDEOLOGYGEO-POLITICAL& STRATEGICContainmentMILITARYWhat was the military instrument of Containment?
12 Cold War Military Alliances NATOWarsawPactThe image is from Dynamics of Democracy
13 Cold War Heats Up As Soviets become more aggressive US becomes more concernedConduct major National Security reassessmentNSC-68: National Security Strategy for ContainmentConcludes a major increase in defense spending requiredTruman administration balks at high price tagSo NSC-68 filed in bottom drawer of someone’s safeThen what major military event occurred in June 1950?
14 Korean WarFrom US perspective, Soviets engaged indirectly through NK & China
15 US versus USSR- The Indirect Approach Competition at margins=> the 3rd WorldUS primary Foreign Policy goal:Prevent potential “falling dominoes”Major test of this goal: Vietnam War:US (Ike) supports French in SE AsiaAim: Contain Soviet expansion in SEAUS view of most global crises & conflicts?Most viewed as Soviet/communist inspired:USSR => China => North Vietnam => South Vietnam’s guerilla insurgentsHow does the US (JFK) initially deal with South Vietnam’s insurgency?*
16 Counter Insurgency (CI) JFK sends Special Forces & SEAL advisors to conduct CILBJ expands US involvement following 1964 Tonkin Gulf incident
17 “Americanization” of Vietnam War (1965-1968) Conventional US Troops take over fighting for SVNReach high point of 540,000 US troops by 1969The majority of Americans support US policy & the war until 1968
18 The “Tet” Offensive- 1968The “light at the end of the tunnel” becomes a speeding train’s headlight:Americans become disillusioned with continuing the War as it’s bought home to them up front & personalLook for a way out of Vietnam “with honor”
19 US involvement reached high point by late 1968 Exit StrategyUS involvement reached high point by late 1968America became acutely divided over warFollowing Tet Offensive most Americans just wanted outSeeking a way out of quagmireNixon comes to power with “secret plan” to get out“Vietnamization” => allow “Peace with Honor”February 1973=> Peace Accords signedWar turned over to SVN & US military forces withdraw1975: Peace w/o Honor & the “Vietnam Syndrome”Nixon sought Soviet help to get US out of VietnamAim: Get Soviets & China to push North Vietnam to peace talksPursues easing of tensions between two superpowers- called?
20 Détente’A policy of Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union.Aimed in part in enlisting Soviet support to assist US in getting North Vietnam back to peace table & serious negotiationsSo that US could get out of Vietnam “with honor.”Détente’ lasted until 1979Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979 (Carter) brought US-Soviet Détente’ to an abrupt end.US-Soviet relations declined even more when Ronald Reagan took office (“Evil Empire” Speech)The image of Nixon is from the National Archive and the image of Khrushchev is from
21 Reagan &“The Evil Empire” Reagan pursues hard line with the SovietsA corrupt USSR system living on barrowed economic timesSerious reform long past due to save it from collapse1985: Mikhail Gorbachev=> comes to power & attempts reform => Perestroika & GlasnostProblem: Soviet system too corrupt & broken to salvageReagan’s SDI=> outspending the Soviets into defeatUnable to keep up with strategic arms race & go broke tryingYear of Revolution & fall of Eastern EuropeFall of Berlin Wall – symbol of Soviet CommunismUS Military operations in Third World continued:Grenada, Panama, Iraq #1(Clear lack of Soviet support for its former ally- Iraq)Fall of Soviet Union & End of Cold War
22 After the Cold War New World Order – Strategic reassessment (Bush I) tries to figure out what US should do during the post Cold War eraStill trying to decide when Clinton is elected in 1992Policy of Enlargement (Clinton)=>Expand democracy & free markets globallyAlso use military force as required (& we did):Somalia 1993Haiti 1994Bosnia & NATO peacekeeping- 1995Serbia bombing – 1999Kosovo – NATO bombing & peacekeeping- 2000
23 Foreign Policy Under George W. Bush Neo-isolationism: from 2000 until 9/11/2001Theory: US should take a step backAvoid always acting as world’s policemanReality: Campaign rhetoric gives way to real world once in officeThe world is still very dangerous & America is not immuneON 9/11/2001 that reality hit home hard => revised policyThe Bush Doctrine:America’s post 9/11/2001 Policy & Strategy-Focus: Counter Terror Policy & National Security StrategyPreemptive strikes & “preventative war”US invasion of Afghanistan & Iraq II
24 Foreign Policy (FP) Versus Domestic Policy (DP) National Interest & its various degrees & levelsVital vs. Important- (who decides?)Text: “Two presidencies”At Home( weak president) vs. Abroad (strong one)- why?Five Sources of Presidential Foreign Policy power:1. The Constitution & president’s enumerated vs. implied powers2. President’s “inherent” advantages in Foreign Policy3. Role of precedent in presidential dealings in Foreign Policy4. Supreme Court Rulings regarding presidential FP actions5. Behavior of Congress when the President takes decisive actionLet’s examines these sources of power in greater detail*
25 1. The Constitution and Foreign Policy Article I=> enumerated Congressional powers include:Provide for common defenseRegulate commerceDefine & punish Piracies & Felonies on high seasDeclare WarRaise & support Armies & maintain a NavyMake rules & regulations for land & naval forces (UCMJ)Power of the purse => (fund or not fund military deployments)Article II=> enumerated Presidential powers:Commander in Chief (title or job description?)Power to make treaties (subject to Senate’s ratification)Appoint Ambassadors (Senate also has role- what?)
26 2. The President’s Inherent Advantages Foreign Policy success depends on (what?):Speed (quickly seize the initiative)Discretion (secrecy)Flexibility (shift priorities as needed & compromise)Presidential initiatives depend on the venue used:Foreign Policy (FP) vs. Domestic Policy (DP)-Difference between the two WRT presidential freedom of action?FP: Unless Congress acts to halt president’s actions(Military Force Deployment) – it stands- versus:DP: Until Congress agrees to act president’s initiative(Social Security reform)- nothing happens
27 3. Precedent President’s aggressive interpretation of FP powers Any presidential action establishes precedentIf left unchallenged or challenge is unsuccessful=>Implied power is successfully established as resultSuccessors use as spring board for further expansionTruman to present=>Implied power as CINC (Korean War- Text: Box 18-1)Title confers implied power to order troops into combatNow accepted as precedent (though grudgingly)Also depends on the perceived power & popularity (poll numbers) of the president
28 4. Supreme Court RulingsUS v. Curtiss -Wright Export Corporation (1936)Court Decision: President’s FP powers go beyond ConstitutionImpact: expanded implied Presidential powers in Foreign PolicyUS v. Belmont (‘37)=> executive agreement (vs. Treaty)Result: executive agreements trend up- over 90% (See Box 18-2)Furthermore Court usually refuses to hear challenges on FPEffect: de facto Court support for presidential FP prerogativesDesire to avoid Presidential/Congress political disputes in FPAlso Court believes FP rulings simply beyond their competence
29 5. Behavior of CongressPartisan & institutional divisions in Congress=>Results in their lack of unified action to challengeBelief in strong Presidential leadership in FPElectoral considerations(What if President is right? – avoid voters’ displeasure)Post WWII vs. post Vietnam Congressional behaviorEnd of Vietnam War & Cold War =>More Congressional activism in Foreign PolicyPost Iraq II Congressional behavior? (TBD)
30 Next Assignment Thanksgiving Holiday (Wednesday: no class) Travel safely!Chapter 18b: Foreign Policy (Next Monday)Learning Objectives 6-10Preparation for Course Review (Wednesday 11/30)Also Department wide standardized test administered as wellRESEARCH PAPER IS also DUE 11/30!!!Complete Instructor Evals – today before you leave!
31 Who Makes U.S. Foreign Policy? PresidentNSCWhite House StaffForeign Policy BureaucraciesCongressAmerican PublicHow much power & influence does each have on FP?*
32 Let’s examine each more closely Foreign Policy PowerLet’s examine each more closely
33 The White House & NSC Role of President & Vice President Varies w/administrationGenerally=> President has called all the shotsRecently VP delegated a great deal of power & influenceCertainly true of this AdministrationNational Security Council (NSC)*Plays key role in formulating American Foreign PolicyNSC advisor & his or her staff’s rolePlays as either Honest broker or policy advocateDepends on President’s preference & NSC advisorNixon & Kissinger vs. Bush II & Rice (now Hadley)
34 National Security Council (NSC) Created in 1947Members include:The President & Vice PresidentSecretary of State & Secretary of DefenseDirector of CIA & Chair of Joint Chiefs of Staff(Advisors to statutory members- subject to change)The staff is headed up by the National Security AdvisorOther relevant Cabinet Secretaries invited as required
35 Foreign Policy Bureaucracy State DepartmentDefense DepartmentCIA & Intel CommunityNSC Staff(Coordinator)Let’s examine their specific Foreign Policy roles
36 The Foreign Policy Bureaucracy Roles of Department of State (DOS) vs. Defense (DOD)Current Iraq II example: DOD took the lead over StateMajor debate ensued(Winning the Peace vice just Winning the War)Personality driven debate (who has the most influence?)Uniformed Armed Svs’ roleChairman & Joint Chiefs(CJCS & JCS chiefs)Military judgments in a political world (The Challenge?)
37 Intelligence community Intelligence community & selected agenciesMajor current power shifts creating disruptionsDNI & CIA- who’s on first? (TBD )Expertise & experience must be taken into accountRecent Intel failure illustrates problem when not=>Telling the boss always what he wants to hear?Impact? (Tends to downplay unpleasant or hard news)Also all Agencies compete with each other for power, influence, & $$$ (Budget share)Result: Tends to drive US FP to also include what in their recommendations?Agency’s own interests & agenda
38 Congress & Foreign Policy Constitution (Article I) assigns Congress explicit powersResult: Considerable theoretical influence in foreign policyBefore WWI & II, Congress tended to assert greater role in Foreign PolicyDuring the 1950s and 1960s Congress typically deferred to the Executive Branch(Since WWII & start of Cold War)During 1970s and 1980s Congressional activism in foreign policy grew (Post Vietnam & Watergate)Post 9/11 Congress tended to defer to President (at first)Now appears to be re-asserting itself as war becomes unpopular
39 Congress & Foreign Policy (2) So extent of power & influence varies over timeCold War vs. post-Watergate & post-Vietnam War vs.Post 9/11 (…and back to the future)3 ways Congress influences Foreign Policy:1. Substantive legislation$$$ appropriations shape policy => power2. Procedural legislationHow laws & regulations must be applied wrt Policy3. Efforts to shape Public Opinion(Democrats vs. GOP on success or failure of Iraq II)
40 Public Opinion & Foreign Policy Two options for the Public to shape Foreign Policy:1. Join interest groups & lobby Congress & President2. Vote for candidates aligned with their political viewsPublic seldom able to effect day to day polices (Iraq II)Often policy makers decide with little regard to the Public –why?Public lack detailed knowledge & expertiseApathy (most don’t even know or care where crisis spot is)More concerned with domestic & economic issuesPublic usually rallies around President once conflict startsInitial resistance to deployment => then active supportBut with time support will wane if casualties grow and/or progress seems to take too long at too high a priceThen the Public makes its concerns known & with impact
41 Impact of Public Opinion on Foreign Policy Public Opinion provide decision makers with very little guidance, but…Two indirect effects of Public Opinion:1. Constrains future policies which can be consideredExample: Vietnam legacy => Vietnam syndrome2. Determines Washington’s FP priorities (with the media)Iraq II example=> looters initially brushed off by SECDEFMedia alerted public & public became concerned re. Iraqi MuseumAs result FBI went to Iraq to track down stolen antiquitiesRecent Public concern for Intel failure wrt WMDForced Administration to adjust reason for invasion (democracy)Then forced to defend itself against critics (cherry picking Intel?)
42 Challenges of the Post–Cold War Era Major debate continues:What should the US role be in the post-Cold War era?Disagreements over Goals & Strategies & Change:Terror strike of 9/11/2001 changed everythingDebate now centers on strategy to prevent 2nd attackPreventive War & pre-emptive strikes (Bush Doctrine)(Containment strategy no longer viable option)- why?Soviet Union no longer exists & suicide bombers can’t be logically deterredHomeland Security & Defense at what expense?What’s at stake: Cost in $$$ & Freedoms
43 US Defense Spending (in $$$: 1962-2010) Another way to look at Defense Spending?*
44 DOD Budget (as % of GDP) % G D P of 9/11 Korean War Vietnam War (High point)Cold WarEnds9/11
45 Future Challenges to US Foreign Policy Disagreements about the goals and strategies of American foreign policy for 21st centuryAn ever changing foreign policy agendaCold War => Post Cold War => Bush DoctrineUnilateral versus multilateral* FP approachHow are they different?*
46 Unilateralism vs. Multilateralism The tendency of the US to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries.Multilateralism:Three or more Nations cooperate together to solve some common foreign policy problemParticular approach selected will depend on the majorFP problems the US will face during the 21st Century
47 Potential Problems in US Foreign Policy for 21st Century The United States will face complex problems in:Nuclear proliferation (North Korea & Iran)Military interventions (The Middle East & exiting Iraq)Economic policy (Trade imbalance w/China & ME Oil prices)Globalization (Global interdependence & domestic impact)“Inter-mestic” issues (Foreign Policy impact at home)Human rights (American ideals vs. US National interests)Homeland Security (Balancing security with liberties)The unknown threat (Future “9/11s”?)The image is Microsoft clip art
48 The Last Assignment: Review & prepare for Final Exam 25 question standardized test will also be administeredQuestions & answers to Midterm & Test IIReview: come prepared to ask your questions(last chance to clarify any uncertainty)Essay Question Prep Review (Handout last week)Turn in your Research Paper on Wednesday 11/30Include Bibliography and endnotes/sources cited
49 Chapter 18: KEY TERMSCold War: A phrase used to describe the high level of tension and distrust that characterized relations between the Soviet Union and the United States from the late 1940s until the early 1990s.Containment: A bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from the 1940s to the 1980s that emphasized the need to prevent communist countries, especially the Soviet Union, from expanding the territory they controlled.Detente: A policy the Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union.Engagement: The policy of encouraging U.S. trade and investment in a country in an effort to encourage it to pursue policies more to America’s liking.Enlargement: The policy President Bill Clinton proposed as a substitute for containment. It calls on the United States to promote the emergence of market democracies; that is, countries that combine a free market economic system with a democratic political system.Executive agreements: International agreements that, unlike treaties, do not require the approval of two-thirds of the Senate to become binding on the United States.Foreign Service Officers: Career professional diplomats who work for the Department of State.Free trade: An economic policy that holds that lowering trade barriers will benefit the economies of all the countries involved.Globalism: The idea that the United States should be prepared to use military force around the globe to defend its political and economic interests.Globalization: The process by which growing economic relations and technological change make countries increasingly interdependent.
50 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS (2)Intermestic issues: Issues such as trade, the environment, and drug trafficking that affect both domestic and foreign interests.Isolationism: A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries.Marshall Plan: A multibillion-dollar U.S. aid program in the late 1940s and early 1950s that helped Western European countries rebuild their economies in the wake of World War.Monroe Doctrine: A basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.Multilateralism: An approach in which three or more countries cooperate for the purpose of solving some common problem.National interest: The idea that the United States has certain interests in international relations that most Americans agree on.National Missile Defense (NMD): A weapons system that, if it can be made to work, would potentially protect the United States and possibly its allies against attack by long-range ballistic missiles.Neo-conservativism: Recent resurgence of Conservative ideology, especially toward Foreign Policy.Neo-isolationism: The idea that the United States should reduce its role in world affairs and return to a foreign policy similar to the one it pursued before World War II.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A military alliance founded in 1949 for the purpose of defending Western Europe from attack. Members of NATO include the United States, Canada, and fourteen European countries.
51 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS (3) Sovereignty: The power of self-rule. Third World: A term loosely defined to mean the developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.Truman Doctrine: A policy, announced by President Truman in 1947, that the United States would oppose communist attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist countries.Two presidencies: The argument that presidents have much greater influence over the content of foreign policy than the content of domestic policy.Unilateralism: The tendency of the United States to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries.World Trade Organization (WTO): The international trade agency that began operation in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.