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Immigration and Urbanization

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration and Urbanization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigration and Urbanization
The Gilded Age

2 Lower East Side Tenement
The first multiple dwellings were the tenements that were built largely for poor immigrants. In the 1860’s and 70’s, hundreds of tenements were built, primarily on the Lower East Side of New York City, as more and more poor immigrants arrived. Originally, there were little laws governing tenement construction, and most were filthy, crowded and lacked electricity and running water. Conditions were absolutely horrible. Source: Andrew Dolkart, Tenements: The First Multiple Dwellings.

3 Tenement Floor plan Tenements were overcrowded, unsanitary, and often lacked heat, electricity, water and proper sewage. This picture is a floor plan of a typical dumbbell tenement built to house working-class families.

4 Drawing of a Tenement from Jacob Riis

5 A Tale of Two-Halves During the Gilded Age, the wealthy entrepreneurs and the middle-class managers formed one-half of society, while the working-poor made up the other half. The rich lived lavish lifestyles in beautiful, spacious homes. Immigrants families faced harsh realities: long hours, low pay, and unsanitary and crowded living conditions.

6 Jacob Riis During the Gilded Age photography was used as a method of documentation and a tool for social reform. Jacob Riis attempted to capture the realities of 19th Century America for the “other half” by photographing how much of New York City lived during the Gilded Age.

7 Jacob Riis Continued… Jacob Riis was trying to show the world a problem and convince people to work together to find a solution. We will now view pictures from How the Other Half Lives.

8 Mulberry Bend: the notorious home of Tenements

9 Room in a Tenement House

10 Bottle Alley, Mulberry Road

11 Typical Tenement Fire Escape Serving as an extension of the flat

12 Jersey Street Tenements

13 Tenement-House Yard

14 In the home of an Italian Rag-Picker on Jersey Street

15 A girl and baby sister, on their doorstep

16 An old rear Tenement on Roosevelt Street

17 Old Barney in Cat Alley

18 Girl of the Tenement

19 Family making artificial flowers in their Tenement

20 Fighting Tuberculosis on the Roof

21 Bottle Alley, Mulberry Bend

22 In poverty Gap: West 28 Street: an English coal-heaver’s home

23 “Didn’t Live Nowhere”

24 A Man slept in this cellar for Four Years

25 Sewing and Starving in an Elizabeth Street Attic

26 A flat in the pauper barracks with all its furniture

27 Under the Dump at Rivington Street, 1890

28 Street Children in Night Quarters

29 Tenement on West 47 Street, 1890

30 Old Mrs. Benoir in her Hudson Street attic

31 Lodgers in a crowded Bayard Street Tenement

32 Immigrant worker in a Coal Cellar Tenement, Ludlow Street

33 Old Immigrant House on Bleecker Street
All pictures from Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives, restored version Retrieved online from

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