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History of Canada Integration into U.S. History Dean June Ruth Ann Writer

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Presentation on theme: "History of Canada Integration into U.S. History Dean June Ruth Ann Writer"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Canada Integration into U.S. History Dean June capitalhill@rochester.rr.com Ruth Ann Writer rawriter@comcast.net

2 Different Points of View Similar History

3 Why study Canada in U.S. History Class? United States did not evolve in vacuum! United States did not evolve in vacuum! By studying Canada, American students will learn additional and different points of view By studying Canada, American students will learn additional and different points of view Natural extension of U.S. History due to ties that bind Natural extension of U.S. History due to ties that bind Geography Geography Economy Economy Cultural Cultural HISTORY HISTORY

4 Pre-Contact History Migration routesNative, Inuit Migration routesNative, Inuit Natives knew no borders Natives knew no borders Cultural division of Natives result of natural, geographic regions Cultural division of Natives result of natural, geographic regions

5 http://www.tngenweb.org/maps/eastribe.jpg

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7 Study of Native Life Prior to European Contact Food Food Shelter Shelter Clothing Clothing Medical Medical Education Education Transportation Transportation Diplomacy Leisure Family structure Gender roles Religion and mythology

8 Age of Discovery English English French French

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10 English Explorers Cabot Cabot Davis Davis Hudson Hudson Baffin Baffin Franklin Franklin

11 French Explorers Cartier Cartier Champlain Champlain Brule Brule LaSalle LaSalle Marquette and Joliet Marquette and Joliet

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13 Champlains World 1567-1635

14 Two children of New France Acadia Acadia Bay of Fundy Bay of Fundy Small farm communities Small farm communities Port Royale Port Royale St. Lawrence St. Lawrence Saguenay Saguenay Quebec City Quebec City MontrealVoyageurs MontrealVoyageurs Trois Rivieres, others Trois Rivieres, others Separated by geography Separated by geography

15 French Colonization Acadia Acadia St. Lawrence and Great Lakes St. Lawrence and Great Lakes

16 More than Fame & Fortune God God Glory Glory Gold Gold Invited to join party of adventures Invited to join party of adventures French getting nervous French getting nervous English base on Newfoundland--COD English base on Newfoundland--COD Fishermen from Spain, Basque, England Fishermen from Spain, Basque, England

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18 Problems in Paradise? !#@*^ St. Croix Island1604-5 Winter weather Winter weather No fresh water No fresh water Little lumber Little lumber Scurvy Scurvy 35 of 79 died 1 st winter 35 of 79 died 1 st winter Isle of Bones Isle of Bones No farmland No farmland Safe from Nativesthey KNEW Safe from Nativesthey KNEW

19 Acadia

20 Seven Periods of Acadia Acadia... 1632 to 1653 - the core group of settlers arrive Acadia... 1632 to 1653 - the core group of settlers arrive Acadia... 1632 to 1653 Acadia... 1632 to 1653 Acadia... 1654 to 1670 - French immigration stops under English rule Acadia... 1654 to 1670 - French immigration stops under English rule Acadia... 1654 to 1670 Acadia... 1654 to 1670 Acadia... 1671 to 1689 - more arrivals under French rule Acadia... 1671 to 1689 - more arrivals under French rule Acadia... 1671 to 1689 Acadia... 1671 to 1689 Acadia... 1690 to 1709 - final days as French Acadia Acadia... 1690 to 1709 - final days as French Acadia Acadia... 1690 to 1709 Acadia... 1690 to 1709 Acadia... 1710 to 1729 - Acadians settle in as in Nova Scotians Acadia... 1710 to 1729 - Acadians settle in as in Nova Scotians Acadia... 1710 to 1729 Acadia... 1710 to 1729 Acadia... 1730 to 1748 - peacetime under English rule Acadia... 1730 to 1748 - peacetime under English rule Acadia... 1730 to 1748 Acadia... 1730 to 1748 Acadia... 1749 to 1755 - English pressure and Acadian farewell Acadia... 1749 to 1755 - English pressure and Acadian farewell Acadia... 1749 to 1755 Acadia... 1749 to 1755

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23 1755sent into exile 1755sent into exile 2005Katrina 2005Katrina

24 Quebec City during Champlain Era 1608-1635

25 Summer trip of 1609 Allied with Hurons Allied with Hurons Enemy of Iroquois Enemy of Iroquois Travel to LaChine and Richelieu River Travel to LaChine and Richelieu River To heart of Iroquois nation60,000 To heart of Iroquois nation60,000 Reached Lake Champlain--July Reached Lake Champlain--July

26 Battle of 1609 Champlain stepped forward dressed for war in bloomers & a gleaming plume topped metal bonnet on his head. He raised his gun and aimed at the most prominent men standing the length of a football field away. He fired the load, four pellets and 2 Iroquois chiefs dropped dead. Demoralized by the shock of an unthinkable weapon, the Iroquois ran."[Callwood p. 12] Champlain stepped forward dressed for war in bloomers & a gleaming plume topped metal bonnet on his head. He raised his gun and aimed at the most prominent men standing the length of a football field away. He fired the load, four pellets and 2 Iroquois chiefs dropped dead. Demoralized by the shock of an unthinkable weapon, the Iroquois ran."[Callwood p. 12]

27 Rest is History! Starting Line Up for French and Indian war 150 years later Starting Line Up for French and Indian war 150 years later

28 What destroyed Native Cultures? More than guns More than guns Diseaseno immunity Diseaseno immunity Small pox Small pox measles measles Depression Depression Diet Diet Societal changes Societal changes Huron lost 50% of people by 1639 Huron lost 50% of people by 1639 Never regained population Never regained population

29 New France Voyageurs Voyageurs Fur is king of North America Fur is king of North America Urban New France Urban New France Quebec City Quebec City Montreal Montreal Seigneurial System Seigneurial System Settlement and farming Settlement and farming

30 Voyageurs Brule Brule Radisson and Groselliers Radisson and Groselliers

31 1615Great Lakes Region Bruleread about him Bruleread about him First white to… First white to… 1622Sault Ste. Marie--MICHIGAN 1622Sault Ste. Marie--MICHIGAN

32 Beaver Prized pelts Prized pelts Guard hair Guard hair Under hair Under hair Worn for winterTHE best [castor de gras] Worn for winterTHE best [castor de gras] Easily transported Easily transported Easily trapped outextinct in some areas Easily trapped outextinct in some areas BREATHING GOLD! BREATHING GOLD!

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35 Economic Issues of Beaver Supply60-400 million from Rio Grande to Arctic Supply60-400 million from Rio Grande to Arctic 10 million in Canada alone 10 million in Canada alone 155 taken in one day 155 taken in one day 5000 in one season 5000 in one season Demandfad of hats Demandfad of hats Cheap labor Cheap labor

36 Life is a highway so were the rivers Rivers were the routes west Rivers were the routes west No real trails No real trails Portages between rivers and lakes Portages between rivers and lakes Paddle at a fast rate16+ hours a day Paddle at a fast rate16+ hours a day

37 Hudson Bay Companys Birth 1670 Hudson Bay system of trade to North Hudson Bay system of trade to North Frenchlonger supply line Frenchlonger supply line HBC started by Radisson/Groseilliers HBC started by Radisson/Groseilliers Took up 50% of current Canadian territory Took up 50% of current Canadian territory Small posts called factories Small posts called factories Operated by factor Operated by factor STAY ON THE BAYfactory system STAY ON THE BAYfactory system Eliminated middle mendirect buying Eliminated middle mendirect buying

38 HBC better deal Blankets made of wool Blankets made of wool Shorter trip Shorter trip England had 13 colonies south of New France England had 13 colonies south of New France Competition began Competition began

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40 Urbanization Quebec City Quebec City Montreal Montreal St. Lawrence Valley St. Lawrence Valley Kings Daughters Kings Daughters

41 Seigneurial System

42 Competing for North America New England New England Hudson Bay Company Hudson Bay Company New France New France Acadia Acadia English v. French English v. French Lesser known Lesser known

43 Wars for Empire European conflicts European conflicts French and Indian War French and Indian War Revolutionary Era Revolutionary Era Loyalists Loyalists Birth of two nationsnot one Birth of two nationsnot one War of 1812 War of 1812

44 New France STRENGTHS STRENGTHS First Nations relationship good First Nations relationship good Knew interior Knew interior Control of waterway Control of waterway Unified Unified End run around Eng End run around Eng Forts Forts WEAKNESSES WEAKNESSES Outnumbered 20:1 Less money Poor transportation Iroquois enemy Only few key cities Montreal Quebec Louisbourg

45 End of New France Series of 4 wars Series of 4 wars Acadian Expulsion1755 Acadian Expulsion1755 French and Indian War French and Indian War Plains of Abraham1759 Plains of Abraham1759 Conquest--1763 Conquest--1763

46 Revolutionary Era Motivation Motivation Quebec Act Quebec Act Invasions Invasions Why 13 and not 15 colonies? Why 13 and not 15 colonies? Why British North America [French speaking] sided with Britain Why British North America [French speaking] sided with Britain Only few years since French and Only few years since French and Indian War Indian War

47 Invasion of Canada After Quebec Act After Quebec Act August 1775invasion begins August 1775invasion begins Via fur trade route Richielu River Via fur trade route Richielu River Nov 75to Montreal Nov 75to Montreal Siege for 55 days Siege for 55 days

48 Not good neighbors Contempt for Catholics Contempt for Catholics Stole food Stole food Stole firewood Stole firewood Imprisoned priests Imprisoned priests Urinated on shrine Urinated on shrine Sent Ben FranklinTOO LATE Sent Ben FranklinTOO LATE

49 1776-1783 Events of Revolutionary War Events of Revolutionary War SaratogaBurgoyne defeated SaratogaBurgoyne defeated Yorktown--1781 Yorktown--1781 Ours is a history of revolution… Ours is a history of revolution… Canada is a history of evolution Canada is a history of evolution

50 Loyalists Thousands supported British Thousands supported British Called TORIES [1/3] Called TORIES [1/3] 50,000 moved to Canada 50,000 moved to Canada Why did these colonists emigrate? Why did these colonists emigrate? Where did they settle? Where did they settle? What was life like for them in new land? What was life like for them in new land?

51 Who were they??? Merchantstrade ties Merchantstrade ties Patriotsloyal citizens Patriotsloyal citizens Family ties Family ties Locationinterior shield them Locationinterior shield them Conservativefear of change Conservativefear of change Agedemography Agedemography Historysense of past Historysense of past Defenseagainst Natives Defenseagainst Natives Guess workwrong horse in race! Guess workwrong horse in race!

52 Two nations are born! USAsouth of St. Lawrence/ Great Lakes USAsouth of St. Lawrence/ Great Lakes BNAnorth [bummer] BNAnorth [bummer] Lower Canada Lower Canada Upper Canada Upper Canada Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Newfoundlandindependent until 1949 Newfoundlandindependent until 1949 English threw in fur trade route to U.S.A. English threw in fur trade route to U.S.A. MichiganDetroit, Michilmackinac MichiganDetroit, Michilmackinac Ft. Niagara Ft. Niagara Grand Portage Grand Portage

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54 British North America Lower Canada Lower Canada Upper Canada Upper Canada Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Hudson Bay Company Hudson Bay Company Newfoundland Newfoundland

55 War of 1812 Second War for Empire Second War for Empire

56 Nationhood American historyWashington to Lincoln American historyWashington to Lincoln Rebellions of 1837 Rebellions of 1837 Lower Canada--Papineau Lower Canada--Papineau Upper Canada--Mackenzie Upper Canada--Mackenzie

57 Underground Railroad When When 1800-1861 1800-1861 Fugitive Slave Act--1850 Fugitive Slave Act--1850 What What Not underground Not underground Not railroad Not railroad Informal system Informal system Secret Secret Code words Code words Conductors Conductors Passengers Passengers Trains Trains Cargo Cargo Stations Stations Where Where Established routes Established routes Who Who Fugitive slaves30-50,000 Fugitive slaves30-50,000 Quakers, Methodists Quakers, Methodists Urban/rural Urban/rural Black/white Black/white Anyone who hated slavery Anyone who hated slavery How How

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59 Canadian Communities

60 Dresdena.k.a. Dawn

61 Josiah Henson Born in late 1700s in Maryland Born in late 1700s in Maryland Beaten by master for protecting mother Beaten by master for protecting mother Fled to Dresden with youngest of 12 in knapsack Fled to Dresden with youngest of 12 in knapsack Likely model for Uncle Tom Likely model for Uncle Tom

62 Vocational Education Key to Hensons community Key to Hensons community Concept of land ownership Concept of land ownership British American Instituteindustrial and manual training British American Instituteindustrial and manual training Late 1840sgrist mill and saw mill Late 1840sgrist mill and saw mill Visit to England with black walnut timbers Visit to England with black walnut timbers

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67 Hensons Church

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69 Hensons later years Dresden collapsed by 1872 Dresden collapsed by 1872 Questions of fraud Questions of fraud Henson cleared of wrong doing Henson cleared of wrong doing Died at age 94 [?] in 1883 Died at age 94 [?] in 1883 Descendents still live in region Descendents still live in region

70 Civil War and Birth of Canada Role of Canada in our war Role of Canada in our war Fenians Fenians Fear of United States Fear of United States Dominion of Canada a reality as result--1867 Dominion of Canada a reality as result--1867

71 Movement West Differences north of border Differences north of border Treatment of Natives and nature Treatment of Natives and nature Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny Settlement of Last Best West Settlement of Last Best West

72 Turn of the Century Need for Cooperation Need for Cooperation Industrialization Industrialization Urbanization Urbanization

73 World at War Boer War Boer War Great WarIn Flanders Field Great WarIn Flanders Field Statute of Westminster Statute of Westminster World War II World War II

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76 Between Wars Quest for World without Wars Quest for World without Wars Roaring 20s Roaring 20s Depression Depression Different methods of recovery Different methods of recovery

77 Post War and Cold War Era Baby boomers Baby boomers St. Lawrence Seaway St. Lawrence Seaway 1950s-1970sSocial upheaval 1950s-1970sSocial upheaval NATO NATO UN UN Commonwealth Nation Commonwealth Nation Korea Korea Vietnam Vietnam Cuba Cuba

78 Last Generation Improving relations Improving relations Free Trade Free Trade NAFTA NAFTA Iranian hostages Iranian hostages 9/11 9/11 War on Terror War on Terror War in Iraq War in Iraq

79 Recent Issues Border Issues Border Issues 2001 2001 Fortress North America Fortress North America 2009 and passport requirements 2009 and passport requirements Health care Health care Trade Trade Arctic Sovereignty Arctic Sovereignty Culture Wars Culture Wars

80 Future What will be the next chapter? What will be the next chapter? Issues facing Canada and U.S. Issues facing Canada and U.S. Border Border Great Lakes Great Lakes Trade Trade Travel between two powerhouses Travel between two powerhouses Economic integration Economic integration Defense Defense Arctic Arctic

81 Contact Information Dean June Dean June SUNY Geneseo SUNY Geneseo 3914 East Main Street Road Attica, New York capitalhill@rochester.rr.com capitalhill@rochester.rr.com capitalhill@rochester.rr.com june@geneseo.edu june@geneseo.edu june@geneseo.edu Ruth Ann Writer Ruth Ann Writer K-12 Outreach Coordinator, Canadian Studies K-12 Outreach Coordinator, Canadian Studies Michigan State University 601 Circle Ridge Drive Buchanan, MI rawriter@comcast.net rawriter@comcast.net rawriter@comcast.net


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