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Andrew Hutton Director of Operations Jefferson Lab

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1 Andrew Hutton Director of Operations Jefferson Lab
THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE CEBAF ACCELERATOR Andrew Hutton Director of Operations Jefferson Lab

2 Outline Review of the basic accelerator layout Injector Linacs
making electrons creating electron bunches Linacs How does RF acceleration work Setting up the RF Secrets of the Arcs Emittance and Optics notions Special features

3 Summary Accelerator Description
Beam performance objectives: ≥ 5.7 GeV, 200 µA, CW 3 simultaneous beams, independent energy and current adjustment Beam polarization≥ 75% Parity quality Design concept: recirculating, superconducting CW Linac CW for high beam quality RF superconductivity for efficiency 5-pass beam re-circulation gives multi-energy operation Isochronous, achromatic beam recirculation arcs


5 Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility
2 gain switched diode 499 MHz 1 G0 31 MHz Df= 120 0.6 GeV linac (20 cryomodules) 1497 MHz 67 MeV injector (2 1/4 cryomodules) 1497 MHz RF separators A B C 499 MHz B A B C Pockels cell A C Gun Double sided septum

6 Making Electrons Photo-electric Gun
Shine laser light on a semiconductor wafer Photo-electric effect kicks out an electron same effect as solar cells which make electricity from the sun Because the laser can be pulsed, electron beam is also pulsed Use three separate lasers, one for each Hall provides greater flexibility Cathode material is strained Gallium Arsenide Laser light of 780nm gives weakly polarized beams ~35% but high Quantum Efficiency (QE~1%) Laser light of 840 nm gives strongly polarized beam ~75% but low QE~0.2%

7 Polarized photoinjector
2 identical horizontal guns installed in 1998 Gun 2 Oct 2000 to Jan 2001 Gun 3 Feb 2001 to Mar 2002 Gun service required once per year. Both guns provide high polarization (>70%).

8 Source perspective A 100 keV beam from either gun
is deflected 15° by a magnet to a common pre-accelerator beamline. Two laser tables straddle the beamline and provide a direct optical path to the cathode.

9 Diode Laser Diode lasers – like in your CD player
Requires additional amplifier to obtain ~100 mW of light Highly reliable Pulse length δ ~20 ps But Amplifier does not fully switch off between pulses Creates “bleed-through” Have tried to pulse amplifier with some success – still a problem We always probably use diode laser for Hall B Presently using diode laser for Hall A

10 Ti-Sapphire Laser High power without additional amplifier
Switches off cleanly – unmeasurable bleed-through Early laser had noise on the beams Led to trips of the safety system A Ti-Sapphire laser from Time–Bandwidth Inc. in Switzerland (Tiger) was ordered for the G0 experiment at 31.2 MHz Uses a different, proprietary method for locking to RF frequency Has operated flawlessly Can create pulses with δ from 20ps to 70ps We have ordered another Tiger laser for 499MHz operation Expect good performance Will be used for future, high current Hall A experiments

11 Dynamic laser configuration
Re-re-re-re-configuration. . . 3 end-stations makes for a dynamic physics program which requires that the laser table be configurable for beam qualities: Intensity (power) Polarization (wavelength) RF (1497, 499, ) Parity (Independent) G0 Future HAPPEx2

12 Making Bunches Beam from 100 keV gun sent through 499 MHz chopper cavity (one third of accelerating frequency) Rotates beam in circle of ~1.5 cm radius Slits at 240°, 0° and 120° degrees allow bunches of electrons to pass Slits are individually controlled to regulate currents for Halls A, B & C The three beams are recombined by another 499 MHz chopper cavity Creates 110 picosecond bunch Hall A Hall B

13 Bleed-Through To reduce “bleed-through”, Hall B uses about 20 µA beam current from the cathode and rejects all but a few nA at the slits Improves rejection of leakage from Hall A and Hall C beams But Makes Hall B current very sensitive to position movement at the slit Have installed a fast feedback to stabilize position BPMs read position of the average currents for Halls A, B & C Displaces low current beam if all the beams are not exactly coincident Cannot stabilize against laser spot movements

14 Making Bunches (cont) Beam then goes through buncher section
Decelerates front of bunch, accelerates back of bunch After a drift space, bunch is compressed (shorter) – 5 picosecond but energy spread in the bunch is increased Beam then goes through capture which continues process Final bunch length – 1 picosecond (3/10 of a millimeter) Phases of Injector Rf must be stable to within ~1 ps Can achieve this for short periods of time Best in summer and winter Injector very unstable in spring and fall – sun-up and sun-down

15 Measuring Bunch Length
Measure the time of arrival of the bunch at a high frequency cavity (5.988 GHz)downstream of the buncher Move the phases of the chopper cavities and re-measure the time of arrival Plot the time of arrival as a function of the phase Each point is the center of gravity of the beam By moving the center of gravity, the result mimics the behavior of particles distributed along the bunch This measurement is accurate to about 15 femtoseconds


17 Wave acceleration

18 How does RF acceleration work?
Imagine a surfer riding a wave Get on the wave at right time and right speed - acceleration Get on the wave at wrong time or wrong speed, deceleration, wipe-out A good surfer will speed up to catch the wave and will then start to move across the wave to avoid overtaking the wave and wiping out Matching the phase velocity and the group velocity Now imagine an electron traveling in a radio-frequency (RF) wave If it arrives at exactly the right time it will gain energy If it arrives at the wrong time it will gain less energy But If it is traveling near the speed of light, it will not speed up or slow down – it will gain or lose mass as it gains energy No wipe -out, but not the right energy at the end

19 How does RF acceleration work? cont.
RF acceleration comes from multiple, independent klystrons, each feeding one 5-cell cavity The trick is to ensure that as a bunch arrives at each cavity, the fields are correct to continue acceleration The waves (fields) in each cavity have to be in phase Phases have to be set up correctly Phases have to stay correct Both of these are a challenge Each klystron is fed from the same phase reference, but must be accurate to a few picoseconds klystrons are up to half a mile away from the source Thermal problems, stability problems in repeaters

20 Superconducting Cavities
Use superconducting niobium cavities to create the RF fields for acceleration Very low losses on the cavity walls cavity resonance very sharp (Qext ~ 106) sensitive to vibration (microphonics) Cooled by superfluid liquid 2 K so heat transfer is easy no bubbles to vibrate the cavity Helium temperature (pressure) changes the tuning keeping all of the cavities in tune requires automated software CEBAF Acceleration System 330 cavities in 41 1/4 cryomodules, installed and functional Gradient limit and Q twice as good as specification

21 CEBAF SRF Cavities CEBAF 5-cell cavities operate at 1497 MHz with an active length of 50 cm each There are eight cavities per cryomodule

22 Linac Cryomodules CEBAF has 42¼ cryomodules with a total active length of 169 meters

23 Superconducting Cavity Treatment
Gradient specification of CEBAF cavities was 5 MV/m Average gradient of superconducting cavities as installed was 7.3 MV/m Two approaches to improve performance of cavities, Helium processing and waveguide vacuum processing Carried out in situ Aim to reduce field emission Average gradient of superconducting cavities is now 7.76 MV/m Limit is established with CW beam under standard operating conditions


25 FSD Trips Fast Shut Down (FSD) trips are triggered by RF arcs and protect the SRF cavities from arc damage ¿Caused by charging up of ceramic widows? ¿Caused by “three dimensional“ gas discharges? Strongly dependent on accelerating gradient Weakly dependent on total linac beam current Pushing energy to: 5.7 GeV  10% hit in availability (just acceptable) 6 GeV  20% hit in availability (unacceptable)

26 Improving RF arc trip rate
Installed >50 stub tuners to improve match Reduces klystron power for same beam power Helium processed all cryomodules (some twice) Reduces electron emission in cavities Improved algorithm for calculating set points Optimize for gradient, current, cryogenic load, etc Problem is inherent, getting close to limit This year, will try to reduce time to reset trip

27 FSD Trip Rate Versus Energy October 99 – June 01

28 Ponderomotive Force Ponderomotive force of RF fields tends to lower cavity resonant frequency RF fields have energy, tends to push outwards, makes cavity bigger Cavity tuner changes to maintain correct operating frequency In a few cavities (so far) If cavity trips off at high gradient, resulting frequency shift is so large Cavity goes out of resonance Cannot be switched back on This is the most serious problem for RF control of the new cryomodules for 12 GeV

29 Linac RF Operation Operation of the linacs requires sophisticated high-level software Automated Cavity Tuning Make it resonate at exactly the right frequency Automated Cavity phasing Make all the cavities resonate in phase Linac Energy Management Set up exactly the right energy KREST Set up exactly the right phase for each cavity MOMOD Maintain the right phase for each linac

30 Automated Cavity Tuning
Sweep Mode (Exact tuning) The cavity frequency is modulated over a range of ± 200 Hz in steps of 5 Hz. Find the typical response of a resonant system to harmonic excitation The measured de-tuning angle  as a function of modulating frequency is compared to the predicted curve to determine the resonance frequency as well as the phase offset  Autotrack (locks cavity on frequency) Uses the phase offset determined above to keep the cavity tuned to the operating frequency

31 Linac Auto-Phasing Purpose: Precise cavity phasing is achieved by maximizing the Linac energy. Arc is used to measure energy changes The higher the energy, the heavier it is, the harder it is to bend so it travels on the outside of the bend Phase of an individual cavity is changed by ±30°. Initial beam position and beam position changes are recorded. Crest phase is found from 0: initial phase setting, y0: beam position at 0, y±: beam position at  = 0 ± ∆ Reproducibility better than 1°, Phasing time 2 min/cavity

32 Linac Energy Management (LEM)
For a given energy at the end of North or South Linac and available cavities: Optimizes the cavity gradient distribution using individual cavity characteristics Calculates energy profile along the linacs Calculates Linac quad values consistent with calculated energy profile Downloads and sets RF, Quads (including hysteresis) and skew quads Required input Maximum gradient permitted for each cavity List of available cavities Integrated into the maintenance log Most useful number – energy overhead available (usually 6 – 10%)

33 Global Procedures Krest (intrusive) Momod (parasitic)
Modulate the phase of each cavity Observe the change in energy at a BPM in the Arc where there is dispersion (particles with different energies have different orbits) Move the cavity phase until energy does not change with modulation Repeated for each cavity Each cryomodule is done by hand at start-up Momod (parasitic) Modulate the phase of the RF phase reference for each Linac using two different frequencies ~800 Hz during accelerator operation Linac is now on crest

34 What is Emittance? The beam size in an accelerator can be separated into two parts: The emittance or phase space which is a property of the beam The beta functions or R matrix elements which describe the focusing In an accelerator, the emittance is defined by the gun characteristics and cannot be improved later – but it can be degraded For CEBAF, emittance is the extent of the beam in six dimensions: X, X’, Y, Y’, δE, δL As the beam is accelerated, the transverse emittance should be adiabatically damped (reduced proportionally to the energy) As the beam is accelerated the transverse energy of the beam stays constant but the longitudinal energy increases. It is like pulling on a rubber band – it gets thinner

35 Basic Accelerator Optics
DIPOLES magnets that bend the beam (usually horizontally, sometimes vertically and sometimes at an angle) They define the shape of the machine Higher energy electrons will be bent less (like a prism in optics) The edges of the beam have fields that are not uniform, so they focus as well (like aberrations due to non-flat prism faces) QUADRUPOLES magnets that focus the beam (like a lens in optics) main difference with an optical lens is that if the lens focuses in the horizontal, it will defocus in the vertical and vice versa “Strong focusing” if the quadrupoles are sufficiently strong (and close together) overall they will focus in horizontal and vertical the result is rather like a periscope in optics and is stable

36 The R Matrix The R Matrix relates the output angles and positions from a beamline to the input angles and positions. Xout R11 R12 R13 R14 Xin X'out = R21 R22 R23 R24 X'in Yout R31 R32 R33 R34 Yin Y'out R41 R42 R43 R44 Y'in The matrix for an uncoupled beamline would have the cross-terms zero If the beam is kicked horizontally, it will oscillate in the horizontal plane but should never show a vertical oscillation

A Linac (LINear ACcelerator) is straight – no bends In CEBAF, electrons of very different energies travel together There is a regular array of equi-spaced quadrupoles They focus strongly for the lowest energy pass, more weakly for the highest pass – but still “strong” focusing ARCS At the end of the Linacs the beams of different energies are separated by the “spreaders” There is then a regular circular Arc section (actually five of them) At the end of the Arcs the beams of different energies are brought together by the “recombiner”

38 Achromatic & Isochronous
Bunches must be transported around the arc and all of the electrons must arrive at the other end at the same place and time Achromatic – electrons of different energies arrive at the same place From the Greek “a” without, “khroma” – color Isochronous – electrons of different energies take the same time From the Greek “isos” – equal, “chronos” – time The Arc was designed to be both achromatic and Isochronous

39 Principle of Isochronicity
Recombiner Linac Spreader Arc Arc Spreader Linac Recombiner Isochronous if path length difference in Arcs equals path length difference in spreaders and recombiners

40 Types of Emittance Increase
Filamentation In the longitudinal plane, RF focusing in circular machines causes particles of different energies to rotate around the RF bucket at different speeds. This can cause an effect like an egg beater resulting in real emittance dilution. This effect is not relevant for CEBAF Longitudinal variation of Emittance If the front of the beam is not in the same position as the back of the beam, the projection of the beam on a screen is apparently enlarged (think of the beam as a banana – the projection is thicker than the cross-section of the banana). This effect is usually not a problem at CEBAF. Emittance Projection If the beam is strongly X-Y coupled, the projections of the phase space onto the visible axes X, X’, Y, Y’ can all be increased – this has been a problem at CEBAF.

41 Coupled Beams Beam coupling refers to a coupling between horizontal and vertical oscillations in the beam Under normal (uncoupled) conditions, the horizontal and vertical motions of the beam are independent Note that a quadrupole has the effect of focusing in one plane and defocusing in the other plane so there is a correspondence between the two planes When the beams are coupled, an oscillation in one plane couples into the other plane, like two coupled oscillators This can lead to an apparent increase in the beam emittance Note that Louiville’s theorem says that phase space (emittance) is conserved, so the increase is only apparent – but very real!

42 Uncoupled Emittances X’ X
In the absence of coupling, the product of the projections of the phase space area on the X and X’ axes is a constant

43 Coupled Emittances X’ X
In the presence of coupling, the product of the projections of the phase space area on the X and X’ axes is a never a constant and is usually much larger than when uncoupled

44 Causes of Coupling Point coupling in the Injector
Most likely candidates are the counter-wound solenoids, the cryounit and the cryomodules Uniform Coupling in the Linacs Produced by skew fields in the SRF cavities due to asymmetry in the HOM couplers Corrected by the skew quadrupoles Point Coupling in the Arcs Produced by mis-steered beams going through fringe fields in dipoles Most serious in the spreaders and recombiners Goal is to reduce coupling as much as possible

45 Summary Keeping the accelerator tuned up is a demanding, delicate task
The operators usually have a Batchelor degree in Physics (some are studying for their Master’s) They are trained on the job for six months to become an Operator It takes another 2-3 years to become Crew Chief They try incredibly hard to deliver quality beam to Users There are new capabilities all of the time We are all learning as we go Please – give the Operators a break and complain to me if you are unhappy That’s my job!

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