7French Canadian Emigration to the U.S. (1840-1930) : French Canadians left Canada to emigrate to the United StatesThis has been largely forgotten by people in Québec but is an important event in our history and in U.S. history
8According to the 2000 U.S. census: 13 million Americans claim to have French ancestors (4% of the pop.)1,6 million of them speak the French language at homeA large proportion of them have ancestors who emigrated from French Canada during the 19th and 20th century
11Jack Kerouac ( )American novelist, writer, poet, and artist from Lowell (MA)Born to immigrants Léo-Alcide Kérouac and Gabrielle-Ange Lévesque
12Kerouac = father Beat movement Beat writers emphasized a visceral engagement in worldly experiences combined with a quest for deeper spiritual understanding; many of them developed a strong interest in BuddhismEchoes of the Beat Generation can be seen throughout many other modern subcultures, such as hippies and punksKerouac and others inspired the Beatles, Bob Dylan, Jim Morrison, etc.
13First published in 1958Is a largely autobiographical work that was written as a stream of consciousness creation - based on the spontaneous road trips of Kerouac and his friends across mid-century America
14Battle of Iwo Jima (Japan - Feb. - March. 1945) Joe Rosenthal photographed five Marines: Ira Hayes, Mike Strank, Franklin Sousley,René Gagnon, Harlon Block, and a U.S. Navy corpsman, John Bradley, raising the U.S. flagatop the 166 meter (546 ft) Mount Suribachi.
15René Gagnon ( )Born in Manchester (NH), the only child of French Canadian immigrants from Saint-Luc, Quebec, Henri Gagnon and Irene Marcotte
16U.S. Marine Corps Memorial in Arlington National CemeteryClint Eastwood movie (2006)
28Gaspé - July 24, 1534« Long Live the King of France »Cartier:Planted a ten-meter cross bearing the words « Long Live the King of France »Took possession of the territory in the name of FranceCalled it « Canada »Canada became a colony of « New France » (other colonies = Acadia, Louisiana and Newfoundland)
29What was New France?The area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the first voyage of Jacques Cartier (1534) to the cession of New France to Spain and Britain in (1763)
30France expanded its influence in America Goal: to exploit valuable natural richesEx.: Beaver fur, as the European beaver had almost been driven to extinctionIt was a very hardtime for me!
31Early attempts to establish permanent settlements… Sable Island (1598)Tadoussac (1600)Île-Saint-Croix onBaie François(Bay of Fundy) (1604)
32Then this man founded Québec city (1608) Samuel de Champlain ( )
33…and established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal (1611)
34Then this man founded Montreal (1642) Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve( )
37« Coureurs de bois » (Runner of the woods) Individuals who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authoritiesBy 1681, France realized the traders had to be controlled so that the industry might remain profitableMany « coureurs des bois » became « voyageurs »
38France then began a policy of expansion in an attempt to dominate the fur trade French influence extended west, north and southForts and trading posts were built with the help of explorers, traders and Catholic missionariesTreaties were negotiated with native groups, and fur trading became very profitable and organized
53Durham Report (1839) Lord Durham (1792-1840) Recommended that Upper and Lower Canada be united into one province, which would give British Canadians a slight advantage in populationEncouraged immigration to Canada from Britain, to overwhelm the existing numbers of French Canadians and hopefully assimilate them into British cultureLord Durham ( )
55But assimilation failed again Between 1840 and 1940, « La survivance » (survival) became the dominant ideology among French CanadiansThe idea that the nation would survive foremost through its culture, mainly religion, language, tradition and the remembrance of the things past;The « revenge of the cradle »: the Catholic Church encouraged French-Canadian families to have as many children as possible
56In the meantime, British North America Act is adopted (1867) Canada becomes what it is today
76And within the 1867 arrangement French Canadians were given a powerful political tool to guarantee the preservation of their language and cultureThe Provincial Government of Québec / Québec State
77Most Québec leaders hesitated from using this tool aggressively Maurice Duplessis (Leader of Union Nationale)Premier of Québec ;
78Jean Lesage (Leader of Liberal Party of Québec) Premier of Québec- Was pragmatic and inspired bykeynesian theories of the 1940sand 1950s
79Lesage’s vision:« the Quebec State is the collective lever of the French-Canadian community »« Québécois have only one power institution: their government. And they now want to use this institution to build a new era to which they could not formerly aspire »
80It was the Quiet Revolution a period of rapid change in Quebec as institutions and attitudes were swept away, transforming state, economy, family, and societyNew role for the Québec stateA New Economic ConsciousnessA New International Role for QuebecThe Secularization of Quebec Society
82René Lévesque Premier of Quebec (1976-1985) Founder of the Parti QuébécoisAn icon of the separatist movementPierre Trudeau’s political opponent(Trudeau was Prime Minister ofCanada between 1968 and 1979;and 1980 and 1984)
83Bill 101 (passed in 1977)Law in the province of Québec defining French, the language of the majority of the population, as the only official language of Québec and framing fundamental language rights of all Quebecers
84May 20, 1980 Referendum on sovereigny-association The Question:« The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada, based on the equality of nations; this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad — in other words, sovereignty — and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency; any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular approval through another referendum; on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada? »
862nd attempt 1995 referendum (Oct. 30) « Do you agree that Québec should become sovereign after having made a formal offer to Canada for a new economic and political partnership within the scope of the bill respecting the future of Québec and of the agreement signed on June 12, 1995? »
94Montreal Largest city in Québec (2nd in Canada after Toronto) Pop.: 1,854,442 (city); 3,635,571 (metro)70% speak French at home; 19% English (more than 40 ethnic communities)
95A bilingual / bicultural city 60% of the pop. speak both English and French (compared with 17% in Canada)
96Montreal’s proximity to the U.S. an hour from Plattsburgh, NYan hour and a half from Burlington, VT3 and a half hours from Albany, NY5 hours from Boston, MA6 hours from NYC
97So what does it mean to be Québécois? Is Québec: An extension of France?A Canadian province like the others?A « distinct society »?A country in the making?An americanized francophone society?
98According to Yvan Lamonde (1996): This formula is helpful to understand what Québec is:2Q + Fr + GB + (USA) RQuebec’s history and identity (Q) are made up of less France (F) than we believe, more Great Britain (GB) than we want to admit, a much larger American influence than we think, and much less imput from Rome (R) and the clergy than thought
105Ongoing debate in our politics What road ahead for separatists?
106Public Support for Quebec independence (June 2009 Angus-Reid Survey) 34% support independence54% oppose74% think it is very unlikely or not at all likely to ever occur28% want outright independence30% want more autonomy from Canada32% are content to have Quebec remain a province of Canada