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CONTENTS Introduction Section 1: Aspirations or overall aims

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0 Working Document for Preparation of the Plan of Action of the Social Charter of the Americas

1 CONTENTS Introduction Section 1: Aspirations or overall aims
Section 2: Areas of action -Employment -Social protection -Education -Health -Housing and basic public services -Food and nutrition Section 3: Indispensable conditions - Economic growth with equity - Democracy and participation **- Cultural development {{This is shown as “culture and diversity” in the Word document}}** - Sustainable development and environment - Cooperation

2 INTRODUCTION In June 2012, the OAS General Assembly adopted the Social Charter of the Americas and instructed the Executive Secretariat for Integral Development (SEDI) to prepare an initial draft Plan of Action to be presented on August 31, 2012, and to be negotiated by the Joint Working Group of the Permanent Council and the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI). In compliance with that mandate, SEDI, through its Department of Social Development and Employment, has submitted a proposal for the structure of the Plan of Action of the Charter, which is attached to this working document.

3 Steps in the preparation of the document
An exhaustive analysis of the Social Charter’s rich content identified: (1) the aspirations or overall aims to be reached; (2) the areas of action or priorities to be addressed; and (3) the indispensable conditions necessary to enable these actions to bear fruit. The various topics addressed in the Social Charter were examined in the light of social development efforts carried out by the major forums and international and hemispheric organizations. To this end, the Joint Working Group reviewed recent publications and studies related to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other relevant documents from ECLAC, UNDP, ILO, PAHO, FAO, IDB, and the World Bank. On that basis, the Group succeeded in: Describing the present status of the social goals and challenges, highlighting successes and major areas of difficulty; numerous indicators were studied for this purpose. Identifying a number of strategic lines of action for the various topics, which can be seen as a preliminary draft of the priorities or goals of the Plan of Action. These strategic lines of action stem from the Social Charter itself, from the declarations of the Summits of the Americas and of the relevant OAS ministerial meetings, and from documents of those international organizations.

4 Rationale for the structure
This document has three sections, each addressing a range of aspects of the Social Charter; these are the sections proposed for the Plan of Action. I. The first section contains the aspirations and overall aims set forth in the Social Charter: “The member states will strengthen and foster policies and programs directed towards the achievement of societies that offer all people opportunities to benefit from sustainable development with equity and social inclusion” **(Art. 3, Ch. 1) {{this was found in Art. 3, not 4}},** making it possible to respond to the legitimate aspiration to social justice of the peoples of the Americas (Art. 1, Ch. 1). II. Realizing these aspirations requires, on the one hand, guaranteeing equitable access to quality social services and, on the other hand, generating opportunities for individuals to attain full autonomy and sustainable well-being. For that purpose, the state has a number of social policy action areas that are set forth in the second section of this document: education, health, employment, social protection, housing and basic public services, food and nutrition. III. There are a number of indispensable conditions for making these social policy interventions effective, sustainable, and successful in realizing the overall aspirations of equity, social inclusion, and poverty eradication. These conditions are set forth in section three of the document and include economic growth with equity, democracy and participation, culture and diversity, sustainable development and environment, and cooperation. Each section provides: (1) a description of the present status and pending challenges, illustrated with recent statistics; and (2) a table of the major problem areas and proposed strategic lines of action to address them.

5 The sections are interdependent
The sections are interdependent. The aspirations cut across the areas of intervention; that is, when speaking of actions on education or any other topic, equity, inclusion, and fighting poverty should remain the supra-objective. Actions related to the indispensable conditions, i.e., strengthening democracy, are understood as means of achieving these ultimate aims, and vice versa.


7 The aspirations or overall aims of the Social Charter
Section 1 The aspirations or overall aims of the Social Charter EQUITY AND EQUALITY SOCIAL JUSTICE “The peoples of the Americas legitimately aspire to social justice and their governments have a responsibility to promote it.” (Art.1) “The member states have the responsibility to promote and achieve social development with equality and social inclusion for all.” (Art. 1, Ch. 3) “The recognition of equality of people within diversity is a central premise for the democracies of the region.” (Art. 4, Ch. 4) INCLUSION AND NONDISCRIMINATION “The member states will strengthen and foster policies and programs directed towards the achievement of societies that offer all people opportunities to benefit from sustainable development with equity and social inclusion.” **(Art. 3, Ch. I) {not found in Art. 4}** “…the need to combat discrimination and social exclusion and to foster inclusion.” (Preamble) FIGHTING POVERTY “The peoples of the Americas have the right to development in the framework of solidarity, equity, peace, and freedom, and the Member States have the responsibility to promote it with a view to eliminating poverty, especially extreme poverty, and achieving a decent standard of living for all of our people.” (Art. 1, Ch. 1)

8 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Latin America and the Caribbean make up the most inequitable region on the planet. According to the most recent figures, the lowest-income 40% of the population receives, on average, 15% of total income, while the 10% of the population at the very top of distribution has a third of total income. In addition, the average income of the wealthiest quintile is 18.3 times that of the poorest quintile.

9 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Distributive inequality is heterogeneous in the countries of the region. The greatest shares of income in the four poorest deciles are around 20% at the top end, while at the lower end they do not exceed 12%. At the lower end, the share of the richest decile does not exceed 25%, while at the upper end it exceeds 40%. The various synthetic inequality indexes clearly show this heterogeneity.

10 Section – Present situation in the Hemisphere
During the 1990s, and until the first years of the 21st century, inequality in the region showed either marked downward rigidity or a slight tendency to rise. The years 2002 and 2003 were a turning point in which inequality began to lessen in many countries. Although the magnitude is small, and insufficient to change the status of Latin America as the region with the greatest inequality, the lessening of inequality contributes to a favorable scenario, especially considering the prolonged absence of overall distributive improvements. The trend toward improved distribution in the region has not been altered by the economic crisis.

11 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
At the hemispheric level there was, until 2008, an acceleration in the reduction of extreme poverty that augured accomplishment of the objective set in the MDGs (to halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people living on less than 1 PPP a day). In 2010, poverty and indigence decreased in the region, in keeping with the recovery of economic growth. Thus, both indicators are at their lowest level in 20 years. Between 1990 and 2010, poverty fell from 48.4% to 31.4% of the population and indigence fell from 22.6% to 12.3%. Projections at the end of 2011 indicate that the poverty rate will fall further, reaching 30.4%, while indigence will grow to 12.8%, which means 174 million inhabitants living in poverty, 73 million of them in extreme poverty or indigence. (Panorama Social 2011, ECLAC) Since the economic crisis, economic recovery has been reflected (at least in part) by poverty indicators. For the year 2009, the poverty rate was down by 1.6 percentage points, and the indigence rate by This means seven million fewer persons living in poverty, and three million fewer in indigence. Although the drop in poverty is due mostly to growth in average household income, the reduction in inequality has played an increasingly important role in this evolution.

12 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
However: Aggregate regional statistics mask different levels of poverty and extreme poverty among countries and between distinct population groups as well as different trends and rates of reduction.

13 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Poverty is not uniformly distributed throughout the population; certain groups are especially affected: children, women, persons living in rural areas, and persons belonging to certain ethnic groups. The overrepresentation of these groups among the poor has increased.

14 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Persons with disabilities are another group especially affected by poverty and exclusion: Persons with disabilities are excluded from social and economic life (this exclusion often affects not only them but their families and communities as well), so they usually end up excluded from anti-poverty measures; Disability and poverty form a vicious circle. Poverty often leads to disability, which then traps people in poverty. The lack of social protection systems that would cover costs stemming from disability, including technical aids and rehabilitation services, contributes to this cycle, so that these costs fall to the family unit, the almost inevitable consequences being poverty and social exclusion for the entire family unit. Persons with disabilities also run a higher risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, because of physical abuse and a lack of interventions and appropriate extension activities aimed at prevention. The scarce available statistics indicate that, for every five persons living in poverty, one has a disability; this rate is twice as high as that of the general population (RIADIS).

15 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
The internationally agreed MDG goal concerning lowering total poverty in the region has not been reached; in terms of both poverty and extreme poverty, the various countries show very disparate degrees of progress.

16 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
There is a growing feminization of poverty. More women than men are living in poverty and indigence, and this disparity has increased in recent years.

17 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Another risk factor for falling into poverty is old age. Older people have a harder time earning their own income from work. The high rates of informal employment and low rates of enrollment in social security aggravate the situation, because workers in these sectors are not provided with contributory pensions. In Latin America, over 10% of men over age 60 (in urban areas) have no income of their own, while this rate is more than double for women over 60: 25%. The higher proportion of women among persons over 60 with no income of their own is closely related to the fact that women usually handle most of the tasks of care and reproduction and therefore make lower pension contributions.

18 Section 1 – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Gender roles remain deeply rooted and directly affect the well-being of women and men. Women engaged in domestic activities, whether paid or unpaid, are overrepresented among the indigent and the poor. Over 30% of women in urban areas, and over 40% in rural areas, have no income of their own, while only 10% and 14% of men, respectively, are in the same situation. Women fall into informal and less productive employment more often than men, which means they have smaller social benefits and receive lower wages; this puts them at higher risk. Women receive less than 32% of total household income.

19 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action The principal challenge for Latin America and the Caribbean is sustainably overcoming total poverty, which stems mostly from great inequality in the distribution of wealth and income. Several countries of the region showed improved income distribution but half of the countries did not make significant progress and only three of the seven relatively more developed countries had a drop in the Gini index. Not all countries move at the same pace in overcoming poverty. The countries with the highest level of extreme poverty also have less economic dynamism and have not progressed sufficiently to meet the goals in terms of reducing extreme poverty. Within countries, evolution is not uniform; women, children, indigenous groups, and inhabitants of rural areas lag farthest behind. The countries of Latin America have very inequitable income distribution. Changes in recent years have led to reduced distributive inequality, mainly because of improved distribution of employment income and the redistributive role played by the state through money transfers. Reducing income inequity (Social Charter) Narrowing the gaps and dealing in a comprehensive manner with the deficiencies and underdevelopment addressed in the Millennium Development Goals; placing special emphasis on at-risk groups and their empowerment and participation. Addressing three basic dimensions of equality: equal rights—as the regulatory framework for equal opportunity; reducing gaps to achieve effective equality; and considering the well-being of future generations through sustainable development. These three dimensions are the pillars of socially and environmentally sustainable development. Adopting policies to promote inclusion and to prevent, fight, and eliminate all types of intolerance and discrimination, especially discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity, or race (Social Charter). Section 1

20 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action The progress made in reducing poverty before the crisis has brought attention to the deficiencies that have affected discrete groups, such as women heads of household, children, indigenous peoples, and the populations of relatively less developed territories. Female-headed households are poorer than those headed by men. There is a relative increase in the rate of poverty among women as compared to men. Women, particularly those of indigenous and African descent, are concentrated in the segments with the lowest income, the lowest degree of protection, and the least opportunities to organize and represent their interests. Promote social inclusion of at-risk groups, such as persons with disabilities, the elderly, children, women, young people, groups of indigenous and African descent, and rural and migrant populations. Strengthen women’s capacity to generate their own income and control their assets and resources (economic autonomy), to control their bodies (physical autonomy), and to participate fully in decisions that affect their lives and affect them collectively, that is, decision-making autonomy. Affirmative action policies to facilitate women’s incorporation into the labor market and thus strictly enforce the principle of equal pay for men and women. Eliminate stereotypes as to male and female roles in all instructional settings. Policies to create the conditions and means to replace unpaid work, averting both the double workday and women’s disincentive to seek employment and enter the labor market. Section 1



23 Section 2 – Employment: Present situation in the Hemisphere
The region has reduced its levels of open unemployment, to 6.8% in 2011, a level that had not been seen since the 1990s. In the first decade of the 21st century, they even reached 13%. However, there are strong differences according to population group. Unemployment has a greater impact on women, youth, and the most poor. On average, female unemployment is 1.4 times higher than male unemployment. Latin America (16 countries) – Rates of total and youth urban unemployment by sex. Year 2010 (percentages) Youth unemployment is twice as high as total unemployment and three times as high as adult unemployment.

24 Section 2 – Employment: Present situation in the Hemisphere
.. the main problem is job insecurity, with very high rates of informal employment. Informal employment reaches 50% and is concentrated in informal-sector enterprises; however, the percentage of informal employment in the formal sector (12.3%) is of concern, because it shows the degree of noncompliance with social and labor regulations, especially in terms of payments into social security accounts. Latin America (16 countries) – Informal employment makeup. Circa 2010 (percentage of nonfarm employment) Latin America (16 countries) – Regional informal employment among youth ages 15 to 24. Circa 2010 (percentage of nonfarm employment) Informal jobs are characterized by low productivity, low income, instability, insecurity, and lack of protection…. Informal employment is more prevalent among young people. 6 of every 10 working young persons have informal jobs.

25 Section 2 – Employment: Present situation in the Hemisphere
Informal employment is also more common among women, who also receive lower pay than men for work of equal value – the wage gap persists.

26 Section 2 – Employment: Present situation in the Hemisphere
The worrisome situation of the most poor Over 25% of the employed population lives in poverty or indigence. Employment income is not sufficient to bring them out of poverty. The rate of participation in the labor market is lower among the most poor (and, within this group, among women) and increases as income increases. Unemployment and informal employment are higher among the most poor and drop as income increases.

27 Section 2 – Employment: Present situation in the Hemisphere
The situation is disproportionately severe in rural areas.

28 Section 2 – Employment: Present situation in the Hemisphere
Other pending challenges: Youth inactivity: 20 million “Ninis,” youth who neither study nor work (6.9 million are unemployed and 13 million neither study nor look for work). Of these, 2 out of 3 are women. Child labor: 14 million children in Latin America (approximately 10% of all children between ages 5 and 17). Of these, 9.4 million do dangerous jobs that place their physical and psychological well-being in jeopardy. Forced labor: 1.8 million people in Latin America are victims of forced labor, representing 9% of the world’s total forced laborers. Freedom to unionize: 51% of total world complaints to the ILO regarding the freedom to unionize between 1951 and 2005 came from Latin America and the Caribbean. (ILO 2006)

29 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action High levels of informal employment, in sectors with low productivity, low remuneration, disregard of labor law, poor health and safety conditions in the workplace, and no social security. Informal employment exists in both informal and formal enterprises. It represents a deficit of decent work. Insufficient generation of quality jobs, producing a strong push toward the informal sector and undermining anti-poverty efforts (most family income stems from compensation in the labor market). Promote progressive regularization of the informal economy, recognizing its heterogeneous and multidimensional nature, through policies such as: incentives to regularize enterprises; registry and information systems to facilitate regularization (single windows); and access to credit increase social protection coverage improve health and safety conditions in the workplace strengthen workplace inspection and bring about full compliance with labor law. (Complements Social Charter, Ministers of Labor, and Summits) Strengthen active labor market policies designed to help the unemployed find jobs more quickly, to prevent employees from becoming unemployed, and to foster job growth. These policies include: Vocational training, which should be responsive to the development agenda (technological, industrial) and requirements of the productive sector Employment and job-exchange services to connect job-seekers with vacancies in the most efficient manner Labor market information systems Temporary employment programs (associated with public works) Support to self-employment and promotion of microenterprise Improve labor market participation among the poorest and most at-risk populations, including increased rates of participation and productivity. Vocational training, occupational reintegration, social protection, and support for dependent care.

30 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Unemployment, underemployment, and informal employment are forms of exclusion from the labor market, and are closely tied to poverty and discrimination. Disproportionate levels for women, youth, and the poor (and cross-cut by other forms of social exclusion). A large part of inequality is generated in the labor market. Youth are the most affected by unemployment and informal employment, although they are the most educated generation in the region’s history. This is feeding enormous frustration and has serious repercussions for democracy and development. Very high levels of inactivity among young people (“ninis”), masking great hopelessness. Eliminate discrimination in the labor market. Strengthen institutions designed to fight discrimination (such as workplace inspection), promote antidiscrimination and affirmative action policies, develop active employment policies that deal with the socioeconomic and cultural reality of groups subjected to discrimination in the labor market, and guarantee them access under equal conditions. Reduce inequality between men and women in the workplace, which means increasing women’s rates of participation and employment, bringing about equal pay for equal work, and reducing rates of informal employment. Some measures: Promote more equitable distribution of job and family responsibilities (support to dependent care) Strengthen the gender perspective in labor and employment policies Ensure that workplaces are free of violence and harassment in any form. Promote and improve young people’s participation in the labor market. This includes: Improving the quality and relevance of education and technical and vocational training Strengthening labor market exchanges to help them find better jobs more quickly Improving access to and coverage of social protection Providing incentives for hiring young people Fostering entrepreneurship.

31 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Noncompliance with labor law and fundamental labor rights and principles (elimination of child labor and forced labor; freedom to unionize; nondiscrimination) Child labor and forced labor persist in the region. Challenges to the freedom to unionize and to bargain collectively Effective application of labor law and respect for the fundamental labor rights and principles set forth in the 1998 ILO Declaration. Eliminate child labor. Requires multisectoral strategies, coordination among ministries of labor and institutions responsible for children, and institutional frameworks designed to prevent and eradicate child labor. Specific goal: Eradicate the worst forms of child labor no later than (Fourth Summit of the Americas) Eliminate forced labor. Includes legal measures, awareness campaigns, inspections, and sanctions. Specific goal: Eliminate forced labor by 2010 (Fourth Summit of the Americas) – Goal not met. Achieve effective respect for the freedom to unionize and bargain collectively. Improve protection for unions, including administrative and judicial resources, improve the quality of agreements, and promote autonomous conflict resolution. Strengthen cooperation and social dialogue among representatives of governments, workers, and employers.


33 Section 2 – SOCIAL PROTECTION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Contributory social protection Only 46% of the employed population is enrolled in social security. Labor markets have not yet succeeded in becoming a universal point of access to social protection systems. This is because social security coverage is strongly tied to formal employment.

34 Section 2 – SOCIAL PROTECTION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Low-income workers are markedly less often enrolled in social security: 20% of employed persons in the lowest-income quintile have social security, compared to 58% in the highest-earning quintile. Comparing 1990 to 2009, we see that this gap has grown significantly, so that social security has a clearly regressive aspect. In general terms, the workers who least often avail themselves of social security are those with the lowest income and the least education, working women with small children, the youngest workers, and members of the largest households, which usually have more dependents.

35 Section 2 – SOCIAL PROTECTION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Noncontributory social protection Over the last decade, numerous policies designed to strengthen the noncontributory pillar of the social protection system have been implemented. These policies are intended to break the intergenerational chain of poverty, to guarantee certain levels of well-being, and to reduce disparities caused by informal employment and the limited coverage of social security enrollment. Among these programs, conditional transfer programs stand out. The coverage of transfer programs is about 12% of households and represents 0.25% of the region’s GDP. These transfers seem to mitigate the risk to the most vulnerable populations and have a significant impact on the most underprivileged households, with a highly progressive distribution. Despite the impact of transfer programs, the countries of Latin America face serious tension between social spending under these programs and the fiscal capacity to increase tax revenues. The gap between those covered by contributory and noncontributory social protection systems is still very wide.

36 Section 2 – SOCIAL PROTECTION– Present situation in the Hemisphere
On average, 36% of households in 13 Latin American countries have no type of social protection (neither contributory nor noncontributory): they are not beneficiaries of transfer programs, none of their members is enrolled in contributory social protection systems, and they receive no retirement benefit or pension. The households with the lowest income have the least access to social protection programs: 48% of households in the first two quintiles have no member enrolled in social security and do not receive retirement benefits or public assistance transfers, versus 30% in the fourth and fifth quintiles.

37 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Coverage by contributory social protection systems is very low. Contributory social protection has regressive aspects; in most cases, those who most need social protection are those who end up excluded from it. Although there has been progress, noncontributory social protection remains insufficient. There are still entire households in which none of the members have social protection, neither contributory nor noncontributory. The nature of poverty is multidimensional and not static; therefore, social protection should adapt constantly to give appropriate coverage. Develop and implement comprehensive social protection policies and programs, based on the principles of universal coverage, solidarity, equality, nondiscrimination, and equity, placing priority on persons living in poverty and at risk, taking account of circumstances in each country. (Social Charter) Social development policies, programs, and plans of action intended to strengthen the family and its members. Understanding the family as a natural and basic social unit and the cornerstone of such efforts. (Social Charter) Social protection systems should be universal in their coverage, cooperative in their financing, and egalitarian in the guarantees they establish as rights of citizens. Work toward social protection and security systems that include a noncontributory, supportive component to reduce inequalities among the various strata of the population. Promote inclusive social protection that is sensitive to various forms and manifestations of exclusion; and foster an intergenerational approach, using a broad range of social protection instruments.


39 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere
Primary and secondary education By 2015, the region will meet the MDG of achieving universal primary education. In 2010, the net rate of enrollment in primary education reached 95% in the region. Some countries, however, do not have fully universal coverage at present. In addition, although practically all children are enrolled, not all complete this level. In 7 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, over 30% of children do not complete their primary education. Also, primary education is insufficient. The minimum level of education for appropriate incorporation into the labor market and a lower likelihood of poverty compared to the average is a completed secondary education, and at this level we are far from universal coverage; enrollment rates vary greatly between countries and population groups.

40 Completion of secondary education
Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere Completion of secondary education First stage (through grade 9 in most countries) In 25 of the 28 countries for which there are data, the first-stage completion rate is higher for the female population than for the male population. Second stage (grades 10 to 12, approx.) In Latin America and the Caribbean, enrollment in the higher stage of secondary education rose from 62% (1999) to 75% (2009). Still, enrollment does not equate to graduation. The rate of graduation from the upper secondary level varies greatly, from 39% to 70% of the theoretical population. The average for the 13 countries for which we have data shows that around half of young people complete this level. Again, as in North America, Western Europe, East Asia, and the Pacific, women graduate at a higher rate than do men.

41 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere
Early childhood education (ages 0 to 8) There is a growing consensus that the investment with the greatest “profitability,” social impact, and potential to reduce inequity and poverty is comprehensive early childhood care -- that is, quality care that includes nutrition, health, well-being, and education. This is one of the region’s great pending issues. As for preschool education (usually ages 4 and 5), coverage in the region is about 65%. Children under 4 require care that takes the same aspects into account, but not necessarily in an institutional setting. Data on coverage for ages 0 to 3 are very scarce. Early stimulation and basic health care are factors that greatly influence children’s future cognitive and affective development. This stage of life is key to a person’s future; this is when the person develops abilities that will later lead to high or low capacity for learning, socialization, integration, and citizenship. Good care at this stage is linked with higher rates of physical and mental health, less aggressiveness, better academic performance, more years in school, less likelihood of unemployment, higher income, lower rates of incarceration, and less illicit substance abuse. Having reliable quality care for their children under six facilitates women’s integration and autonomy and increases household resources.

42 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere
Quality of education Perhaps the greatest challenge facing the region is the need to improve the quality of education at all levels. Progress in coverage, universal enrollment, and improved access to the education system, which have brought about its massification “downward” and the addition of new generations of students with smaller cultural capital, have not necessarily been accompanied by investments that ensure the quality of education. Progress and massification in the education sector lead to higher aspirations and expectations for people, especially the youngest generations, who usually have attained a higher level of education than their parents did. If these expectations are not fulfilled in a second phase, in terms of job opportunities and adequate pay, expectations are frustrated and collective dissatisfaction grows. Linking education to the working world requires not only progress in the educational arena but also strengthening the labor market and greater coherence between educational offerings and the real requirements of each country’s production structure. Quality does not refer only to academic performance, although this is very important. It also refers to the values imparted, and to the training the student receives in critical and creative thinking, in teamwork, in using information and communications technologies, in valuing diversity and the rights of others, and in acting in behalf of his or her community.

43 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere
Quality of Education/Academic Performance. On average, students do not meet the minimum expectations in math, reading, and science, and too many have trouble answering even the simplest questions on those tests. With regard to PISA tests, the countries of Latin American perform below what would be expected for their levels of income and investment in education.

44 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere
Equality in education The intergenerational transmission of opportunities for well-being and a certain degree of inheritability of educational capital persist. The difference in secondary education completion rates among the various income quintiles, between rural and urban areas, and between indigenous and nonindigenous populations highlights this situation and the need for education to be a strong leveler of opportunities, not a perpetuator of inequality.

45 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere
The inheritability of human capital becomes more evident as education levels rise. Thus, the children of parents who have not completed primary school have around an 85% likelihood of completing primary school, while that likelihood grows to over 98% for children of parents with tertiary education. Children of parents who did not complete primary school have about a 30% likelihood of completing secondary school, while children of parents who completed at least their secondary education have more than a 90% likelihood of completing secondary school. In tertiary education, the gap is quite evident. While only fewer than 6% of children of parents with no tertiary education end up completing their higher education, this percentage rises to over 70% in the children of parents who completed tertiary education. Almost all countries, however, have examples of programs that promote equity and allow children and young people to overcome these risk factors.

46 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere

47 Section 2 – Education - Present situation in the Hemisphere

48 The region lags behind in terms of investment in scientific and technological research and development.

49 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action The region has made significant progress in coverage (access), especially at the primary and secondary levels. However, in terms of quality, the region faces enormous and pressing challenges. Completion of secondary education is a basic condition (or the minimum educational capital) for access to jobs that can keep people out of the poverty throughout their working lives. However, the rates of completion and relevance of secondary education are still too low. There is still relatively little access to comprehensive quality care in early childhood, which can reverse some of the effects of poverty and inequity and lay the foundations for healthy human development. Teacher training still has significant limitations in terms of meeting educational quality requirements. There also are no effective performance evaluation systems. Ensure access to quality education at all levels, with an inclusive, systemic, long-term approach. Bring about universal completion of the upper stage of secondary education. Find innovative ways to provide relevant secondary education for all, which means providing options that are consistent with the needs and lifestyles of young people, with links to the working world, making it possible to lower high dropout rates, and teaching skills that are in demand in the working world. Ensure access to quality comprehensive early childhood care (ages 0 to 8) for all population groups. Strengthen the teacher corps, paying attention to recruitment, training and continuing education, compensation, evaluation, and monitoring of teachers. Section 2

50 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Both the progress and skills acquired during the years of instruction and the levels of enrollment and attendance vary greatly according to the specifics of the family of origin. Of particular relevance are: Family income level Parents’ educational level Belonging to an indigenous group Belonging to a rural population As for equity, worrisome gaps persist (rural/urban, ethnic groups, and low-income groups). In terms of gender equality, however, the results have been good overall, except in a few countries. Compared to other regions of the world, there is little investment in scientific research and development, and few people are trained in math, science, engineering, technology, and research. This affects the capacity of countries and citizens to innovate, to compete in the global economy, and to secure decent, well-paying jobs. Promote greater access to tertiary, technical, and vocational education, in the shortest time possible, with particular focus on at-risk groups and those with special educational needs, using distance education, among other modalities. (Fourth Summit of the Americas) Promote a social commitment to education, creating the conviction that the countries of the region will achieve their full development only through quality education for all. Increase investments in education, scientific infrastructure, and applied research. (Social Charter) Promote increased international student exchanges to foster better learning opportunities for all. (Fourth Summit of the Americas) Section 2


52 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Sexual and reproductive health In Latin America and the Caribbean there is no clear progress toward the objective of improving sexual and reproductive health. Maternal mortality and teen fecundity in the region, even if we look only at regional and national averages, are much higher than would be expected given the levels of fecundity and mortality, and no conclusive downward trends were found in recent decades. In 2010, the region was still quite far from meeting the MDGs in this area. Sexual and reproductive health: Maternal Mortality As for the maternal mortality goal, it has not even been cut by half, when the goal for 2015 was a 75% reduction. Rate of maternal mortality, 1990, 2000, and 2010 (Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, women between the ages of 15 and 49) 1990 2000 2010

53 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Not only has there been scant progress in reducing maternal mortality in the region, but such mortality affects neither all countries nor all groups equally. National differences The countries have very disparate rates and trends. Some countries have even had an increase in maternal mortality in recent years.

54 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
B) Differences within countries Maternal mortality is extremely difficult to eradicate among the most poor. It is concentrated in women from lower socioeconomic groups, especially because of limited access to services, deficiencies in health policies focused on sexual and reproductive health, and the lack of guaranteed comprehensive health services of quality for women. (ECLAC, 2010) Women living in rural areas have a markedly lower proportion of their deliveries assisted by qualified personnel. The contrast can be so stark (Haiti) that levels of professional care in urban areas are approximately four times higher than in rural areas. (UNFPA/EAT, 2004) Women of low socioeconomic status have a marked lower proportion of their deliveries assisted by qualified personnel. In the worst case (Bolivia), the percentage of women who receive qualified care during childbirth in the highest income quintile is over double that of women in the lowest quintile. Young women are especially vulnerable: The profile of maternal mortality in the Caribbean has changed, with the largest concentration among teens. (ECLAC/UNFPA, 2009)

55 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Sexual and reproductive health: Teen pregnancy, use of contraceptives Teen pregnancy is especially high in the region. There have been improvements in the last two decades, but it remains a major issue. Again, not all adolescents are equally likely to become pregnant: Educational level is an important factor in access to information and reproductive health care. Women with less education have higher rates of teen pregnancy and lower rates of contraceptive use. Number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 and 19, for the years 1990, 2000, and 2009

56 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Infant mortality Latin America and the Caribbean show notable progress with respect to children’s health. Mortality has gone down appreciably. In 2009, the infant mortality rate was the lowest in the developing world and dropped more quickly than that of other regions. The goal of reducing by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the mortality rate of children under 5 quite probably will be accomplished in the region. Rate of mortality for children under 5, 1990 and 2010 (deaths per 1,000 live births) However: a) There is great diversity within countries. The probability of dying before age 5 is nearly double (1.7) in rural areas as opposed to urban areas. The probability of dying before age 5 is almost three times greater (2.8) in the poorest quintile of society as compared to the wealthiest quintile.

57 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
There are large differences in the probability of dying before age 5 depending on the family’s educational background (mainly that of the mother). Though the gaps have narrowed, they are still quite evident.

58 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Various territories with high levels of infant mortality have high concentrations of indigenous peoples and populations of African descent. Although the rates have dropped significantly in populations subject to discrimination, there are still significant differences among indigenous persons, persons of African descent, and the rest of the population (ECLAC, 2010).

59 Section 2 - HEALTH – Present situation in the Hemisphere
b) There is great diversity among the various countries: Some countries have made great progress and others still lag far behind. Overall, the Caribbean region shows less progress than Latin America.

60 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action The enjoyment of health — understood as a state of physical, mental and social well-being — requires the effective exercise of the right to adequate food and access to safe water, basic sanitation, housing, and a healthy environment. There is unequal access to these conditions necessary to health. To a large degree, the lack of effective exercise of the right to health is rooted in the inequities that exist in this area. National averages include great inequities and mask conditions in the poorest municipalities. Closing these gaps has become more complicated as out-of-pocket costs have increased, putting health services further beyond the reach of the most vulnerable population groups. There is a grave problem in access to health services for indigenous peoples and those of African descent. Urban areas have between 8 and 10 times more medical personnel than rural areas. On the other hand, population growth in urban areas and the growth of poverty belts call attention to the challenge of urban health. Addressing determination of health factors Working at the subnational level with local health and development strategies. Strengthening research on the impact of health factors and their consequences. Linking the evaluation of MDGs with the debate on MDG challenges after 2015. Reaffirming that enjoyment of the greatest level of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being. (Social Charter) 2) Reducing inequality while respecting differences. Increasing social protection mechanisms. Reducing the financial burden on families. Ensuring universal access to health care. Facilitating access to medications. Emphasizing the primary care strategy in marginalized rural and peri-urban areas. Intensive efforts to control eradicable infectious diseases that hit the poor population. Incorporating innocuous and effective local traditional practices to the degree possible. Placing priority on indigenous peoples, tribal communities, and the population of African descent.

61 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action The migration trends of health professionals harm the poorest countries, which often lack the necessary personnel. Gaps in access to health care can stem from territorial segregation, social exclusion of specific groups, or socioeconomic inequalities. All the causes must be addressed. The state should establish policies that guarantee minimum levels and access to basic services for all. 3) Strengthen health institutions. Optimize resource allocation and clinical management. Foster intersectoral and interagency coordination. Strengthen the management and training of health workers, assigning more personnel to the zones with most need, improving the labor situation, preventing flight, and planning training according to needs.

62 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Lack of access to sexual and reproductive health services reflects inequalities and is manifested in gaps in access to prenatal and postnatal care, familiarity with and use of modern contraceptives, and differences regarding unmet family planning needs among women of different socioeconomic strata. Young people in the most vulnerable areas are doubly vulnerable to teen pregnancy. 20% of all pregnancies are teen pregnancies in many countries. Maternal mortality and adolescent fecundity in the region are much higher than one would expect from the levels of fertility and mortality and did not exhibit conclusive downward trends. Women from lower socioeconomic groups are more affected by maternal mortality and morbidity because of limited access to quality comprehensive health services and because of deficiencies in sexual and reproductive health policies. The challenge of narrowing the gap between contraceptive supply and demand is part of a greater challenge: closing gaps in the exercise of reproductive rights, and in access to sexual and reproductive health services, particularly access to modern contraceptives and to comprehensive sex education, lowering adolescent fecundity and maternal mortality . Reduce inequalities tied to level of education, place of residence, or ethnic or racial makeup. Provide continuing care during pregnancy and after delivery. Strengthen the role of men in promoting sexual and reproductive health. Promote comprehensive government policies that facilitate teen access to information on these topics. Need to focus on reproductive decisions as a right. Place special emphasis on: Minors and young people Indigenous communities Persons with disabilities

63 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action INFANT MORTALITY Neonatal mortality remains one of the greatest challenges, especially in the most at-risk areas, and there is great subnational inequity, especially in rural zones versus urban areas and in the poorest quintiles. Long-term solutions: basic services infrastructure, coverage of safe drinking water and sanitation, expansion of primary health care networks, policies to raise the level of education of mothers, a factor that greatly influences infant mortality Short-term solutions: promotion of breastfeeding, vaccination programs with broad coverage, oral rehydration therapies, and media education campaigns. In the first type of interventions, official development assistance (ODA) should play an important role.

64 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action HIV/AIDS The threat of AIDS is growing. Inequalities are manifested not only as gaps in access to treatment, prevention, and care, but also in discrimination against, and stigmatization of, persons living with this disease, especially homosexuals, sex workers, transgender persons, drug addicts, immigrants, and incarcerated persons. There is great inequality in the prevalence of the disease among the regions of the Hemisphere. Strategies that combine biomedical interventions with other measures designed to change the behavior of the population. This means that, in order to achieve effective equality in this area, it is necessary not only to increase economic resources but also to strengthen the political commitment and increase information on the population at risk of contracting HIV and on how the disease is transmitted. Implement protocols to lessen the risk of HIV transmission during childbirth. Strengthen prevention programs.

65 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE Birthrates drop and the population ages. The extension of urban areas can bring about an increase in unhealthy behaviors. Promote economic and food subsidies to maintain the functionality of older persons. Promote the prevention of nontransmissible diseases (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease...). Promote healthy lifestyles and environments. Strengthen health security. Strengthen the capacity to prevent, detect, and treat chronic noncontagious diseases, existing and emerging infectious diseases, and health problems related to the environment. (Social Charter)


67 Section 2 – HOUSING AND BASIC SERVICES – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Water, Drinking Water, and Sanitation The region is endowed with ample water resources: with 15% of the world’s land mass, and 8.4% of its population, the region receives 29% of its precipitation and has one third of its renewable water resources. The Andes Mountains contain 90% of the world’s glaciers, which produce 10% of its water. Receding glaciers and shrinkage of available water resources are a major concern. The lack or deficiency of related infrastructure is a serious problem that makes access difficult even in areas of abundance.

68 Section 2 – HOUSING AND BASIC SERVICES – Present situation in the Hemisphere
In terms of access to drinking water, Latin America and the Caribbean had already reached the MDG coverage goal by However, the quality requirements have not been met in most countries. As for improved sanitation, there has been progress, but the pace must be quickened if we are to reach the goal.

69 Section 2 – HOUSING AND BASIC SERVICES – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Achieving universal access to water means achieving equity, since the highest coverage deficits are now concentrated in the first and second quintiles. Differences in access to drinking water and improved sanitation are not limited to income levels. There are great differences between urban and rural areas. There is a difference of 17 percentage points between urban and rural areas in access to improved water, and a difference of 31 percentage points in access to improved sanitation.

70 Section 2 – HOUSING AND BASIC SERVICES – Present situation in the Hemisphere
In addition, migration toward the cities plays a large role in the expansion of water supply and sanitation services. Low-income populations tend to settle informally on the periphery of cities, in at-risk areas that are difficult to reach, where extending water and sanitation networks is quite complicated. The region’s growing marginalized urban population is usually excluded from coverage indicators; it is also the least served by existing subsidy and assistance policies, so it faces complex problems in access to drinking water and sanitation.

71 Section 2 – HOUSING AND BASIC SERVICES– Present situation in the Hemisphere
In rural areas the problem is serious as well: On the one hand, the migration trend mentioned earlier results in a significant population drop; consequently, the financial sustainability of existing systems becomes more of a challenge for the remaining population. On the other hand, in many countries, the rural population is widely dispersed, so it is very costly to provide these services by conventional means. Thus low-income people seek means of meeting their basic drinking water and sanitation needs that are often inadequate and expensive. The cost of a unit of water for these persons in some countries of Latin America is 5 times greater than the cost borne by persons who have access to water at home. This is compounded by other problems such as: High levels of domestic water use in some countries of the region, including the developed countries, which is due in part to a lack of metering in homes, or of up-to-date fees or quotas, that would discourage wasting water. Water wasted in distribution networks, stemming from inadequate infrastructure maintenance that causes significant leaks in some countries. Increasing contamination of water and aquifers.

72 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Latin America and the Caribbean comprise one of the regions with the greatest abundance of water in the world. But water distribution is very inequitable. Low-income persons not only find getting water more difficult but have to pay more for it. Rural areas and marginalized urban areas (generally located on the outskirts) are especially vulnerable in terms of access to water and sanitation. Water resources are subject to numerous pressures, including increasing contamination, degradation of catchment basins, and exhaustion and unsustainable use of aquifers stemming from demographic growth, socioeconomic development, and growing human interference in the hydrological cycle. Extension and improvement of drinking water and basic sanitation services, with priority for those who lack access to these services or are poorly served. Improvement in the quality of service (especially in the quality of drinking water, effective disinfection, reduction of interruptions, and leaks), and ensuring the sustainability of services in the face of climate change and a scenario of growing contamination. Explicit recognition of the human right to water and sanitation in sectoral legislation. Measures designed to bring about more efficient use of water resources and greater awareness of water as a social and cultural factor. Decentralize operational responsibility for providing water and sanitation. It is hoped that transferring responsibility as much as possible to the populations and communities that are to be served will result in better management and delivery.

73 Section 2 – HOUSING AND BASIC SERVICES – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Access to adequate housing Between 1990 and 2005, the number of inhabitants of the region who live in hovels dropped by almost five million. Although the drop is significant, this level of progress is clearly insufficient. The present economic crisis could cause the region to lose ground in terms of meeting MDG 7.D. In addition, the region’s housing problems are not limited to those who live in hovels.

74 Section 2 – HOUSING AND BASIC SERVICES – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Latin America and the Caribbean have a housing deficit, both in terms of supply, which cannot meet the growing demand, and in terms of quality. Problems stemming from gaps in infrastructure, unstable tenancy, or overcrowding remain prevalent in the region.

75 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Latin America and the Caribbean have a housing deficit in terms of the availability of new homes and the quality of existing homes. Rapid urbanization in the region has amplified these problems. Having adequate housing is essential to full human development. It has direct repercussions on health and, therefore, on school performance, productivity, income level, and well-being. This region has the highest levels of urbanization in the developing world, but also marked territorial segregation that both reflects and perpetuates social inequality. A large part of the region’s cities— especially large urban areas — are residentially segregated, with a concentration of the poor in the urban outskirts, with inadequate access to basic services and also marked difficulties in connecting with the rest of the city. Municipalities and governments should guarantee services to neighborhoods, reform key regulations, and provide basic infrastructure, also seeking to promote “ecological housing” by promoting land conservation, higher urban population density, and ecological construction. It is important to correct the bias that favors the middle class and the wealthiest households by reorienting the direct supply of housing and demand subsidies toward low-income households. Strengthen the supervisory and advisory mission of housing ministries to create a strong real estate market. Encourage the private sector to broaden mortgage financing and microfinancing of housing. Develop territorial convergence policies that promote the social inclusion of poor and marginalized groups through more appropriate urban land management and better basic services to the population as a whole.


77 Section 2 - FOOD AND NUTRITION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
9% of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean (52.5 million) suffered from hunger in 2010, even though in recent years food production has yielded a surplus in all the countries. The recent economic crisis, climate change, and especially the increase in, and volatility of, food prices present an additional challenge. Evolution of hunger, (malnutrition index) Source: FAO (2011) Beyond the regional averages, Latin America and the Caribbean exhibit high heterogeneity among countries and marked inequalities among population groups within each country.

78 Section 2 - FOOD AND NUTRITION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Among 30 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, 15 advanced beyond the average reduction targeted in the MDGs and 15 made little or no progress or even lost ground in terms of reducing malnutrition in the and periods.

79 Section 2 - FOOD AND NUTRITION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
The region went from 8% of children under 5 being underweight in 1990 to around 3% in The percentages of chronic malnutrition (low height for age) in children under 5 are significantly higher than the rates of overall malnutrition (low weight for age).

80 Section 2 - FOOD AND NUTRITION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
Within countries, differences are not limited to regions. There are also large differences between rural and urban areas: between 2006 and 2010, according to UNDP data (2012), the proportion, expressed as a percentage, of children under 5 who were underweight was 3% in urban areas but 8% in rural areas. The groups at greatest risk of child malnutrition are the children of mothers with little education, of indigenous or African descent, living in marginalized rural and urban areas in the Andean and Central American countries. Another nutritional characteristic of the region’s population is the growth in excess weight and obesity, which up until a few years ago was considered a problem exclusive to high-income countries. PAHO data and statistical research show that between 50% and 60% of adults in Latin America and the Caribbean are overweight or obese. The prevalence of excess weight in the region is between 5% (NCHS) and 7.3% (new PAHO standard) among children under 5. Obesity and excess weight have also been linked to poverty and low levels of education, so that both hunger and malnutrition and excess weight and obesity are more prevalent among the poor.

81 Section 2 - FOOD AND NUTRITION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
The counterpart to progress in reducing malnutrition in the region is its high rates of excess weight.

82 Section 2 - FOOD AND NUTRITION – Present situation in the Hemisphere
As a whole, the Americas region (including the USA and Canada) has the highest percentage of overweight individuals in the world, among both men and women. Percentage of the population with a body mass index over 25 kg/m2 Source: Standardized WHO estimates, 2008

83 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Food insecurity has two components: risk, attributable to conditions (variables) in the environment (natural, social, and economic), and responsiveness, depending on the availability (individual and collective) of assets and resources to prevent or mitigate that risk. The principal causes of food insecurity are of three types: (i) environmental factors that define the environment in which the individual and the family live, including risks connected with the natural environment and its cycles (floods, droughts, frosts, earthquakes) and those produced by human action (contamination of water, air, and food, or expansion of agricultural borders); (ii) social, cultural, and economic factors associated with poverty and inequity, level of schooling, level of employment and wages, social capital, and participation in support networks; and (iii) political and institutional factors that include government policies and programs designed to solve the population’s food and nutrition problems, together with social protection coverage. The existence of human food insecurity does not stem mainly from the amount of food globally available but from the inability to meet food requirements through the market, which arises in large part from the unequal income distribution. Taking the necessary measures for full access to adequate, healthy, and nutritious food, including measures to promote conditions under which no one will be hungry or malnourished. The joint efforts of the public and private sectors, civil society, and other social actors are important in this area. (Social Charter / Fourth Summit of the Americas) Attacking each and every cause of food insecurity, both reducing vulnerability to variables (floods, droughts, or natural disasters) and improving the capacity to respond with appropriate policies. Attention must be paid to environmental, social, economic, cultural, political, and institutional factors. Accordingly, government policies that promote sustainable farm development, technology access, natural disaster risk management, and adaptation to climate change. Effective policies to reduce inequalities, considering specific deficiencies in the region’s various territories in terms of access to food.

84 Strategic lines of action
Areas of difficulty Strategic lines of action Chronic malnutrition, particularly in children, is accompanied by marked inequities in education, which in turn tends to perpetuate distributive inequality. Data on chronic malnutrition show large differences between regions and zones within a given country, which can equal or exceed the differences among countries. Recent years have seen a resurgence of food insecurity stemming from higher prices for food and beverages (on average, 1.8 times higher than the increases for other products), increasing the ranks of the poor, especially the indigent. There is a gradual increase in excess weight and obesity in the region; salient for its particularly negative effects is the increase in overweight and obese children. Obesity has multiple complex causes, associated with poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, and social determinants such as poverty, low levels of schooling, limited breastfeeding, and cultural factors, as well as lifestyle choices. Strengthen the capacity of small farmers. Among the policies that have proven most efficient in protecting the population at risk of food insecurity are: Promotion of breastfeeding, Strengthening and supplementing nutrition, Raising the educational level of mothers, Health monitoring in the first two years of life; and Basic sanitation. Develop comprehensive policies to combat excess weight and obesity, promoting a healthy lifestyle. Because obesity and excess weight have multiple complex causes, they require multilevel, multisectoral measures.

85 Bibliography Section 2 - BIBLIOGRAPHY
IDB (2012), “Room for Development in Housing Markets.” ECLAC (2007), “Reducción de la pobreza, tendencias demográficas. Familias y mercado de trabajo en América Latina” [Poverty Reduction, Demographic Trends. Families and the Labor Market in Latin America.] ECLAC (2011), “Social Panorama of Latin America.” ECLAC (2010), “El progreso de América Latina y el Caribe hacia los objetivos de desarrollo del milenio. Desafíos para lograrlos con igualdad.” [Progress in Latin America and the Caribbean toward the Millennium Development Goals. Challenges to Achieving Equality.] ECLAC (2008), “Time for Equality: Closing Gaps, Opening Trails.” FAO (2011), “Panorama of Food and Nutrition Security in Latin America and the Caribbean.” Gina Tambini, MD, MPH (2011), “Seguridad Alimentaria y desafíos en la Región de las Américas.” [Food Security and Challenges in the Americas Region.] Jeffrey M. Puryear, Tamara Ortega Goodspeed (2012). “Education in the Americas: What the Summit Missed.” OAS (2012a), Social Charter of the Americas. OAS (2012b), Declaration of Cochabamba, adopted by the General Assembly. OAS, Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of Education (2012c), Declaration of Paramaribo. OAS, Summit of the Americas (2011a), “Mandates Stemming from the Sixth Summit of the Americas.”

86 Bibliography Section 2 - BIBLIOGRAPHY
OAS, Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (2011b), Meeting of Ministers and High Authorities of Social Development. “Communiqué of the Second Meeting of Ministers and High Authorities of Social Development in the framework of the Inter-American Council for Integral Development of the Organization of American States.” OAS, Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of Education (2009), Declaration of Quito. OAS, Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of Education (2007), Hemispheric Commitment to Early Childhood Education. ILO, (2011), “Panorama Laboral 2011.” ILO, (2010), “Panorama Laboral 2010.” ILO, (2006), “Hemispheric Decent Work Agenda, ,” OAS, Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of Education (2012), Declaration of Paramaribo. UN-Habitat/IDB Regional Policy Dialogue (2011), “Access to Water and Sanitation for All and the Right to Water in the America Region.” PAHO (2008), “Health Agenda for the Americas, ” UNDP (2012), “The Millennium Development Goals Report.” PREAL (2009), “How Much Are Latin American Children Learning? Highlights from the Second Regional Student Achievement Test” (SERCE). PREAL (2011), “Measuring Up? How Did Latin America and the Caribbean Perform on the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)?” Network of Science and Technology Indicators (2008), “El Estado de la Ciencia 2008” [The Status of Science 2008.] UNESCO Institute for Statistics, (2011) “Global Education Digest 2011 Comparing Education Statistics Across the World.”


Economic Growth with Equity Stable and diversified economy Productivity and competitiveness Infrastructure development Scientific and technological development. Information and communications technologies. Democracy and Participation Culture and Diversity Sustainable Development and Natural Disaster Management Cooperation Strengthen institutions. Strengthen citizen participation and social dialogue. Respect for civil and political rights, ESC. Empowerment of women and of at-risk groups. Fight against corruption and other unethical practices. Strengthen and preserve cultural identity and diversity. Preserve cultural heritage, both material and intangible. Preserve, respect, and promote linguistic diversity. Combine efforts to achieve development. Complementarity and solidarity. South-South and triangular cooperation. Preserve the natural heritage. Use natural resources sustainably. Address climate change and variability. Manage natural disasters.

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