Presentation on theme: "CPS School Counselor Training August 1, 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1 CPS School Counselor Training August 1, 2012 Lee Ann LowderDeputy General Counselphone: fax:
2 What should you take away? Violentization processDomestic ViolenceViolent CoachingNew Anti-Bullying PolicyDating ViolenceProtocol for Suicidal IdeationLegal LiabilityReportingRecords
3 Violentization Process Witnessing the abuse of a family member is the first of four stages in the socialization process that leads to the creation of a violent criminal –brutalizationbelligerencyviolent performancevirulencyAthens, L., The Creation of Dangerous Violent Criminals(Univ. Ill. Press 1992)
4 School Intervention You can decrease violence by 1. interrupting the “violentization” process of students.2. teaching and reinforcing that violence is not the way to solve problems.
5 Prevalence: Domestic Violence According to the 2005Census Estimate, 33 million or 15% of all U.S. adults admit they were DV victimsOne-third of female murder victims were killed by intimate partners
6 How does DV affect students? Frequent absences and suspensionsTwice as likely to visit school nurse for social/emotional reasons, and1.6 times as likely to be sent homeSeven times more likely to be referred to speech pathologist
7 DV Effects on Older Boys In a 36-month study of children ages 11-17, who lived with DV, every son over the age of 14 had attempted to protect his mother from attack. Some 62 percent were injured in the process.
8 DV Effects on Kindergarten Boys Kindergarten boys whose mothers reported depression and DV scored 7% to 10% lower on standardized tests in mathematics, reading, and general knowledge.DV exposure is similar to the effect of lead intoxication and low birth weight.
9 Effects of DV on Women and Girls Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to American women between ages 15 and 44 – resulting in more injuries than car accidents, muggings, and rapes combined.
10 DV Effects on Daughters In families where the mother is assaulted by the father, the risk that daughters will be sexually abused is 6.5 times greater than for girls in non-abusive families.
11 CPS DV Policy Providing Safety Plan handout to parent/victim Documenting Orders of ProtectionObligation to assess risk of abuse/ neglect to students from DV
12 Offer Assistance to Parent/Victim Parent should be referred to school psychologist, counselor, social worker, nurse or other trained staff.Offer parent a private space to call DV Helpline,1-877-TO-END-DV
13 Parent Support , cont’dOffer parent/ victim DV Safety Plan handout in her/his primary languageAttachments to the policy include versions in: EnglishSpanishPolishArabicBosnianKoreanMandarinRussian
15 QUIZWhat is the leading cause of injury to American women ages 15 and 44?
16 Violentization Violent Coaching Reaction to Violent Performance “It’s your responsibility to stand up to bullies. If you don’t fight them, I’ll hurt you worse when you get home.”Reaction to Violent Performance“That boy is crazy! He’ll surely end up in jail.”
17 Incarceration RatesOne in five African- American men in Cook County is in prison, in jail or on probation.For every African-American enrolled in college in Illinois, 2 ½ are in prison or on parole.
18 What becomes of bullies? What percent of boys who were bullies in middle school had at least one conviction by age 24?How many had three or more convictions?
19 Bullying is a path to jail 60% have one conviction40% have three or more convictionsBullies are four times more likely than peers to have multiple convictions.
20 CPS students bullied in past 12 months (2011) Total: 12.8%Male: %Female: 13.5%African-American: 11.2%Hispanic: %
21 Student Code of Conduct New Anti-Bullying provisions: page 23Protected classes (among others)Physical or mental disabilitySexual orientationGender-related identity or expressionRace, ColorReligionSex
22 Definition of Bullying Severe or pervasivePhysical or verbalWritten or electronic
23 Definition of Bullying, continued Reasonably predicted toPlace student in reasonable fear of harm to self or propertySubstantially harm a student’s physical or mental healthSubstantially interfere with student’s schooling or ability to participate in school activities
24 Peer Conflict Disagreements and oppositional interactions Situational, immediate and developmentally inappropriate
25 Addressing Peer Conflict before it becomes Bullying Opportunities for staffTo guide students inDeveloping skills in social competencyLearning appropriate personal boundariesPeaceably resolving conflictTo model appropriate interactions
26 All Staff Obligations Security officers Lunchroom staff Bus drivers School counselorsTeachersJanitorsIntervene immediately to ensure everyone’s safetyReport the incident to principal ASAPnot > 24 hoursCooperate in investigation & implementing safety plan
27 Responsibility to students bullied based on perceived sexual orientation CPS prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and expression by other students and by staffTeacher’s Aide who told students gays were going to hellAP who told gay student: “If you didn’t act like a faggot, you wouldn’t get hurt.”
28 Safety of LGBTQ Students 84% reported verbal harassment18% reported frequently hearing homophobic remarksOnly 15% reported that school staff intervened when they overheard these remarks
29 Homophobic Teasing of Students A 1999 Seattle study found 80% of students subjected to anti-gay bullying identified as heterosexualGreat majority of students bullied as gay aren’t LGBTQ
30 Nabozny v. Podlesny, 7th Cir. (1996) Gay studentdaily verbal harassmentmock rapeinternal injuries from repeated kicking>1 suicide attemptPrincipal“Boys will be boys.”“Act gay, expect abuse.”
31 Principal & AP held individually liable School officials violated Equal Protection by treating Nabozny differently than female students who were victims of dating violence
32 CPS Employee Discipline Code 5-9: Any cruel, immoral conduct or communication that causes psychological or physical harm to a studentDiscipline: Discharge4-2: Negligent supervision resulting in psychological or physical injury to studentDisciplinary Options: day suspension, Discharge
33 Dating Violence: another form of bullying Pattern of actual or threatened acts of physical/sexual/emotional abusePerpetrated by adolescent against current or former dating partnerTo gain power and control
34 Youth Behavior Risk Survey 2011 Students reporting they were intentionally hit, slapped, or physically hurt by boy/girlfriend in past 12 monthsChicago: 16.3%U.S.9.4%
35 Victims of Dating Violence Increased risksSubstance AbuseEating DisordersRisky Sexual BehaviorPregnancySuicide
36 Students coerced into sexual intercourse 2011 CPS Total: 9.3%Male: 7.5% Female: 10.9%Percent by grade:9th: th: 8.611th: th: 10.6
37 Risk of Pregnancy55% of adolescent mothers reported DV in past 12 monthsHighest among girls 11-1551% reported birth control sabotage53% of new, adolescent HIV cases are among females
38 Risk of Homicide and Suicide Teens ages 15 to 19Second leading cause of death is homicide22% of female victims killed by intimate partnersThird leading cause of death is suicide
39 Morgan Park High School In December 2010,Jade Hannah, age 17,her mother &her sixth grade sisterwere stabbed to death byJade’s 18-year-old boyfriend
40 Hirsch Metropolitan High School December 200919-year-old Hirsch graduate stabbed his two-month-old son in the neck and repeatedly stabbed and killed his girlfriend, Tanisha Edwards, age 18.School staff noticed Tanisha often came to school bruised and injured.
41 Does Dating Violence happen at school? 42% of boys and 43% of girls who reported dating violence said it happened at school or on school grounds.
42 Do students report violence to authority figures? Severe abuse, to family, teacher, social worker or policeGirls: 6%Boys: 11%Dating Violence30% told no one
43 CPS DV Policy, cont’d Perpetrator Follow investigation and incident reporting requirements in SCC.When appropriate, conduct a Functional Assessment and create a Behavior Intervention Plan.If victim’s education is being disrupted, consider transferring the perpetrator per Enrollment and Transfer Policy.
44 CPS DV Policy, cont’d Victim If student is injured or in imminent danger ofserious physical harm:Discuss student concerns re parental notificationNotify parents
45 Concerns about Disclosure Fear friends will tell abuser/side with abuserFear loss of respect of peers & adults/shame of acknowledging they are differentLGBTQ students fear being “outed”Fear of losing partnerFear of parental notification
46 Policy, cont’d CPS DV Policy, cont’d Offer Support Services to Victim Provide Domestic Violence Helpline number --Encourage student to tell parents
47 Student Supportive Services: CPS Providers Offer counseling to any student with a disability whose parent consentsOffer counseling to any non-disabled student without regard to parental consent
48 Are CPS providers limited to five 45 min Are CPS providers limited to five 45 min. sessions without parents’ consent?No, that provision of MHDDA doesn’t apply to schools, but to mental health facilities (those operated to treat people with mental illness).
49 QUIZMichael and Melissa having been dating off and on for more than a year. You witness Michael yanking Melissa by the hair and saying, “Shut up bitch” in the hallway.What do you do?
50 CPS HS students attempting suicide in past 12 months (2011) Total: 15.8%15.3% males16% females16.5% African Americans15.4% Hispanics17.8% of 11th graders
51 In a class of 30 HS students 9 will be thinking about suicide4 will attempt suicide in a school year2 will require medical treatmentFor every 3 students who attempt suicide,2 get up and go to school the next day
53 Myths re Youth Suicide Talking re suicide will encourage suicide. Students who talk about suicide are seeking attentionPeople who attempt suicide usually receive TxMost young people who die by suicide leave notesParents/caregivers know about their child’s suicidal behavior.Once someone decides to commit suicide, little or nothing that can be done to prevent it.
54 Psychopathology90% of youth who die by suicide experienced at least one mental disorder at the time of their death:Mood Disorders;Substance Related Disorders; andDisruptive Behavior Disorders.(Miller & Ekhart, 2009)
55 Major Depressive Disorder Not all depressed youth are suicidal and not all suicidal youth are depressed.However, approximately 42%- 66% of youth who die by suicide appear to have been experiencing some type of depressive disorder.(Miller & Ekhart, 2009)
56 Substance Abuse Alcohol/drugs and suicide are often closely related. Alcohol and other forms of substance abuse impair judgment.Alcohol is a factor in at least ¼ of youth suicides.(Miller & Ekhart, 2009)
58 African-American Males Group with most significant increases in suicidal completionages 15-19:234% increase
59 LGBTQ LGBTQ YouthHigher rates of suicidal ideation and attempt than heterosexual youth.20-40% more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexual youth.Data limitations make it difficult to draw conclusions about suicide completion.
60 Homeless & LGBTQ 11-35% of all homeless youth are LBGTQ 62% reported attempting suicide.All homeless youth have elevated rates of mental illness, violence, sexual exploitation and substance abuse.
61 Victims of Violence33% of sexually abused children show suicidal behavior at agesAdult women who report physical or emotional abuse as children are more likely to attempt suicide.Being a victim or witness of violence (shootings, stabbings, assault, etc.) associated with suicidal ideation and attempts.Victims of violence in dating relationships have an increased rate of suicide attempts.
62 When?For 1 in 3 youth who committed suicide, a crisis (break-up, argument) occurred the same day as the suicide.
63 When? Most often: Least often March-September Mondays December Before & during holidays\Weekends
64 Risk factors Access to lethal weapons Bullying Presence of firearms at homeSexual and Physical AbuseSubstance AbusePoor problem-solving and coping skillsLow self-esteemPresence of psychopathologyPrevious suicide attemptsHopelessnessFamily history of suicide or psychiatric illnessSocial isolationThe consistent finding of substantial presence of comorbid forms of psychopathology strongly indicates that suicide does not occur in isolation but rather is the by-product of other mental health psychiatric disorders and/ or psychological problems (Mazza, 2006)(Miller & Ekhart, 2009)
65 Warning Signs Rage, anger, seeking revenge Acting recklessly/ engaging in risky activitiesFeeling trapped, as if there’s no way outIncreasing alcohol or drug useWithdrawing from friends, family, or societyAnxiety and/or agitationInsomnia or sleeping excessivelyDramatic mood changeHopelessness
66 Protective Factors School connectedness Good relationships with peers Access to mental health servicesParent-family connectednessLack of access to lethal weaponsLikely to seek adult helpCultural or religious beliefsProblem-solving and coping skills
67 Suicidal Ideation Protocol TAKE ALL THREATS SERIOUSLY.DO NOT LEAVE THE STUDENT ALONE. Escort the student to the administrator’s office and/or counseling office. Place child under watch of an adult who will maintain CONSTANT supervision.Step 1Step 2Suicidal Ideation Protocol
68 Suicidal Ideation: Step 3: ASSESSMENT Judge, lecture, get angry DO NOT:Judge, lecture, get angryIgnore or minimizePromise secrecyLeave the suicidal person aloneStep 3: ASSESSMENT
69 Suicidal Ideation ASSESSMENT Connect with the student by demonstrating empathy, care, support and trust.Use effective listening skills.Respect developmental, cultural, and sexuality issues while gathering information.Be direct in questioning.
72 Ideation How often do you think about suicide? How long have these thoughts been going on?Describe the suicidal thoughts from the last 48 hours. The past month? The worst ever?
73 Plan Do you know when and where you would do it? Do you know how you would do it?Do you have the means to do it?Have you done any preparation?
74 Behaviors Have you ever attempted suicide? Have you ever aborted an attempt?Have you practiced or rehearsed?
75 Intent Assess extent to which they intend to carry out the plan. Assess whether they believe the plan is lethal (vs. self-injurious).
76 Suicidal Ideation ASSESSMENT Risk Level Risk/Protective Factors SuicidalityHighPsychiatric diagnoses with severe symptoms, or acute precipitating event; protective factors are not relevantPotential lethal suicide attempt or persistent ideation with strong intentModerateMultiple risk factors, few protective factorsSuicidal ideation with plan, but no intent or behaviorLowModifiable risk factors, strong protective factorsThoughts of death, no plan, intent or behavior
77 Suicidal Ideation: ASSESSMENT YES NO Based on your assessment is the student a danger to him/herself or others?YESNO
78 Risk Assessment: NoContact the parent/guardian to make them aware of the ideation.Determine who will follow up with student and monitor his/her behavior throughout the school day.Make appropriate referrals, if necessary.
79 Risk Assessment: YesSuicidal IdeationResponse Tree
80 Grant v. Board of Trustees of Valley View School Dist Grant v. Board of Trustees of Valley View School Dist., IL Appellate Court (1997)Students told School Counselor that HS senior made suicide threats and wrote suicide notesSchool Counselor spoke with student, advised mother to take student to hospital for drug OD treatmentDid not advise mother of suicide threatsStudent jumped off overpass to his death
81 Grant, cont’d Mother sued District and School Counselor for failing to Call ambulanceInform her of suicide threatsImplement a Suicide Prevention program
82 Public Employee Immunity Public employees and entities aren’t liable forInjuries caused by failure to make adequate mental examination to determine if person is danger to self or othersInjuries resulting from diagnosing or failing to diagnose mental illness or addiction
83 Public Employee Liability School employees are liable ifConduct is intentional or done with conscious disregard or indifference to student’s safetyThey knew or should have known that their conduct posed a high probability of serious physical harm to the student
84 Grant Majority, cont’d Failure to call ambulance School counselor’s conduct was not intentional or indifferent because she advised mother to take student to hospital
85 Grant Majority, cont’dSchool Counselor’s failure to advise mother of suicide threatsCourt found her conduct may have been negligent, but was not intentional or indifferent
86 Grant DissentDissenting Judge thought the School Counselor acted with deliberate indifference to the threat and should be held liable.She had “knowledge of an impending danger (suicide threats) but failed to exercise ordinary care to prevent it.”
87 Grant Court Directive“The suicide death of a teenager is tragic. School counselors and other school personnel should take every suicide threat seriously and take every precaution to protect the child.”
88 Mental Health & Developmental Disabilities Confidentiality Act §11. “Records and communications may be disclosed:(ii) when, and to the extent, a therapist, in his or her sole discretion, determines that disclosure is necessary to * * * protect the recipient or other person against a clear, imminent risk of serious physical or mental injury or disease or death being inflicted upon the recipient or by the recipient on himself or another[.]”The good faith of a therapist who discloses information “shall be presumed.”
89 MHDDCA“‘Therapist’ means a psychiatrist, physician, psychologist, social worker, or nurse providing mental health or developmental disabilities services or any other person not prohibited by law from providing such services or from holding himself out as a therapist if the recipient reasonably believes that such person is permitted to do so.”
90 Confidentiality Illinois School Code “No school student records or information contained therein” may be disclosed or released except to a school employee or official “with current demonstrable educational or administrative interest in the student, in furtherance of such interest.”
91 Disclosure of mental health records to Parent/Guardian Students under 12:√ parent/guardianStudents 12-17:•If student is informed and does not object• If counselor does not find compelling reason to deny access
92 Required Disclosures to Parents Current physical and mental conditionDiagnosisTreatment NeedsServices ProvidedServices Needed, including medication, if any
93 Albers v. Green (IL App. 2004)Seventh grader told School Social Worker he had been shoved and kicked and “would rather be dead than go to school.”SSW promised mother she would not disclose the names of the bullies.SSW gave the bullies’ names to the principal, who disciplined them.
94 Albers (cont’d) Parents removed student from school Sued principal, SW, Dist. for violating MHDDCA
95 Albers (cont’d)Court found SSW acted in good faith in disclosing the information because she thought the student was at risk of harm from shoving and kicking, and also because of his suicide threat.