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Higgins 1.1 Data Models Higgins : a species of Tasmanian long-tailed mouse. 14 September 2007; revised 24 January 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Higgins 1.1 Data Models Higgins : a species of Tasmanian long-tailed mouse. 14 September 2007; revised 24 January 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Higgins 1.1 Data Models Higgins : a species of Tasmanian long-tailed mouse. 14 September 2007; revised 24 January 2010

2 2 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Three layer cake Top: Persona data model (aka PDM 1.1) Middle: Higgins data model (aka HDM 1.1) Bottom: Context data model (aka CDM 1.1)

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4 4 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Section One: Context Data Model 1.1

5 5 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Context Data Model (CDM) IdAS uses the CDM to provide a data abstraction that makes identity data portable across heterogeneous data sources such as enterprise directories, databases, communications networks, and social networks

6 6 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 CDMs RDF Foundation The Context Data Model (CDM) encompasses the core semantics of the W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF) Anything expressible in RDF is expressible in the CDM (although the converse isn't true) Higgins uses RDF/S predicate URI literals as Attribute ids (e.g. rdf:type, rdf:subject, rdf:predicate, rdf:object, rdfs:subClass, etc.)

7 7 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 CDMs RDF Foundation: Mapping between RDF triples and Higgins vector triples The set of RDF (subject predicate object) triples, (S 1 P 1 O 1 ), (S 1 P 1 O 2 ),…(S 1 P 1 O n ) are equivalent to a Higgins vector-triple (S 1 A 1 V) where: Subject S 1 is an EntityId identifying the Entity that were making a statement about A 1 is an AttributeId identifying an Attribute Entity. It has the same value as RDF predicate P 1 Vector V is the set of RDF object values, (O 1 … O n ) [As with RDF, some objects are literals, others are EntityIds] Implementation note: Context implementation MAY allow zero length object/attribute values.

8 8 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Contexts The CDM includes a kind of object called a Context that is very close to the RDF concept of named graph Contexts may be sub-graphs of a single globally distributed graph Implementation note: IdAS Context Provider plug- ins adapt existing data sources and expose them as Contexts that in turn contain sets of objects

9 9 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Contexts Contexts contain Entities of various types including: Regular data instances Entity Classes Attribute Classes Policy Entities All of these Entities are represented using Entity-Attribute-Value(s) described earlier: (E 1 A 1 V 1 … V n )

10 10 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Universal Data Identifiers (UDIs) are not really new, just a name for one of… An (OASIS) XRI or (W3C) Cool URI that resolves to an XRDS document An OpenID 2.0 URI that resolves to an XRDS document A developer-defined URI or String

11 11 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 UDIs Identify… Contexts UDI can be used as a ContextId Entities (including specializations like Attribute Types, Entity Classes, etc.) UDI can be used as absolute or relative EntityIds A relative EntityId identifies an Entity within a given Context Attribute instances A two part UDI that identifies all of the values of the given Attribute of the given Entity

12 12 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Local and Global UDIs Some UDIs are global they can be resolved to an entity from anywhere on the internet Entities identified with global UDIs may be interconnected together to form a distributed object graph called the global graph Some UDIs are local they can only be resolved within a LAN or perhaps on a local machine Entities identified by local UDIs cannot be part of the global graph

13 13 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Drilling in…

14 14 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Contexts A Context is a data container/source Each Context is identified by a global or local UDI called a ContextId Examples of Contexts: Facebook social network LDAP directory PeopleSoft database Mobile phone network A Context

15 15 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Context Ontologies Contexts describe their ontologies or schemas using RDF/OWL Contexts must base their ontologies on higgins.owl (aka HOWL ) but are otherwise free to define their own Entity Classes and Attribute Types For example, a Context could define an Employee, class that has eyeColor and phoneNumber attributes: Employee would sub-class higgins:Person eyeColor and phoneNumber could be defined within this (or another accessible) Context or reused from some existing ontology

16 16 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Contexts contain Entities Entities represent real world people, groups, organizations, objects, etc. R&D Dept. A Entity representing your manager An Entity representing you Context

17 17 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 EntityIds An Entity is identified within a Context by 0..N EntityIds EntityIds may be unique beyond the scope of the containing Context A canonical EntityId uniquely and persistently identifies it An Entity may have a single canonical EntityId Entities without any EntityIds are called blank Entities An EntityId is either an Attribute instance (type and value) or a string

18 18 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Implementation note: In IdAS: An EntityId can be a string, a UDI or an IAttribute implementation In the following is the EntityId, the balance is the ContextId

19 19 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Entities have Zero or More Attributes* Statements about Entities are represented as vector- triples where the last member is a vector of 1..N values: Each Attribute is identified by a URI E.g. ex:eyeColor Example of a single-valued vector-triple expressing that the Entity ex:paul has green eyes: ex:paul ex:eyeColor green These values may be simple (e.g. a string) or complex (e.g. representing a postal address, 3D avatar mesh, calendar event, etc.) If complex, the value itself is another Entity *Not including the type attribute

20 20 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 An Entity with Simple Attributes Abstract Concept Simple values example ex:Bob ex:fullname = Bob Smith ex: = ex:availableToPlayGolf = Wed, Sat = value(s)

21 21 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Datatypes of Simple Attribute Values All values of a simple attribute have a base datatype that is one of the XML Schema types (e.g. string, integer, boolean, anyURI, etc.) They may also have syntax constraint facets (e.g. length, pattern, minInclusive, etc.) as defined by XML Schema [In OWL the combination of the base datatype and the optional syntax constraints is called a Data Range ]

22 22 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Complex Attribute Values Complex values are entities foaf:knowsex:Bobex:Alice ex:hasAddressex:Bobex:Address_1 Example #1 (single valued) ex:street = 123 Main Street ex:city = Boston ex:state = Massachusetts ex:Alice Example #2 (multi-valued)

23 23 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Entity Class Entities may have a complex valued attribute (rdf:type) the value of which is an Entity called its Entity Class rdf:typeex:Bobex:Person

24 24 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Higgins Statement Entities Given a vector-triple vt 1 = (E 1 A 1 V) [Remember V is a set of (V 1, V 2, … V n ) of n values] If we create statement entity, S i to represent a single (E 1 A 1 V i ) triple within vt 1 Then we can make create new vector-triples that attach attributes to the statement. This allows metadata to be associated with each specific (E 1 A 1 V i ) triple

25 25 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Statement Example Given triple t = Person_1, age-over-1, true We make this Statement about t: t, lastVerifiedFromSource, Jan 1, :10 The original triple t The statement that says t was last verified in Jan 2000

26 26 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Relationships between Entities Attributes with complex values allow you to express relationships between Entities ex:Bobex:Alice

27 27 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 The higgins:correlation Attribute A correlation attribute is a link that states that the source Entity and the target Entity(ies) are representations of the same person, organization, concept or thing higgins:correlationex:Bobex:Alice ex:Robert-Smith

28 28 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 higgins:correlation The semantic is close but not identical to owl:sameAs The semantic seems closer to oguid:identical proposed here: Note that the two (or more) Entities linked may be in different Contexts Since Contexts have different ontologies, each Entity may have a different set of attribute types (and of course values) It is a statement not about the equivalence of the Entity models, but that both are representations of the same underlying real world resource

29 29 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Correlation Examples Context Other entity relationships (e.g. foaf:knows) In this example you have two accounts/profiles in Context A and you are also member of the Yahoo Group. You know another member of the Yahoo Group. // // 333 ContextId An Entity representing entity #1 (e.g. you) An Entity representing an entity other than entity #1 (e.g. someone other than you) EntityId UDI higgins:correlation

30 30 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Friends List Example e.g. Facebook The triple : You know Drummond Drummond An Entity representing entity #1 (e.g. you) An Entity representing an entity other than entity #1 (e.g. someone other than you)

31 31 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Social Network Example Facebook Reciprocated (confirmed) Entity Relations An Entity representing entity #1 (e.g. you) An Entity representing an entity other than entity #1 (e.g. someone other than you)

32 32 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 A Cross-Context Example FacebookSecond Life Dept of Motor Vehicles Social Security Administration Other Entities You Meta Context You An Entity representing entity #1 (e.g. you) An Entity representing an entity other than entity #1 (e.g. someone other than you)

33 33 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Contexts Relations Context relations are complex valued attributes of contexts

34 34 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Enterprise Directory Example Enterprise directory Context with two sub-Contexts You R&D Dept. XYZ Corporation Marketing Dept. Contexts can have relationships with other Contexts. Your Manager

35 35 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Section Two: Higgins Data Model 1.1 NOT WRITTEN

36 36 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Section Three: Persona Data Model 1.1 NOT WRITTEN

37 37 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 EXTRA SLIDES: Experimental Stuff, and Misc

38 38 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Access Control Policy Entities Original Proposal E1 is the resource being protected E2 is the AccessControl Policy Entity E3 is the subject who is (or is not) granted permission to perform operations on E1 is a literal (e.g. Read, Modify, etc.) In the example, subject E3 is granted read access to the entire Entity E1 C1 E1 E2: Policy :resource E3 :subject Concept: C1 E1 E2: Policy :resource E3 :subject Read Example :

39 39 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Access Control Policy Entities Revised Proposal E1 is the resource being protected E2 is the AccessControl Policy Entity E3 is the subject who is (or is not) granted permission to perform operations on E1 higgins:operation is an abstract super-Attribute. Its value is the resource being protected. Its sub- type indicates one kind of allowed operation higgins:operation has concrete sub-Attributes of (higgins:read, higgins:modify, etc.) In the example, subject E3 is granted read access to the entire Entity E1 C1 E1 E2: Policy :operation E3 :subject Concept: C1 E1 E2: Policy :read E3 :subject Example :

40 40 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Key: Higgins Ontology Language (HOWL) Ontology (Schema) RDFS / OWL Higgins XRDS Service Endpoints Identifiers Cool URIs OpenID XDI Higgins Context Descriptors WS- Addressing [Planned] XRI UDI Discovery XRI v10 W3COASISDe facto Data Model Specifications UDI

41 41 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 A C DelegatesTo DelegatedBy Delegation Use Case Delegation Registry Context Entity representing the accountant. Has attributes (e.g. name, etc. [not shown]) other than the DelegatedBy attribute.

42 42 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Delegation Use Case A C DelegatesTo DelegatedBy Delegation Registry Context R-Card issued by the Delegation Registry website and imported into Selector Delegation Registry STS Delegation Registry Website Accountants Identity Selector R-Card Import STS Endpoint Digital Identity (security token issued by STS) is presented to the Tax Authority. This token contains at least the claim: A is delegated to by C.

43 43 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Attic

44 44 Copyright© Azigo, Inc. Made available under EPL v1.0 Earlier Names for Entity In the early years of Higgins the fundamental object in the data model was called a Digital Subject Just before Higgins 1.0 was released (Feb 21 st 2008) it was changed to Node to eliminate confusion with the term Subject or Data Subject as used in international data protection law In the version 1.1 of Higgins currently under development it was changed again to Entity as a more intuitive term


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