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1 Foreign Policy (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post- Cold War era. (1). Outline history of US Foreign.

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1 1 Foreign Policy (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post- Cold War era. (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post- Cold War era. (2). Define the following key FP terms: Monroe Doctrine, globalism, containment Truman Doctrine, NATO, 3rd World, détente, enlargement, and neo-isolationism. (2). Define the following key FP terms: Monroe Doctrine, globalism, containment Truman Doctrine, NATO, 3rd World, détente, enlargement, and neo-isolationism. (3). Define national interest; contrast decision making for FP w/that for domestic policy. (3). Define national interest; contrast decision making for FP w/that for domestic policy. (4). Discuss the enumerated & implied powers set by the Constitution for making FP. (4). Discuss the enumerated & implied powers set by the Constitution for making FP. (5). Examine the inherent advantage of the President in making foreign policy. (5). Examine the inherent advantage of the President in making foreign policy. (6). Outline the role of the White House, the Bureaucracy, the Congress, and the Public in shaping American foreign policy. (6). Outline the role of the White House, the Bureaucracy, the Congress, and the Public in shaping American foreign policy. (7). Discuss the US National Security structure and key DOD organizations & leaders. (7). Discuss the US National Security structure and key DOD organizations & leaders. (8). Discuss Foreign Policy challenges facing the U.S. in the Post-Cold War era. (8). Discuss Foreign Policy challenges facing the U.S. in the Post-Cold War era. (9). Assess the future direction of US National Security Policy and Military Strategy, required military Force Levels, Mission Creep, Multi-nationalism, WMD, and BMD. (9). Assess the future direction of US National Security Policy and Military Strategy, required military Force Levels, Mission Creep, Multi-nationalism, WMD, and BMD. (10). Discuss current foreign policy issues and their political impact on the U.S. (10). Discuss current foreign policy issues and their political impact on the U.S. - War on Terrorism; - War with Iraq; - North Korea; - Arab-Israeli conflict - Domestic economic slump; - the uncertain future;

2 2 1798-1941 The Isolationist Era 1942-1945 World War II (start of Globalism ) 1990-present Post-Cold War 1946-1989 The Cold War Brief History US Foreign Policy (FP) A Brief History New category after 9/11/2001 Lets examine these periods in greater detail

3 3 Brief History of U.S. Foreign Policy Isolationism* A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries. The Isolationist Era – – 1st 150 yrs of US History Adherence to guidance of Washingtons Farwell address Stressed avoiding political connections overseas Pursue commercial trade ties only – – US militarily weak & focused on expansion westward – – Not interested in global role (2 oceans of separation) What FP Doctrine* asserted US interests for the first time outside America, primarily throughout Western Hemisphere (1823)?

4 4 The Monroe Doctrine A basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.

5 5 Monroe Doctrine (1823) Invoked 1895: early FP involvement outside US Invoked 1895: early FP involvement outside US – Aim: Protect US interest in Western Hemisphere US involvement overseas primarily in LATAM US involvement overseas primarily in LATAM – – US Military Intervention escalated beginning in 1900:

6 6 World War I US deviated from Isolationism briefly during WWI WW1 (W. Wilson)=> make world safe for democracy After WW1=> isolationism returns w/vengeance Senate rejects League of Nations & Versailles treaty Sets the stage for next global war => ?

7 7 World War II WWII=> US stays out of War as Hitler first attacks – Why does US change its mind about involvement?

8 8 Air Raid Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 Impact on American Public Opinion? Following WWII=> US rethinks previous isolationism

9 9 Globalism Era => The Cold War Globalism: Globalism: – US should be prepared to use military force around the globe to protect its political & economic interests Following WWII => who emerges as primary thereat to US political & military interest? Following WWII => who emerges as primary thereat to US political & military interest? Presidential doctrine formulated as a result? Presidential doctrine formulated as a result? Truman Doctrine: Truman Doctrine: – US would actively oppose communists attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist nations US Foreign Policy that emerged from the Truman Doctrine?* US Foreign Policy that emerged from the Truman Doctrine?*

10 10 Containment A bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from mid 1940s to early 1990s that emphasized the need to contain any further Soviet territorial & communist ideological expansion. What was the economic instrument of Containment? Marshall Plan: US commitment to rebuild Europe $100 Billion+ appropriated for task in todays $$$ Soviets initially invited to participate (reaction?)

11 11 IDEOLOGY GEO-POLITICAL & STRATEGIC MILITARY Soviet Threat Containment What was the military instrument of Containment?

12 12 NATO Cold War Military Alliances Warsaw Pact

13 13 Cold War Heats Up As Soviets become more aggressive As Soviets become more aggressive – US becomes more concerned Conduct major National Security reassessment Conduct major National Security reassessment – NSC-68: National Security Strategy for Containment Concludes a major increase in defense spending required Concludes a major increase in defense spending required Truman administration balks at high price tag Truman administration balks at high price tag – So NSC-68 filed in bottom drawer of someones safe – Then what major military event occurred in June 1950?

14 14 Korean War From US perspective, Soviets engaged indirectly through NK & China

15 15 US versus USSR- The Indirect Approach Competition at margins=> the 3rd World Competition at margins=> the 3rd World – US primary Foreign Policy goal: Prevent potential falling dominoes Prevent potential falling dominoes Major test of this goal: Vietnam War: Major test of this goal: Vietnam War: – US (Ike) supports French in SE Asia – Aim: Contain Soviet expansion in SEA US view of most global crises & conflicts? US view of most global crises & conflicts? Most viewed as Soviet/communist inspired: Most viewed as Soviet/communist inspired: – USSR => China => North Vietnam => South Vietnams guerilla insurgents How does the US (JFK) initially deal with South Vietnams insurgency?* How does the US (JFK) initially deal with South Vietnams insurgency?*

16 16 Counter Insurgency (CI) JFK sends Special Forces & SEAL advisors to conduct CI JFK sends Special Forces & SEAL advisors to conduct CI LBJ expands US involvement following 1964 Tonkin Gulf incident

17 17 Americanization of Vietnam War (1965-1968) Conventional US Troops take over fighting for SVN Conventional US Troops take over fighting for SVN – Reach high point of 540,000 US troops by 1969 The majority of Americans support US policy & the war until 1968

18 18 The Tet Offensive- 1968 The light at the end of the tunnel becomes a speeding trains headlight: – Americans become disillusioned with continuing the War as its bought home to them up front & personal – Look for a way out of Vietnam with honor

19 19 Exit Strategy US involvement reached high point by late 1968 US involvement reached high point by late 1968 – America became acutely divided over war – Following Tet Offensive most Americans just wanted out Seeking a way out of quagmire Seeking a way out of quagmire – Nixon comes to power with secret plan to get out Vietnamization => allow Peace with HonorVietnamization => allow Peace with Honor February 1973=> Peace Accords signed February 1973=> Peace Accords signed – War turned over to SVN & US military forces withdraw – 1975: Peace w/o Honor & the Vietnam Syndrome Nixon sought Soviet help to get US out of Vietnam Nixon sought Soviet help to get US out of Vietnam – Aim: Get Soviets & China to push North Vietnam to peace talks – Pursues easing of tensions between two superpowers- called?

20 20 Détente A policy of Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union. – – Aimed in part in enlisting Soviet support to assist US in getting North Vietnam back to peace table & serious negotiations – – So that US could get out of Vietnam with honor. Détente lasted until 1979 – – Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979 (Carter) brought US- Soviet Détente to an abrupt end. US-Soviet relations declined even more when Ronald Reagan took office (Evil Empire Speech)

21 21 Reagan &The Evil Empire Reagan pursues hard line with the Soviets Reagan pursues hard line with the Soviets – A corrupt USSR system living on barrowed economic times – Serious reform long past due to save it from collapse 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev=> comes to power & attempts reform => Perestroika & Glasnost 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev=> comes to power & attempts reform => Perestroika & Glasnost – Problem: Soviet system too corrupt & broken to salvage Reagans SDI=> outspending the Soviets into defeat Reagans SDI=> outspending the Soviets into defeat – Unable to keep up with strategic arms race & go broke trying Year of Revolution & fall of Eastern Europe - 1989 Year of Revolution & fall of Eastern Europe - 1989 – Fall of Berlin Wall – symbol of Soviet Communism US Military operations in Third World continued: US Military operations in Third World continued: – Grenada, Panama, Iraq #1 – (Clear lack of Soviet support for its former ally- Iraq) Fall of Soviet Union- 1991 & End of Cold War Fall of Soviet Union- 1991 & End of Cold War

22 22 After the Cold War New World Order – New World Order – – Strategic reassessment (Bush I) tries to figure out what US should do during the post Cold War era – Still trying to decide when Clinton is elected in 1992 Policy of Enlargement (Clinton)=> Policy of Enlargement (Clinton)=> – Expand democracy & free markets globally Also use military force as required (& we did): Also use military force as required (& we did): – Somalia 1993 – Haiti 1994 – Bosnia & NATO peacekeeping- 1995 – Serbia bombing – 1999 – Kosovo – NATO bombing & peacekeeping- 2000

23 23 Foreign Policy Under George W. Bush Neo-isolationism: from 2000 until 9/11/2001 Neo-isolationism: from 2000 until 9/11/2001 – Theory: US should take a step back Avoid always acting as worlds policeman Avoid always acting as worlds policeman – Reality: Campaign rhetoric gives way to real world once in office The world is still very dangerous & America is not immune The world is still very dangerous & America is not immune ON 9/11/2001 that reality hit home hard => revised policy ON 9/11/2001 that reality hit home hard => revised policy The Bush Doctrine: The Bush Doctrine: – Americas post 9/11/2001 Policy & Strategy- Focus: Counter Terror Policy & National Security Strategy Focus: Counter Terror Policy & National Security Strategy – Preemptive strikes & preventative war US invasion of Afghanistan & Iraq II US invasion of Afghanistan & Iraq II

24 24 Foreign Policy (FP) Versus Domestic Policy (DP) National Interest & its various degrees & levels National Interest & its various degrees & levels – Vital vs. Important- (who decides?) Text: Two presidencies Text: Two presidencies – At Home( weak president) vs. Abroad (strong one)- why? Five Sources of Presidential Foreign Policy power: – – 1. The Constitution & presidents enumerated vs. implied powers – – 2. Presidents inherent advantages in Foreign Policy – – 3. Role of precedent in presidential dealings in Foreign Policy – – 4. Supreme Court Rulings regarding presidential FP actions – – 5. Behavior of Congress when the President takes decisive action Lets examines these sources of power in greater detail*

25 25 1. The Constitution and Foreign Policy Article I=> enumerated Congressional powers include: Article I=> enumerated Congressional powers include: – Provide for common defense – Regulate commerce – Define & punish Piracies & Felonies on high seas – Declare War – Raise & support Armies & maintain a Navy – Make rules & regulations for land & naval forces (UCMJ) – Power of the purse => (fund or not fund military deployments) Article II=> enumerated Presidential powers: Article II=> enumerated Presidential powers: – Commander in Chief (title or job description?) – Power to make treaties (subject to Senates ratification) – Appoint Ambassadors (Senate also has role- what?)

26 26 2. The Presidents Inherent Advantages Foreign Policy success depends on (what?): Foreign Policy success depends on (what?): – Speed (quickly seize the initiative) – Discretion (secrecy) – Flexibility (shift priorities as needed & compromise) Presidential initiatives depend on the venue used: Presidential initiatives depend on the venue used: – Foreign Policy (FP) vs. Domestic Policy (DP)- – Difference between the two WRT presidential freedom of action? – FP: Unless Congress acts to halt presidents actions (Military Force Deployment) – it stands- versus: (Military Force Deployment) – it stands- versus: – DP: Until Congress agrees to act presidents initiative (Social Security reform)- nothing happens (Social Security reform)- nothing happens

27 27 3. Precedent Presidents aggressive interpretation of FP powers Presidents aggressive interpretation of FP powers – Any presidential action establishes precedent If left unchallenged or challenge is unsuccessful=> If left unchallenged or challenge is unsuccessful=> Implied power is successfully established as result Implied power is successfully established as result – Successors use as spring board for further expansion Truman to present=> Truman to present=> – Implied power as CINC (Korean War- Text: Box 18-1) – Title confers implied power to order troops into combat – Now accepted as precedent (though grudgingly) – Also depends on the perceived power & popularity (poll numbers) of the president

28 28 4. Supreme Court Rulings US v. Curtiss -Wright Export Corporation (1936) US v. Curtiss -Wright Export Corporation (1936) – Court Decision: Presidents FP powers go beyond Constitution – Impact: expanded implied Presidential powers in Foreign Policy US v. Belmont (37)=> executive agreement (vs. Treaty) US v. Belmont (37)=> executive agreement (vs. Treaty) – Result: executive agreements trend up- over 90% (See Box 18-2) Furthermore Court usually refuses to hear challenges on FP Furthermore Court usually refuses to hear challenges on FP – Effect: de facto Court support for presidential FP prerogatives – Desire to avoid Presidential/Congress political disputes in FP – Also Court believes FP rulings simply beyond their competence

29 29 5. Behavior of Congress Partisan & institutional divisions in Congress=> Partisan & institutional divisions in Congress=> – Results in their lack of unified action to challenge Belief in strong Presidential leadership in FP Belief in strong Presidential leadership in FP Electoral considerations Electoral considerations – (What if President is right? – avoid voters displeasure) Post WWII vs. post Vietnam Congressional behavior Post WWII vs. post Vietnam Congressional behavior End of Vietnam War & Cold War => End of Vietnam War & Cold War => – More Congressional activism in Foreign Policy Post Iraq II Congressional behavior? (TBD) Post Iraq II Congressional behavior? (TBD)

30 30 Next Assignment Thanksgiving Holiday (Wednesday: no class) Thanksgiving Holiday (Wednesday: no class) – Travel safely! Chapter 18b: Foreign Policy (Next Monday) Chapter 18b: Foreign Policy (Next Monday) – Learning Objectives 6-10 Preparation for Course Review (Wednesday 11/30) Preparation for Course Review (Wednesday 11/30) – Also Department wide standardized test administered as well RESEARCH PAPER IS also DUE 11/30!!! RESEARCH PAPER IS also DUE 11/30!!! Complete Instructor Evals – today before you leave! Complete Instructor Evals – today before you leave!

31 31 American Public Congress Foreign Policy Bureaucracies White House Staff President Who Makes U.S. Foreign Policy? How much power & influence does each have on FP?* NSC

32 32 Foreign Policy Power Lets examine each more closely

33 33 The White House & NSC Role of President & Vice President Role of President & Vice President – Varies w/administration – Generally=> President has called all the shots – Recently VP delegated a great deal of power & influence Certainly true of this Administration Certainly true of this Administration National Security Council (NSC)* National Security Council (NSC)* – Plays key role in formulating American Foreign Policy NSC advisor & his or her staffs role NSC advisor & his or her staffs role – Plays as either Honest broker or policy advocate – Depends on Presidents preference & NSC advisor Nixon & Kissinger vs. Bush II & Rice (now Hadley) Nixon & Kissinger vs. Bush II & Rice (now Hadley)

34 34 Created in 1947 Members include: The President & Vice President Secretary of State & Secretary of Defense Director of CIA & Chair of Joint Chiefs of Staff (Advisors to statutory members- subject to change) The staff is headed up by the National Security Advisor Other relevant Cabinet Secretaries invited as required National Security Council (NSC)

35 35 Defense Department State Department CIA & Intel Community Foreign Policy Bureaucracy NSC Staff (Coordinator) Lets examine their specific Foreign Policy roles

36 36 The Foreign Policy Bureaucracy Roles of Department of State (DOS) vs. Defense (DOD) Roles of Department of State (DOS) vs. Defense (DOD) – Current Iraq II example: DOD took the lead over State – Major debate ensued (Winning the Peace vice just Winning the War) (Winning the Peace vice just Winning the War) – Personality driven debate (who has the most influence?) Uniformed Armed Svs role Uniformed Armed Svs role – Chairman & Joint Chiefs (CJCS & JCS chiefs) (CJCS & JCS chiefs) – Military judgments in a political world (The Challenge?)

37 37 Intelligence community Intelligence community & selected agencies Intelligence community & selected agencies – Major current power shifts creating disruptions – DNI & CIA- whos on first? (TBD ) Expertise & experience must be taken into account Expertise & experience must be taken into account – Recent Intel failure illustrates problem when not=> – Telling the boss always what he wants to hear? Impact? (Tends to downplay unpleasant or hard news) Impact? (Tends to downplay unpleasant or hard news) Also all Agencies compete with each other for power, influence, & $$$ (Budget share) Also all Agencies compete with each other for power, influence, & $$$ (Budget share) – Result: Tends to drive US FP to also include what in their recommendations? – Agencys own interests & agenda

38 38 Congress & Foreign Policy Constitution (Article I) assigns Congress explicit powers Result: Considerable theoretical influence in foreign policy Before WWI & II, Congress tended to assert greater role in Foreign Policy During the 1950s and 1960s Congress typically deferred to the Executive Branch (Since WWII & start of Cold War) During 1970s and 1980s Congressional activism in foreign policy grew (Post Vietnam & Watergate) Post 9/11 Congress tended to defer to President (at first) Now appears to be re-asserting itself as war becomes unpopular

39 39 Congress & Foreign Policy (2) So extent of power & influence varies over time So extent of power & influence varies over time – Cold War vs. post-Watergate & post-Vietnam War vs. – Post 9/11 (…and back to the future) 3 ways Congress influences Foreign Policy: 3 ways Congress influences Foreign Policy: – 1. Substantive legislation $$$ appropriations shape policy => power $$$ appropriations shape policy => power – 2. Procedural legislation How laws & regulations must be applied wrt Policy How laws & regulations must be applied wrt Policy – 3. Efforts to shape Public Opinion (Democrats vs. GOP on success or failure of Iraq II) (Democrats vs. GOP on success or failure of Iraq II)

40 40 Public Opinion & Foreign Policy Two options for the Public to shape Foreign Policy: Two options for the Public to shape Foreign Policy: – 1. Join interest groups & lobby Congress & President – 2. Vote for candidates aligned with their political views Public seldom able to effect day to day polices (Iraq II) Public seldom able to effect day to day polices (Iraq II) – Often policy makers decide with little regard to the Public –why? – Public lack detailed knowledge & expertise – Apathy (most dont even know or care where crisis spot is) More concerned with domestic & economic issues More concerned with domestic & economic issues Public usually rallies around President once conflict starts Public usually rallies around President once conflict starts – Initial resistance to deployment => then active support But with time support will wane if casualties grow and/or progress seems to take too long at too high a price But with time support will wane if casualties grow and/or progress seems to take too long at too high a price – Then the Public makes its concerns known & with impact

41 41 Impact of Public Opinion on Foreign Policy Public Opinion provide decision makers with very little guidance, but… Public Opinion provide decision makers with very little guidance, but… Two indirect effects of Public Opinion: Two indirect effects of Public Opinion: – 1. Constrains future policies which can be considered Example: Vietnam legacy => Vietnam syndrome Example: Vietnam legacy => Vietnam syndrome – 2. Determines Washingtons FP priorities (with the media) – Iraq II example=> looters initially brushed off by SECDEF Media alerted public & public became concerned re. Iraqi Museum Media alerted public & public became concerned re. Iraqi Museum As result FBI went to Iraq to track down stolen antiquities As result FBI went to Iraq to track down stolen antiquities Recent Public concern for Intel failure wrt WMD Recent Public concern for Intel failure wrt WMD – Forced Administration to adjust reason for invasion (democracy) – Then forced to defend itself against critics (cherry picking Intel?)

42 42 Challenges of the Post–Cold War Era Major debate continues: Major debate continues: – What should the US role be in the post-Cold War era? Disagreements over Goals & Strategies & Change: Disagreements over Goals & Strategies & Change: – Terror strike of 9/11/2001 changed everything – Debate now centers on strategy to prevent 2nd attack – Preventive War & pre-emptive strikes (Bush Doctrine) (Containment strategy no longer viable option)- why? (Containment strategy no longer viable option)- why? Soviet Union no longer exists & suicide bombers cant be logically deterred Soviet Union no longer exists & suicide bombers cant be logically deterred – Homeland Security & Defense at what expense? Whats at stake: Cost in $$$ & Freedoms Whats at stake: Cost in $$$ & Freedoms

43 43 US Defense Spending (in $$$: 1962-2010) Another way to look at Defense Spending?*

44 44 DOD Budget (as % of GDP) % of G D P Korean War 9/11 Vietnam War (High point) Cold War Ends

45 45 Future Challenges to US Foreign Policy Disagreements about the goals and strategies of American foreign policy for 21 st century An ever changing foreign policy agenda Cold War => Post Cold War => Bush Doctrine Unilateral versus multilateral* FP approach How are they different?*

46 46 Unilateralism: The tendency of the US to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries. Multilateralism: Three or more Nations cooperate together to solve some common foreign policy problem Unilateralism vs. Multilateralism Particular approach selected will depend on the major FP problems the US will face during the 21 st Century

47 47 The United States will face complex problems in: Nuclear proliferation (North Korea & Iran) Military interventions (The Middle East & exiting Iraq) Economic policy (Trade imbalance w/China & ME Oil prices) Globalization (Global interdependence & domestic impact) Inter-mestic issues (Foreign Policy impact at home) Human rights (American ideals vs. US National interests) Homeland Security (Balancing security with liberties) The unknown threat (Future 9/11s?) Potential Problems in US Foreign Policy for 21 st Century

48 48 The Last Assignment: Review & prepare for Final Exam Review & prepare for Final Exam – 25 question standardized test will also be administered Questions & answers to Midterm & Test II Questions & answers to Midterm & Test II – Review: come prepared to ask your questions (last chance to clarify any uncertainty) (last chance to clarify any uncertainty) Essay Question Prep Review (Handout last week) Essay Question Prep Review (Handout last week) Turn in your Research Paper on Wednesday 11/30 Turn in your Research Paper on Wednesday 11/30 – Include Bibliography and endnotes/sources cited

49 49 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS Cold War: A phrase used to describe the high level of tension and distrust that characterized relations between the Soviet Union and the United States from the late 1940s until the early 1990s. Containment: A bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from the 1940s to the 1980s that emphasized the need to prevent communist countries, especially the Soviet Union, from expanding the territory they controlled. Detente: A policy the Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union. Engagement: The policy of encouraging U.S. trade and investment in a country in an effort to encourage it to pursue policies more to Americas liking. Enlargement: The policy President Bill Clinton proposed as a substitute for containment. It calls on the United States to promote the emergence of market democracies; that is, countries that combine a free market economic system with a democratic political system. Executive agreements: International agreements that, unlike treaties, do not require the approval of two-thirds of the Senate to become binding on the United States. Foreign Service Officers: Career professional diplomats who work for the Department of State. Free trade: An economic policy that holds that lowering trade barriers will benefit the economies of all the countries involved. Globalism: The idea that the United States should be prepared to use military force around the globe to defend its political and economic interests. Globalization: The process by which growing economic relations and technological change make countries increasingly interdependent.

50 50 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS (2) Intermestic issues: Issues such as trade, the environment, and drug trafficking that affect both domestic and foreign interests. Isolationism: A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries. Marshall Plan: A multibillion-dollar U.S. aid program in the late 1940s and early 1950s that helped Western European countries rebuild their economies in the wake of World War. Monroe Doctrine: A basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. Multilateralism: An approach in which three or more countries cooperate for the purpose of solving some common problem. National interest: The idea that the United States has certain interests in international relations that most Americans agree on. National Missile Defense (NMD): A weapons system that, if it can be made to work, would potentially protect the United States and possibly its allies against attack by long- range ballistic missiles. Neo-conservativism: Recent resurgence of Conservative ideology, especially toward Foreign Policy. Neo-isolationism: The idea that the United States should reduce its role in world affairs and return to a foreign policy similar to the one it pursued before World War II. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A military alliance founded in 1949 for the purpose of defending Western Europe from attack. Members of NATO include the United States, Canada, and fourteen European countries.

51 51 Chapter 18: KEY TERMS (3) Sovereignty: The power of self-rule. Third World: A term loosely defined to mean the developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Truman Doctrine: A policy, announced by President Truman in 1947, that the United States would oppose communist attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist countries. Two presidencies: The argument that presidents have much greater influence over the content of foreign policy than the content of domestic policy. Unilateralism: The tendency of the United States to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries. World Trade Organization (WTO): The international trade agency that began operation in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.


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