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Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the neutron Slides by Malek MAZOUZ June 21 st 2007 Physics case n-DVCS experimental setup Analysis method Results and conclusions For JLab Hall A & DVCS collaborations Hall A Meeting

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Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering DVCS is the simplest hard exclusive process involving GPDs k k q GPDs pp Factorization theorem in the Bjorken regime Non perturbative description by GPDs GPDs give an access to quark angular momentum (Jis sum rule) less constrained GPDNo link to DIS

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DVCS and Bethe-Heitler The polarized cross-section difference accesses the Imaginary part of DVCS and therefore GPDs at x=±ξ Purely real and fully calculable Small at JLab energies (twist-3 term) The total cross-section accesses the real part of DVCS and therefore an integral of GPDs over x If handbag dominance

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0.3-0.91-0.04-0.17-0.07 Neutron Target Target neutron0.81-0.071.73 (Goeke, Polyakov and Vanderhaeghen) Model:

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n-DVCS experiment s (GeV²) Q² (GeV²) P e (Gev/c) Θ e (deg) -Θ γ* (deg) 4.221.912.9519.3218.254365 4.221.912.9519.3218.2524000 An exploratory experiment was performed at JLab Hall A on hydrogen target and deuterium target with high luminosity (4.10 37 cm -2 s -1 ) and exclusivity. Goal : Measure the n-DVCS polarized cross-section difference which is mostly sensitive to GPD E (less constrained!) E03-106 (n-DVCS) followed directly E00-110 (p-DVCS) which shows strong indications of handbag dominance at Q 2 about 2 GeV 2. (fb -1 ) x Bj =0.364 Hydrogen Deuterium (C. Muñoz-Camacho et al., PRL 97 (2006) 262002)

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Experimental apparatus LH 2 / LD 2 target Polarized Electron Beam Scattered Electron N Recoil nucleon detector Left HRS Electromagnetic Calorimeter The experimental resolution is good enough to identify DVCS events with M X 2 Beam energy = 5.75 GeV Beam polarization = 75% Beam current = ~ 4 μA Luminosity = 4. 10 37 cm -2.s -1 charged particle tagger

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p-DVCS and n-DVCS accidentals MN2MN2 M N 2 +t/2 d-DVCS Analysis method Contamination by M x 2 cut = (M N +M π ) 2 N + mesons (Resonnant or not)

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Helicity signal and exclusivity After : -Normalizing H 2 and D 2 data to the same luminosity -Adding Fermi momentum to H2 data 2 principle sources of systematic errors : -The contamination of π 0 electroproduction on the neutron (and deuteron). - The uncertainty on the relative calibration between H2 and D2 data n-DVCS d-DVCS

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Extraction results Exploration of small –t regions in future experiments might be interesting d-DVCS extraction results Deuteron moments compatible with zero at large -t F. Cano & B. Pire calculation Eur. Phys. J. A19, 423 (2004). PRELIMINARY

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Extraction results Results can constrain GPD models (and therefore GPD E) n-DVCS extraction results Neutron contribution is small and compatible with zero VGG Code : M. Vanderhaeghen, P. Guichon and M. Guidal GPD model : LO/Regge/D-term=0 Goeke et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys 47 (2001), 401. PRELIMINARY

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VGG Code GPD model : LO/Regge/D-term=0 Goeke et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys 47 (2001), 401. Systematic errors of models are not shown n-DVCS experiment results n-DVCS is sensitive to Jd p-DVCS is sensitive to Ju Complementarity between neutron and transversally polarized proton measurements

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Summary and conclusion n-DVCS is mostly sensitive to GPD E : the less constrained GPD and which is important to access quarks orbital momentum via Jis sum rule. Our experiment is exploratory and is dedicated to n-DVCS. n-DVCS and d-DVCS contributions are obtained after a subtraction of Hydrogen data from Deuterium data (no recoil detectors needed). First measurements of n-DVCS and d-DVCS polarized cross- sections difference. Neutron results can constrain GPD models (GPD E parametrization) Neutron experiments are mandatory complements to proton ones. - PRL draft will circulate in the next few weeks - New proposal for PAC-33 (6 GeV) in preparation (collaborators welcome…!)

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Extraction of observables MC sampling MC includes real radiative corrections (external+internal) Luminosity

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Analysis method accidentals p-DVCS events n-DVCS events d-DVCS events Mesons production M x 2 cut = (M N +M π ) 2

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Double coincidence analysis Hydrogen data Deuterium data Deuterium- Hydrogen simulation Nb of Counts M X 2 (GeV 2 ) M x 2 cut

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Helicity signal and exclusivity After : -Normalizing H 2 and D 2 data to the same luminosity -Adding Fermi momentum to H2 data 2 principle sources of systematic errors : -The contamination of π 0 electroproduction on the neutron (and deuteron). - The uncertainty on the relative calibration between H2 and D2 data n-DVCS d-DVCS

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π 0 to subtract π 0 contamination subtraction M x 2 cut =(M p +M π ) 2 H 2 data Subtraction of 0 contamination (1 in the calorimeter) is obtained from a phase space simulation which weight is adjusted to the experimental 0 cross section (2 in the calorimeter).

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π 0 contamination subtraction Unfortunately, the high trigger threshold during Deuterium runs did not allow to record all exclusive π 0 events (M X 2 <1.15 GeV 2 ) But : according to the procedure of π 0 contamination subtraction, we must have : H 2 data with M X 2 <1.15 GeV 2 Actually, we find : by comparing two samples of high energy π 0 in each case

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Exclusive π 0 asymmetry Well known from H 2 data D 2 data H 2 data

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sin(φ) and sin(2φ) moments Results are coherent with the fit of a single sin(φ) contribution

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Test of the handbag dominance : E00-110 Twist-2 contribution dominates the total cross-section and the cross-section difference. No Q 2 dependence of twist-2 and twist-3 terms p-DVCS experiment results C. Muňoz-Camacho et al., to appear in PRL (2007) Strong indications for handbag dominance

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VGG parametrisation of GPDs D-term Non-factorized t dependence Vanderhaeghen, Guichon, Guidal, Goeke, Polyakov, Radyushkin, Weiss … Double distribution : Profile function : Parton distribution Modelled using J u and J d as free parameters

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n-DVCS polarized cross-section difference

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d-DVCS polarized cross-section difference Prediction from F. Cano and B. Pire. Eur. Phys. J. A19, 423 (2004) Experimental results +

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π 0 electroproduction on the neutron Pierre Guichon, private communication (2006) Amplitude of pion electroproduction : α is the pion isospin nucleon isospin matrix π 0 electroproduction amplitude (α=3) is given by : Polarized parton distributions in the proton

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Triple coincidence analysis Identification of n-DVCS events with the recoil detectors is impossible because of the high background rate. Many Proton Array blocks contain signals on time for each event. Proton Array and Tagger (hardware) work properly during the experiment, but : Accidental subtraction is made for p-DVCS events and gives stable beam spin asymmetry results. The same subtraction method gives incoherent results for neutrons. Other major difficulties of this analysis: proton-neutron conversion in the tagger shielding. Not enough statistics to subtract this contamination correctly The triple coincidence statistics of n-DVCS is at least a factor 20 lower than the available statistics in the double coincidence analysis.

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Triple coincidence analysis One can predict for each (e,γ) event the Proton Array block where the missing nucleon is supposed to be (assuming DVCS event).

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Triple coincidence analysis Relative asymmetry (%) PA energy cut (MeV) After accidentals subtraction neutrons selection protons selection -proton-neutron conversion in the tagger shielding - accidentals subtraction problem for neutrons p-DVCS events (from LD2 target) asymmetry is stable

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Calorimeter energy calibration We have 2 independent methods to check and correct the calorimeter calibration 1 st method : missing mass of D(e,eπ - )X reaction Mp2Mp2 By selecting n(e,eπ-)p events, one can predict the energy deposit in the calorimeter using only the cluster position. a minimisation between the measured and the predicted energy gives a better calibration.

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Calorimeter energy calibration 2 nd method : Invariant mass of 2 detected photons in the calorimeter (π 0 ) π 0 invariant mass position check the quality of the previous calibration for each calorimeter region. Corrections of the previous calibration are possible. Differences between the results of the 2 methods introduce a systematic error of 1% on the calorimeter calibration. Nb of counts Invariant mass (GeV)

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