Presentation on theme: "The Peloponnesian War The Struggle for the Future of Greece."— Presentation transcript:
The Peloponnesian War The Struggle for the Future of Greece
Thucydides His History is our main source for the war Manuscript is incomplete at time of death Eyewitness accounts, recreation of speeches, tell the facts, not myth
Reasons for War End of the Thirty Year Peace 440-431 Spartan land dominance, Athenian sea power Corinth Athens is a threat to Greek liberty.
Reasons for War Corinth – 2nd largest naval power Athens - natural leader of the Greeks Sparta – fears Athens
Athenian Strategy Pericles plan pays off, as the Athenians can get supplies through the long walls, and with the help of their fleet.
The City Secured Attica withdraws Spartan army invades, ravages city Walls protect food supply
But the Plan is Flawed... Cant attack from within Cant keep thousands stuffed inside city Cant outlast the plague
The Plague In general, there was no known cause, but people in good health were all of a sudden attacked by violent heat in the head and red and inflamed eyes, and internally the throat and tongue were bleeding... The body itself was not very hot, nor pale, but reddish, livid and breaking out into all manner of pustules and ulceratic wounds.
The Death of Pericles 429 BCE Oligarchs vs. Democrats Settlement vs. War
Cleons Plan or the Archidamian War Invade Sparta Logic: Deter Spartans from invading Attica & Helots will revolt 425 BCE – invades with army, dead in 422
The Peace of Nicias Nicas negotiates a treaty 30 year truce that lasts only 7 years Everyone goes back to their land But pro-war faction does not vanish
Alcibiades the Agitator Everything you could want in a politician: Young, good speaker, clever... Highly educated, daring, good at parties But best of all, he was the nephew of Pericles
With a leader like this, what could go wrong? He is politically amoral Picks the war effort because it suits him Wants to lead and this side needs a leader By 420 he is strategos Figures out how to attack Up until now, the plan had only been how to defend Athens
The Sicilian Expedition Sparta depends on the Magna Graecia for supplies and Corinth for trade Cut off the supplies, and you have victory Go for Syracuse
Could this plan work? Capture Syracuse (main city in Sicily) Capture Sicily Cut Corinth and Sparta off from trade and supplies
Problems How to get the fleet past Corinth? Could an Athenian army take Syracuse? How could Athens afford this?
Nicias vs. Alcibiades Nicias on the war: need large land army Feasibility of plan Take all supplies along Very expensive With this Nicias concluded thinking that it would either disgust the Athenians by the magnitude of the task... or that they would be persuaded to do this in the safest way possible
Alcibiades Speech Know that we shall increase our power at home by this adventure abroad... Let us humble the pride of the Peloponnesians by sailing off to Sicily... And at the same time we shall become either masters, as we very easily may, of the whole of Hellas... Or in any case ruin the Syracusians, to no small advantage to us and our allies.
Athenians Want War 3 Commanders to keep things fair and balanced... Alcibiades Nicias Lamachus
The Expedition Begins 134 triremes, 27,000 men Treasury is emptied Defacing of statues Alcibiades arrested Spartans get a spy
Nicias Takes Command How to win the war when the guy who wanted it is now on the other side??? And the guy who didnt want it is now in charge??? Things are not looking good for Athens
Disaster Strikes Get the fleet home Surprise Ambush Land Assault Most terrible loses in the history of Greece
Damage Control Athens raises second fleet Lack of leadership dooms attempt Oligarchs take control in 414 Democrats favored by 410
Welcome Home, Alcibiades Recalled from exile Four years of victories Falls from favor
405 BCE Athenians attempt to restock ships Spartans and Corinthians are waiting Athenians fail to guard fleet There can be no recovery
Spartans Invade Attica In 404, Athens surrenders Athenians forced to pull down walls of city Athenian fleet restricted Ally with Sparta (forced to do this)
The Consequences are Dire Lost the Empire Never a major political influence again Sparta does not have the leadership skills to unite Greece
Coming Soon... Who is closer to the idea Greek woman: Uma or Jessica?