Presentation on theme: "Brain Development and its Influence on Human Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Brain Development and its Influence on Human Development Joint Special Session, OASWashington, DCBrain Development and its Influence on Human DevelopmentThis presentation was given on February 24, 2010.By J. Fraser Mustard *Alfredo TinajeroThe Founders’ Network* Founding President, Canadian Institute for Advanced ResearchFebruary 24, 2010
2Human Development Nature Nurture Genes Epigenetics Stimulation 10-008Nature NurtureGenes Epigenetics Stimulationand NutritionGene FunctionNeurobiologicalPathwaysPhysical Mental LearningHealth Health
3need new numberEpigeneticsEpigenetics is the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing the function of normal genes [all the 100 billion neurons in your head have the same DNA].
4What is experience?08-026The stimuli that you encounter both pre- and post-natally as well as in later stages differentiate neuron function.Examples: sound, touch, vision, smell, food, thoughts, drugs, injury, disease, physical activity, etc.Experience begins in utero that effects the differentiation and function of the neurons in the brain.Experience that affects brain development in the early years of life include the neural pathways that relate to sound, touch, vision, smell, thoughts, drugs, injury, and disease. Obviously, food (nutrition) is crucial for the development of neurons. Adequate nutrition without the other experiences will not lead to full development of the architecture of the brain.Kolb, U Lethbridge
5Health(physical and mental) Learning (literacy) Behaviour 03-080Experience-Based Brain Development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways throughout life that affect:Health(physical and mental)The exponential growth in knowledge from the neurosciences about the development of the brain and related biological pathways has provided clear evidence as to how experience in early life affects the development of the brain and biological pathways. Experience-based brain development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect, throughout life, health [physical and mental], learning (literacy) and behaviour. Thus, experience in the early years of life can set trajectories that affect health, well-being and competence for life.Learning (literacy)Behaviour
7Early Child Development and Language 04-200Early Child Development and LanguageStarts early – first 7 months – neurons differentiate language sounds (e.g. English, Japanese)Sets capability for masteringmultiple languages in early lifeSets literacy, language and learning trajectory for the second and third stages of development
8Literacy Levels for the Population Ages 16 to 65 – USA 05-178Literacy Levels for the Population Ages 16 to 65 – USAProseDocumentQuantitativePercentThe United States Department of Education has replicated the OECD studies. This slide is adapted from Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Findings of the National Adult Literacy Survey. U.S. Department of Education The results are similar to the OECD studies of literacy in the United States and other developed countries. In developed countries, nearly 50% of the U.S. population is at Levels 1 and 2 (low) and about 5% are at Level 5 (high).LowHighLevelNALS, p. 17, 2002
905-173Literacy Levels (Quantitative) and Physical, Mental or Other Health Conditions – USAHealth ProblemsMental or Emotional ProblemsLong-term IllnessPercentThis slide is also based on the report from the recent U.S. assessment (Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Findings of the National Adult Literacy Survey. U.S. Department of Education. 2002) shows the competence of the adult population in literacy and the burden of physical and mental health problems. In terms of the literacy assessments, Level 1 is low and Level 5 is high. There is a gradient in health status when the data are plotted against the level of literacy competence of the population.The OECD data on developed countries shows a significant correlation between levels of literacy and life expectancy. It may be because the brain pathways that affect language and literacy have some link to the LHPA (stress) pathways that affect behaviour and health.LevelNALS, p. 44, 2002
10Percentages of Adults in Poverty, by Literacy Level – USA (Prose) 05-170Percentages of Adults in Poverty, by Literacy Level – USA (Prose)LevelPercentNALS, p. 61, 2002
11Early Experience and Brain Architecture and Function 07-001Affects gene expression and neural pathwaysShapes emotion, regulates temperament and social developmentShapes perceptual and cognitive abilityShapes physical and mental health and behaviour in adult lifeShapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming, etc.)Shapes language and literacy capabilityThis slide summarizes the effect of early experience on brain architecture and function.
12Early Child Development 06-001Success by TenEarly Child DevelopmentIntervene earlyIntervene oftenIntervene effectivelyIntegrate with primary schoolsLudwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution
14Community Polyclinics Pregnancy to Age 6 Developmental Health (pre and post natal)Services provided by Community PolyclinicsNutritional supportChild (Care) Stimulation (Puericultura)Weekly Home Visits14
15Health and Language Scores 90350330310290270250230Language Scores – UNESCO First Regional Study (1998)70Mortality RateUnder One Mortality Rate (WHO, 1990)504th grade Language (UNESCO, 1998)3010HondurasDominican Rep.VenezuelaCubaChileArgentinaColombiaParaguayMéxicoBrazilBoliviaMustard, Tinajero, A., 2009
16Association Between Preschool Attendance and Learning CubaPercent enrolled in preschoolReading Scores – 6th grade (UNESCO, 2008)ChileUruguayCosta RicaArgentinaPeruColombiaDominican R.ParaguayMustard, Tinajero, A., 2009100%80%90%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%5252015103530454050% of preeschool enrolment - children ages 3-5 (UNESCO-LLECE, 2008)% of children at Level IV – Reading Scores (high) - 6th grade (UNESCO, 2008)Los Niveles III y IV corresponde a los niños con los resultados más altos.
17Early Development Instrument (EDI) 03-085Early Development Instrument (EDI)Kindergarten – Age 5Physical health and well-beingSocial knowledge and competenceEmotional health/maturityLanguage and cognitive developmentCommunication skills and generalknowledge
18CENDI - Monterrey, Mexico EDI – Canada andCENDI - Monterrey, Mexico08-046% Low on % Low onOne Domain Two DomainsCENDI 18.5% %(centre-based)(Monterrey)CanadianMiddle Class 25.9% %(120,000)
19Policies to Foster Human Capital 02-056Policies to Foster Human Capital"We cannot afford to postpone investing inchildren until they become adults nor can wewait until they reach school - a time when itmay be too late to intervene."Heckman, J., 2001(Nobel Prize Economics, 2000)
20WHO – Marmot Commission on Social Determinants of Health 08-151Chapter 5 – Equity from the StartRecommendation 5.1:WHO and UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) set up an interagency mechanism to ensure policy coherence for early child development such that, across agencies, a comprehensive approach to early child development is acted on WHO, August 2008
21The Commission recommends that: Recommendation 5.2The Commission recommends that:Governments build universal coverage of a comprehensive package of quality early child development programmes and services for children, mothers, and other caregivers, regardless of ability to pay.WHO, August 2008
2210-002Of all the countries in the Americas, Cuba’s programs of nutrition and stimulation for rural and urban children provide the best example of equity for early human development in the Americas. We all can learn from what Cuba has accomplished.
23To download this presentation, go to: 01-039To download this text, visit the Founders’ Network website atTo download this presentation, go to:Slides - Slide Shows
24ReferencesMustard, J.F. Early child development and experience-based brain development: the scientific underpinnings of the importance of early child development. Washington: The Brookings Institution Available at:Mustard, J.F. Early human development – Equity from the start – Latin America. Latin American Journal of Social Sciences, Childhood and Youth, vol. 7, #2, July-Dec Available at:Mustard, J.F. The effects of nature and nurture on early human development and health, behaviour and learning. Presentation at the First International Symposium in Puebla, Mexico. January 27, Available at:CP23764E