Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Foreign Policy (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post-Cold War era. (2). Define the following key FP terms:

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Foreign Policy (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post-Cold War era. (2). Define the following key FP terms:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foreign Policy (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post-Cold War era. (2). Define the following key FP terms: Monroe Doctrine, globalism, containment Truman Doctrine, NATO, 3rd World, détente, enlargement, and neo-isolationism. (3). Define national interest; contrast decision making for FP w/that for domestic policy. (4). Discuss the enumerated & implied powers set by the Constitution for making FP. (5). Examine the inherent advantage of the President in making foreign policy. (6). Outline the role of the White House, the Bureaucracy, the Congress, and the Public in shaping American foreign policy. (7). Discuss the US National Security structure and key DOD organizations & leaders. (8). Discuss Foreign Policy challenges facing the U.S. in the Post-Cold War era. (9). Assess the future direction of US National Security Policy and Military Strategy, required military Force Levels, Mission Creep, Multi-nationalism, WMD, and BMD. (10). Discuss current foreign policy issues and their political impact on the U.S. - War on Terrorism; War with Iraq; - North Korea; - Arab-Israeli conflict Domestic economic slump; the uncertain future;

2 US Foreign Policy (FP) A Brief History
The Isolationist Era World War II (start of “Globalism”) The Cold War 1990-present Post-Cold War New category after 9/11/2001 Let’s examine these periods in greater detail

3 Brief History of U.S. Foreign Policy
Isolationism* A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries. The Isolationist Era 1st 150 yrs of US History Adherence to guidance of Washington’s Farwell address Stressed avoiding political connections overseas Pursue commercial trade ties only US militarily weak & focused on expansion westward Not interested in global role (2 oceans of separation) What FP Doctrine* asserted US interests for the first time outside America, primarily throughout Western Hemisphere (1823)?

4 The Monroe Doctrine A basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. The image is from the National Archives.

5 Monroe Doctrine (1823) Invoked 1895: early FP involvement outside US
Aim: Protect US interest in Western Hemisphere US involvement overseas primarily in LATAM US Military Intervention escalated beginning in 1900:

6 World War I US deviated from Isolationism briefly during WWI
WW1 (W. Wilson)=> make world “safe for democracy” After WW1=> isolationism returns w/vengeance Senate rejects League of Nations & Versailles treaty Sets the stage for next global war => ?

7 World War II WWII=> US stays out of War as Hitler first attacks
Why does US change its mind about involvement?

8 “Air Raid Pearl Harbor” 7 December 1941
Impact on American Public Opinion? Following WWII=> US rethinks previous isolationism

9 Globalism Era => The Cold War
US should be prepared to use military force around the globe to protect its political & economic interests Following WWII => who emerges as primary thereat to US political & military interest? Presidential doctrine formulated as a result? Truman Doctrine: US would actively oppose communists’ attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist nations US Foreign Policy that emerged from the Truman Doctrine?*

10 Containment A bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from mid 1940s to early 1990s that emphasized the need to contain any further Soviet territorial & communist ideological expansion. What was the economic instrument of Containment? Marshall Plan: US commitment to rebuild Europe $100 Billion+ appropriated for task in today’s $$$ Soviets initially invited to participate (reaction?)

11 Soviet Threat Containment
IDEOLOGY GEO-POLITICAL & STRATEGIC Containment MILITARY What was the military instrument of Containment?

12 Cold War Military Alliances
NATO Warsaw Pact The image is from Dynamics of Democracy

13 Cold War Heats Up As Soviets become more aggressive
US becomes more concerned Conduct major National Security reassessment NSC-68: National Security Strategy for Containment Concludes a major increase in defense spending required Truman administration balks at high price tag So NSC-68 filed in bottom drawer of someone’s safe Then what major military event occurred in June 1950?

14 Korean War From US perspective, Soviets engaged indirectly through NK & China

15 US versus USSR- The Indirect Approach
Competition at margins=> the 3rd World US primary Foreign Policy goal: Prevent potential “falling dominoes” Major test of this goal: Vietnam War: US (Ike) supports French in SE Asia Aim: Contain Soviet expansion in SEA US view of most global crises & conflicts? Most viewed as Soviet/communist inspired: USSR => China => North Vietnam => South Vietnam’s guerilla insurgents How does the US (JFK) initially deal with South Vietnam’s insurgency?*

16 Counter Insurgency (CI)
JFK sends Special Forces & SEAL advisors to conduct CI LBJ expands US involvement following 1964 Tonkin Gulf incident

17 “Americanization” of Vietnam War (1965-1968)
Conventional US Troops take over fighting for SVN Reach high point of 540,000 US troops by 1969 The majority of Americans support US policy & the war until 1968

18 The “Tet” Offensive- 1968 The “light at the end of the tunnel” becomes a speeding train’s headlight: Americans become disillusioned with continuing the War as it’s bought home to them up front & personal Look for a way out of Vietnam “with honor”

19 US involvement reached high point by late 1968
Exit Strategy US involvement reached high point by late 1968 America became acutely divided over war Following Tet Offensive most Americans just wanted out Seeking a way out of quagmire Nixon comes to power with “secret plan” to get out “Vietnamization” => allow “Peace with Honor” February 1973=> Peace Accords signed War turned over to SVN & US military forces withdraw 1975: Peace w/o Honor & the “Vietnam Syndrome” Nixon sought Soviet help to get US out of Vietnam Aim: Get Soviets & China to push North Vietnam to peace talks Pursues easing of tensions between two superpowers- called?

20 Détente’ A policy of Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union. Aimed in part in enlisting Soviet support to assist US in getting North Vietnam back to peace table & serious negotiations So that US could get out of Vietnam “with honor.” Détente’ lasted until 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979 (Carter) brought US-Soviet Détente’ to an abrupt end. US-Soviet relations declined even more when Ronald Reagan took office (“Evil Empire” Speech) The image of Nixon is from the National Archive and the image of Khrushchev is from

21 Reagan &“The Evil Empire”
Reagan pursues hard line with the Soviets A corrupt USSR system living on barrowed economic times Serious reform long past due to save it from collapse 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev=> comes to power & attempts reform => Perestroika & Glasnost Problem: Soviet system too corrupt & broken to salvage Reagan’s SDI=> outspending the Soviets into defeat Unable to keep up with strategic arms race & go broke trying Year of Revolution & fall of Eastern Europe Fall of Berlin Wall – symbol of Soviet Communism US Military operations in Third World continued: Grenada, Panama, Iraq #1 (Clear lack of Soviet support for its former ally- Iraq) Fall of Soviet Union & End of Cold War

22 After the Cold War New World Order –
Strategic reassessment (Bush I) tries to figure out what US should do during the post Cold War era Still trying to decide when Clinton is elected in 1992 Policy of Enlargement (Clinton)=> Expand democracy & free markets globally Also use military force as required (& we did): Somalia 1993 Haiti 1994 Bosnia & NATO peacekeeping- 1995 Serbia bombing – 1999 Kosovo – NATO bombing & peacekeeping- 2000

23 Foreign Policy Under George W. Bush
Neo-isolationism: from 2000 until 9/11/2001 Theory: US should take a step back Avoid always acting as world’s policeman Reality: Campaign rhetoric gives way to real world once in office The world is still very dangerous & America is not immune ON 9/11/2001 that reality hit home hard => revised policy The Bush Doctrine: America’s post 9/11/2001 Policy & Strategy- Focus: Counter Terror Policy & National Security Strategy Preemptive strikes & “preventative war” US invasion of Afghanistan & Iraq II

24 Foreign Policy (FP) Versus Domestic Policy (DP)
National Interest & its various degrees & levels Vital vs. Important- (who decides?) Text: “Two presidencies” At Home( weak president) vs. Abroad (strong one)- why? Five Sources of Presidential Foreign Policy power: 1. The Constitution & president’s enumerated vs. implied powers 2. President’s “inherent” advantages in Foreign Policy 3. Role of precedent in presidential dealings in Foreign Policy 4. Supreme Court Rulings regarding presidential FP actions 5. Behavior of Congress when the President takes decisive action Let’s examines these sources of power in greater detail*

25 1. The Constitution and Foreign Policy
Article I=> enumerated Congressional powers include: Provide for common defense Regulate commerce Define & punish Piracies & Felonies on high seas Declare War Raise & support Armies & maintain a Navy Make rules & regulations for land & naval forces (UCMJ) Power of the purse => (fund or not fund military deployments) Article II=> enumerated Presidential powers: Commander in Chief (title or job description?) Power to make treaties (subject to Senate’s ratification) Appoint Ambassadors (Senate also has role- what?)

26 2. The President’s Inherent Advantages
Foreign Policy success depends on (what?): Speed (quickly seize the initiative) Discretion (secrecy) Flexibility (shift priorities as needed & compromise) Presidential initiatives depend on the venue used: Foreign Policy (FP) vs. Domestic Policy (DP)- Difference between the two WRT presidential freedom of action? FP: Unless Congress acts to halt president’s actions (Military Force Deployment) – it stands- versus: DP: Until Congress agrees to act president’s initiative (Social Security reform)- nothing happens

27 3. Precedent President’s aggressive interpretation of FP powers
Any presidential action establishes precedent If left unchallenged or challenge is unsuccessful=> Implied power is successfully established as result Successors use as spring board for further expansion Truman to present=> Implied power as CINC (Korean War- Text: Box 18-1) Title confers implied power to order troops into combat Now accepted as precedent (though grudgingly) Also depends on the perceived power & popularity (poll numbers) of the president

28 4. Supreme Court Rulings US v. Curtiss -Wright Export Corporation (1936) Court Decision: President’s FP powers go beyond Constitution Impact: expanded implied Presidential powers in Foreign Policy US v. Belmont (‘37)=> executive agreement (vs. Treaty) Result: executive agreements trend up- over 90% (See Box 18-2) Furthermore Court usually refuses to hear challenges on FP Effect: de facto Court support for presidential FP prerogatives Desire to avoid Presidential/Congress political disputes in FP Also Court believes FP rulings simply beyond their competence

29 5. Behavior of Congress Partisan & institutional divisions in Congress=> Results in their lack of unified action to challenge Belief in strong Presidential leadership in FP Electoral considerations (What if President is right? – avoid voters’ displeasure) Post WWII vs. post Vietnam Congressional behavior End of Vietnam War & Cold War => More Congressional activism in Foreign Policy Post Iraq II Congressional behavior? (TBD)

30 Next Assignment Thanksgiving Holiday (Wednesday: no class)
Travel safely! Chapter 18b: Foreign Policy (Next Monday) Learning Objectives 6-10 Preparation for Course Review (Wednesday 11/30) Also Department wide standardized test administered as well RESEARCH PAPER IS also DUE 11/30!!! Complete Instructor Evals – today before you leave!

31 Who Makes U.S. Foreign Policy?
President NSC White House Staff Foreign Policy Bureaucracies Congress American Public How much power & influence does each have on FP?*

32 Let’s examine each more closely
Foreign Policy Power Let’s examine each more closely

33 The White House & NSC Role of President & Vice President
Varies w/administration Generally=> President has called all the shots Recently VP delegated a great deal of power & influence Certainly true of this Administration National Security Council (NSC)* Plays key role in formulating American Foreign Policy NSC advisor & his or her staff’s role Plays as either Honest broker or policy advocate Depends on President’s preference & NSC advisor Nixon & Kissinger vs. Bush II & Rice (now Hadley)

34 National Security Council (NSC)
Created in 1947 Members include: The President & Vice President Secretary of State & Secretary of Defense Director of CIA & Chair of Joint Chiefs of Staff (Advisors to statutory members- subject to change) The staff is headed up by the National Security Advisor Other relevant Cabinet Secretaries invited as required

35 Foreign Policy Bureaucracy
State Department Defense Department CIA & Intel Community NSC Staff (Coordinator) Let’s examine their specific Foreign Policy roles

36 The Foreign Policy Bureaucracy
Roles of Department of State (DOS) vs. Defense (DOD) Current Iraq II example: DOD took the lead over State Major debate ensued (Winning the Peace vice just Winning the War) Personality driven debate (who has the most influence?) Uniformed Armed Svs’ role Chairman & Joint Chiefs (CJCS & JCS chiefs) Military judgments in a political world (The Challenge?)

37 Intelligence community
Intelligence community & selected agencies Major current power shifts creating disruptions DNI & CIA- who’s on first? (TBD ) Expertise & experience must be taken into account Recent Intel failure illustrates problem when not=> Telling the boss always what he wants to hear? Impact? (Tends to downplay unpleasant or hard news) Also all Agencies compete with each other for power, influence, & $$$ (Budget share) Result: Tends to drive US FP to also include what in their recommendations? Agency’s own interests & agenda

38 Congress & Foreign Policy
Constitution (Article I) assigns Congress explicit powers Result: Considerable theoretical influence in foreign policy Before WWI & II, Congress tended to assert greater role in Foreign Policy During the 1950s and 1960s Congress typically deferred to the Executive Branch (Since WWII & start of Cold War) During 1970s and 1980s Congressional activism in foreign policy grew (Post Vietnam & Watergate) Post 9/11 Congress tended to defer to President (at first) Now appears to be re-asserting itself as war becomes unpopular

39 Congress & Foreign Policy (2)
So extent of power & influence varies over time Cold War vs. post-Watergate & post-Vietnam War vs. Post 9/11 (…and back to the future) 3 ways Congress influences Foreign Policy: 1. Substantive legislation $$$ appropriations shape policy => power 2. Procedural legislation How laws & regulations must be applied wrt Policy 3. Efforts to shape Public Opinion (Democrats vs. GOP on success or failure of Iraq II)

40 Public Opinion & Foreign Policy
Two options for the Public to shape Foreign Policy: 1. Join interest groups & lobby Congress & President 2. Vote for candidates aligned with their political views Public seldom able to effect day to day polices (Iraq II) Often policy makers decide with little regard to the Public –why? Public lack detailed knowledge & expertise Apathy (most don’t even know or care where crisis spot is) More concerned with domestic & economic issues Public usually rallies around President once conflict starts Initial resistance to deployment => then active support But with time support will wane if casualties grow and/or progress seems to take too long at too high a price Then the Public makes its concerns known & with impact

41 Impact of Public Opinion on Foreign Policy
Public Opinion provide decision makers with very little guidance, but… Two indirect effects of Public Opinion: 1. Constrains future policies which can be considered Example: Vietnam legacy => Vietnam syndrome 2. Determines Washington’s FP priorities (with the media) Iraq II example=> looters initially brushed off by SECDEF Media alerted public & public became concerned re. Iraqi Museum As result FBI went to Iraq to track down stolen antiquities Recent Public concern for Intel failure wrt WMD Forced Administration to adjust reason for invasion (democracy) Then forced to defend itself against critics (cherry picking Intel?)

42 Challenges of the Post–Cold War Era
Major debate continues: What should the US role be in the post-Cold War era? Disagreements over Goals & Strategies & Change: Terror strike of 9/11/2001 changed everything Debate now centers on strategy to prevent 2nd attack Preventive War & pre-emptive strikes (Bush Doctrine) (Containment strategy no longer viable option)- why? Soviet Union no longer exists & suicide bombers can’t be logically deterred Homeland Security & Defense at what expense? What’s at stake: Cost in $$$ & Freedoms

43 US Defense Spending (in $$$: 1962-2010)
Another way to look at Defense Spending?*

44 DOD Budget (as % of GDP) % G D P of 9/11 Korean War Vietnam War
(High point) Cold War Ends 9/11

45 Future Challenges to US Foreign Policy
Disagreements about the goals and strategies of American foreign policy for 21st century An ever changing foreign policy agenda Cold War => Post Cold War => Bush Doctrine Unilateral versus multilateral* FP approach How are they different?*

46 Unilateralism vs. Multilateralism
The tendency of the US to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries. Multilateralism: Three or more Nations cooperate together to solve some common foreign policy problem Particular approach selected will depend on the major FP problems the US will face during the 21st Century

47 Potential Problems in US Foreign Policy for 21st Century
The United States will face complex problems in: Nuclear proliferation (North Korea & Iran) Military interventions (The Middle East & exiting Iraq) Economic policy (Trade imbalance w/China & ME Oil prices) Globalization (Global interdependence & domestic impact) “Inter-mestic” issues (Foreign Policy impact at home) Human rights (American ideals vs. US National interests) Homeland Security (Balancing security with liberties) The unknown threat (Future “9/11s”?) The image is Microsoft clip art

48 The Last Assignment: Review & prepare for Final Exam
25 question standardized test will also be administered Questions & answers to Midterm & Test II Review: come prepared to ask your questions (last chance to clarify any uncertainty) Essay Question Prep Review (Handout last week) Turn in your Research Paper on Wednesday 11/30 Include Bibliography and endnotes/sources cited

49 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS Cold War: A phrase used to describe the high level of tension and distrust that characterized relations between the Soviet Union and the United States from the late 1940s until the early 1990s. Containment: A bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from the 1940s to the 1980s that emphasized the need to prevent communist countries, especially the Soviet Union, from expanding the territory they controlled. Detente: A policy the Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union. Engagement: The policy of encouraging U.S. trade and investment in a country in an effort to encourage it to pursue policies more to America’s liking. Enlargement: The policy President Bill Clinton proposed as a substitute for containment. It calls on the United States to promote the emergence of market democracies; that is, countries that combine a free market economic system with a democratic political system. Executive agreements: International agreements that, unlike treaties, do not require the approval of two-thirds of the Senate to become binding on the United States. Foreign Service Officers: Career professional diplomats who work for the Department of State. Free trade: An economic policy that holds that lowering trade barriers will benefit the economies of all the countries involved. Globalism: The idea that the United States should be prepared to use military force around the globe to defend its political and economic interests. Globalization: The process by which growing economic relations and technological change make countries increasingly interdependent.

50 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS (2) Intermestic issues: Issues such as trade, the environment, and drug trafficking that affect both domestic and foreign interests. Isolationism: A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries. Marshall Plan: A multibillion-dollar U.S. aid program in the late 1940s and early 1950s that helped Western European countries rebuild their economies in the wake of World War. Monroe Doctrine: A basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. Multilateralism: An approach in which three or more countries cooperate for the purpose of solving some common problem. National interest: The idea that the United States has certain interests in international relations that most Americans agree on. National Missile Defense (NMD): A weapons system that, if it can be made to work, would potentially protect the United States and possibly its allies against attack by long-range ballistic missiles. Neo-conservativism: Recent resurgence of Conservative ideology, especially toward Foreign Policy. Neo-isolationism: The idea that the United States should reduce its role in world affairs and return to a foreign policy similar to the one it pursued before World War II. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A military alliance founded in 1949 for the purpose of defending Western Europe from attack. Members of NATO include the United States, Canada, and fourteen European countries.

51 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS (3) Sovereignty: The power of self-rule.
Third World: A term loosely defined to mean the developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Truman Doctrine: A policy, announced by President Truman in 1947, that the United States would oppose communist attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist countries. Two presidencies: The argument that presidents have much greater influence over the content of foreign policy than the content of domestic policy. Unilateralism: The tendency of the United States to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries. World Trade Organization (WTO): The international trade agency that began operation in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

Download ppt "Foreign Policy (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post-Cold War era. (2). Define the following key FP terms:"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google