Presentation on theme: "Dr. Sofialeticia Morales Millennium Development Goals & Health Targets"— Presentation transcript:
1Dr. Sofialeticia Morales Millennium Development Goals & Health Targets Senior AdvisorMillennium Development Goals & Health TargetsAG/RES (XXXVII-O/07)POVERTY, EQUITY, AND SOCIAL INCLUSION: FOLLOW-UP TO THE DECLARATION OF MARGARITA
2What is PAHO’s stance on the MDGs? GlobalResponding to Global Commitments, harnessing international aid, Inter-Agency alliances and collaboration as part of the UN SystemWhat is PAHO’s stance on the MDGs?RegionalCommitment, monitoring regional progress, evidence based knowledge sharing. Go beyond the national average to highlighting the most vulnerable people and communitiesNationalSupport the development of national policies and programs to improve health and development through intersectorial strategies.LocalSupport mayors, empower the most vulnerable communities, work with grassroots and civil society to develop key interventions to bring change under the framework of health and development.
5What has happened since the Millennium Summit …and productivity increasesOver the last two decades therehas only been a 2% decreasein the percentage ofthe population living inpoverty & extreme povertyAnd poverty & extreme poverty reducedLatin America: Poverty & Extreme Poverty (Change )Percentage PeoplePopulation VolumeExtreme PovertyPovertyPercentageMillionsGini Coefficient: Inequity among Regions 1990, 2000 & 2015Our countries haveadded 69 millionnew poor in the last26 yearsProspective studies using the Gini coefficient forecast that in 2015 Latin America will continue being the most inequitable region on the planet
6MDG 1 HUNGERLATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (25 COUNTRIES):UNDERWEIGHT CHILDREN UNDER 5, a/ (In percentages)While sufficient foodstuffs are produced in the region to fulfill the caloric requirements of three times the current population, 53 million people have inadequate access to food.SOURCE: ECLAC
7MDG 1 HUNGERMalnutrition begins in utero: About 17% of newborns in developing countries are born with low birth weight(UNICEF, 2006)
8MDG 1 HUNGER Anemic Populations in Latin America Last reported or estimated dataLess than 5 yearsPregnantNot Pregnant27%24%18%
9MDG 1 HUNGER Working at the Local Level Ventanilla, Peru Responding to the commitments and priorities of the national public agenda to reduce chronic malnutrition in children with coordination between the national government and the Callao region.Work is being carried out at the inter-sectoral and interagency level in Ventanilla to tackle the social determinants of health, promoting interagency work with UNICEF and UNEP
10MDG 1 HUNGER Areas of Collaboration Unite forces: Poverty-Hunger-MalnutritionNutritional and Food Safety – PRESANCA in Central AmericaEvidence and Lessons LearnedCHILE – JUNAEB, BRAZIL – Bolsa Familia, MEXICO - OportunidadesPerú – Crecer, Uruguay PANES alfabetización y salud El Salvador: Red Solidaridad Bolivia, ColombiaEarly Childhood Development Network, Commission of Social Determinants of Health,CANADA: “Putting Science into action”: Fraser Mustard & Stuart ShanikerV Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of Education (CIDI)Inter Agency Collaboration (OAS, PAHO/WHO, UNICEF, UNESCO-OREALC) with the leadership of Canada, Chile and Colombia.Areas of Collaboration
11MDG 2 EDUCATION School completion among women Selected countries Gwatkin DR, Rutstein S, Johnson K, Suliman E, Wagstaff A, Amouzou A. Socio-Economic Differences in Health, Nutrition and Population within Developing Countries. An Overview. The World Bank, 2007; Washington DC.
12MDG 2 EDUCATION Working at the Local Level Canelones, Uruguay At the national level, Uruguay promotes MDG achievement through Faces, Voices and Places Initiative under the Healthy and Productive communities framework.Community empowerment through health promoting schools and productiveInitiatives prove its impact on reducing poverty and promote development.
13MDG 2 EDUCATION MDG 2 EDUCATION Areas of Collaboration Strategic Alliance Health EducationInter-American Contest of Best Practices for the Promotion of Health in the ambit 130 experiences, 10 winning experiences / Nicaragua, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Honduras, Argentina etc/ PAHO/WHO, UNESCO-OREALC, UNICEF, CAB, Brazil: Facendo EscolaHealth Promoting Schools Network – Friendly and Healthy SchoolsEvidence and Lessons Learned:Chile: Intersectorial Alliance, Brazil: Technical Ministerial Meeting,Trinidad & Tobago,The 1rst Caribbean Regional Curriculum Framework for Health and Family EducationEDUCN/Caribbean Education Sector: HIV and AIDS Coordination Network/ UNESCO – EDC – PAHO/WHO – St. Lucia
14MDG 3 GENDER EQUALITY in Percentages PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION AND INCOME THAT CORRESPONDS TO EACH SEX PER QUINTILILin PercentagesFuente: Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL),sobre la base de tabulaciones especiales de las encuestas de hogares.
15PROPORTION OF FEMALES HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD BY INCOME LEVEL MDG 3 GENDER EQUALITYPROPORTION OF FEMALES HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD BY INCOME LEVELLatin America (simple average 12 countries A/),Urban Areas 1990, 2002 & 2005
16MDG 3 GENDER EQUALITY% of women that sometime between 15 and 49 years of age that have been victims of violence by their husband or partner
17MDG 3 GENDER EQUALITY Working at the Local Level Canton Corredores, CR In the Canton of Corredores an initiative has been developed to strengthen the capacity of women for decision making and enhaced economic standing.This has been done through a sustainable food production projects within the framework of nutrition and food security and healthy settings.These give an important focus on priorities such as safe drinking water and solid waste collection and management.
18MDG 3 GENDER EQUALITY Areas of Collaboration Consolidated Alliance CIM and PAHO’s Gender and Ethnicity TeamPromotion of the adoption of the Vaccine Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)/ Cervical Cancer measuresBest Practices Contest for Health and Gender Equality: Let’s Get RealEvidence and Lessons LearnedBolivia: Building bridges between the community and health services with a gender and culturally sensitive approachMexico: Campaign for the prevention and control of diabetes in womenDeclaration of Ministers of the Americas at the Meeting on Prevention of Violence and Injuries, México, March, 2008.MDGs Report 2006: A look at gender equity and women self-determination in Latin America and the Caribbean/ CEPAL with Inter- Agency Collaboration 2006
1935 COUNTRIES& TERRITORIES IN LAC: Infant Mortalilty per 1000lb, 2007 MDG 4 INFANT MORTALITY35 COUNTRIES& TERRITORIES IN LAC: Infant Mortalilty per 1000lb, 2007Seven countries have a child mortality rate in children less than five years of age of 30 or more per 1000 live births;Mortality in children less than five years of age has decreased from 31.7 to 27.0 per 1000 births (postnatal)Despite the decrease, every year 450,000 children die in hour hemisphere and 92% of the death occur in LA and the CaribbeanProgresos en la reducción de la mortalidad infantil entre y reducción pendiente hasta 2015 a (Indicador 14, ODM)
20Inequities are more pronounced at the MDG 4 INFANT MORTALITYBOLIVIA 2001,Municipalities by Infant Mortality RateBOLIVIA 2001,Municipalities by Infant Mortality Rate & Percentageof the population witn unmet basic needs (NBI)BOLIVIA 2001,Municipalities by percentage of the populationwith unmet basic needs (NBI)Inequities are more pronounced at thelocal level (NBI – Infant Mortality)BOLIVIA 2001,Municipalities according to Infant Mortality Rate& population with unmet Basic Needs99.77 to 100%There is a strong correlation between the infant mortality rate in a municipality & the % of the population with unmet basic needs
21MDG 4 INFANT MORTALITY Working at the Local Level Chalcataya, Bolivia Has chosen the Healthy and Productive Communities Network to promoting changes in the quality of life in Chacaltaya through productive projects that generate employment and income.Using this experience as a model, the goal is to replicate the approach in other communities of the Altiplano (Pampas Aullaga) and Chaco (Yapiroa) regions.There is also support for the national Zero Malnutrition Program promoted by the Ministry of Health.
22MDG 5 MATERNAL HEALTH Haiti & Guatemala Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Guyana, & Suriname
23MDG 5 MATERNAL HEALTHPercentage of youth (15-19 year) that are already mothers or are pregnant by educational level40% of unsafe abortions are done to women between the ages of 15 and 2440% of young mothers are anemicAdolescent mothers are 2x as likely to dieas a result of pregnancy related complications,this is higher among those under 15Fuente: DHS
24MDG 5 MATERNAL HEALTH Working at the Local Level El Cotorro, Habana Cuba has joined the initiative with the Cotorro community. This community was selected because of the innovative way in which the socioeconomic vulnerability challenges have been address.The community is a suburban area and sets an example for its high coverage of health services and low morbidity and mortality rates.
25MDGs 4 & 5 Maternal Health Infant Mortality UNDP/PAHO/WHO/CEPAL/UNICEF are focusing their work to collaboratively help advance in the reduction of infant mortality and the improvement of maternal health. We ask the OAS to join this effortMeeting of United Nations Regional Directors and the Inter American System (June 24-25, 2008)Evidence and Best PracticesCasas Hogar for Mothers (ambulatory)Centros de DesarrolloUnidades MovilesBarrio Adentro / Misiones
26MDG 6 HIV/AIDSIt is stimated that 1.6% of women & 0.7% of men are infected with HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean, and that 0.3% of women and 0.5% of man in Latin AmericaSteep increase of new cases (adolescent, MSM, SW, IDU women and others)
27Country Classification according to HIV and Tuberculosis epidemiology MDG 6 HIV/AIDSCountry Classification according to HIV and Tuberculosis epidemiologyCountries with Generalized HIV EpidemicCountries with Concentrated or Low Level HIV EpidemicHigh TB Incidence*Low&Medium TB Incidence aHigh TB Incidence *Low and Medium TB IncidenceaHaitiDominican RepublicHondurasGuatemalaGuyanaSurinameJamaicaTrinidad y TobagoBarbadosBahamasBelizeBrazilMéxicoEl SalvadorPeruBoliviaNicaraguaParaguayEcuadorCubaCosta RicaChileUruguayArgentinaVenezuelaPanamáPuerto RicoCanadaColombiaUnited States of America* Estimated TB incidence over 50 per 100,000; a Estimated TB incidence below 50 per 100,000 population
28MDG 6 HIV/AIDS Working at the Local Level Rosario de Mora, Santiago Texacuangos, San SalvadorHas launched an integrated strategy for municipal health development.The strategy employs an intersectoral, multiprogrammatic approach toinfluence health determinants through participatory activitiesThese are centered on situation analysis, the identification of problems, and support for the design of local health plans grounded in the renewed PHC, reducing inequities, and extending social protection through a family health model.
29MDG 6 HIV/AIDS Areas of Collaboration Support the promotion and protection of Human RightsStrengthen inter-sectorial action (health-education-labour- finance-social development) as a means to reduce the number of new cases, particularly in the school ambitPolitical Advocacy to revitalize the HIV/AIDS prevention agendaMexico City’s International HIV/AIDS Conference August
30MDG 6 TUBERCULOSIS New Reported TB Cases Americas, 2006 Total: 224.548 HaitíDom. Rep.MéxicoHondurasEcuadorPerúBoliviaBrasilNicaraguaGuyanaColombiaGuatemala80%Total:PeruBrazil50%Source: Global Tuberculosis Control. WHO Report 2008.30
31Malaria Situation in the Americas 2000-2006 MDG 6 MALARIAMalaria Situation in the Americas4 Countries with >75% decrease in total casesIncreased migration of people makes epidemiologic surveillance and monitoring increasingly difficult4 Countries with % decrease in total cases7 Countries with <50% decrease in total cases18 countries transmission-free21 endemic countries11 countries South America (73% cases P. vivax)8 countries Central America (94% cases P. vivax)2 countries in Hispaniola (almost 100% P. falciparum)70% cases in the Region P. vivax29% P.falciparum<1% P. malariae(Brazil,Guyana & Suriname)Active participation of many sectors, particularly civil society and communities, remains lacking in many countries.6 Countries with increases18 Malaria-free countriesDecrease P. falciparum fatality rate from 13 to 4 per 10,00020% decrease in malaria cases for the entire Region
32MDG 6 MALARIA Working at the Local Level V Sanitary Region Objective To prevent the reintroduction of DDT for malaria control through the demonstration and evaluation of alternative and integrated methods of vector control that are cost effective, replicable, and sustainable.BeneficiariesRural populations affected by malaria, public institutions that have to face the problem of malaria control, populations affected by the use of the DDT in the past, workers of vector control who have been exposed to DDT, women, and children who live in unhealthy settings close to vector breeding sites.
3452.7 million of people without access to safe drinking water MDG 7 ENVIRONMENT52.7 million of people without access to safe drinking waterCon Acceso*: Hogares y otros accesos a través de pilas, fuentes públicas y pozos protegidos.Fuente: Evaluación de Medio Término del Programa Conjunto de Monitoreo (PCM) del abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento de OMS y UNICEF (2006)
35MDG 7 ENVIRONMENT Working at the Local Level El Bongo Pencalá Los EncuentrosGuatemalaScarcity of safe and reliable sources of safe drinking water is one of the main problems in these communities.Sanitation is also a key problem causes increased prevalence of preventable diseasesOf the main obstacles for resolving these issues is the construction and community management of aqueducts to channel water sources available but currently out of reach.
36MDG 7 ENVIRONMENT Areas of Collaboration Meeting of Ministers of Health and Environment OAS-PAHO/WHO-UNEP to strengthen the alliance Health EnvironmentWorking with the Department of Sustainable Development in the water and sanitation initiative. (OAS, PAHO,UNEP.
37MDG 8 PARTNERSHIPS Working at the Local Level Nabon, Azuay Work is being carried out in the municipality of Nabón in Azuay Province, which has a database, maps, social indicators, and an intersectoral, interagency intervention proposal with political backing and localinvestment.National and international partnerships for development and inter-agency and intersectoral collaboration have been key for the achievements. Although progress has been made these partnerships need to be strengthened and shared with other communities through out the region
38MDG 8 PARTNERSHIPS From The Millennium Declaration to Local Action: Pool political will, technical expertise and targeted financial resources to extend the Faces, Voices and Places initiative to the poorest communities in each country. That no country is left out of this initiativeTo work in the Caribbean a new strategy for FVP with the MDGs Plus StrategyTo work together to reinforce the role of the Inter American system in empowering Haiti.Address poverty and social inclusion in areas that are predominantly populated by indigenous populations, transcend borders and are marked by biodiversity and are chronically neglected. La Mosquitia in Central America, the Andean Antiplano, the South American Chaco and the Amazon Region.POVERTY, EQUITY, AND SOCIAL INCLUSION
39MDG 8 PARTNERSHIPS Inter Agency – Inter Sectorial Collaboration Mechanism:For advocacy & commitmentTo include pro-tempore presidents of ministerial meetings