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1 Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Women Liz Riley, Deputy Coordinator (ag) Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) Inter-American Commission.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Women Liz Riley, Deputy Coordinator (ag) Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) Inter-American Commission."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Women Liz Riley, Deputy Coordinator (ag) Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) Inter-American Commission of Women Thirty-Fourth Assembly of Delegates Santiago, Chile November 11, 2008

2 2 Presentation Overview CDERA CDERA Climate Change, Climate Variability and Natural Disasters Climate Change, Climate Variability and Natural Disasters Impacts on Women Impacts on Women Way forward: Platforms for Action Way forward: Platforms for Action

3 3 What is CDERA? Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency Regional inter-governmental Disaster Management Organization - Headquarters in Barbados Regional inter-governmental Disaster Management Organization - Headquarters in Barbados Established in 1991 by Agreement of regional Heads of Government Established in 1991 by Agreement of regional Heads of Government Main function is to make immediate and coordinated response to disasters in Participating States. Main function is to make immediate and coordinated response to disasters in Participating States. Sixteen (16) Participating States Sixteen (16) Participating States

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5 5 Climate Change, Climate variability and natural disasters

6 6 Climate Change: A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods Climate Change: A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods Source: UNFCCC Climate variability: refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes etc.) of the climate on all spatial and temporal scales beyond that of individual weather events. Climate variability: refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes etc.) of the climate on all spatial and temporal scales beyond that of individual weather events. Source: IPCC Disaster: A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Disaster: A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Source: ISDR Definitions

7 7 SOURCE: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Database 2008

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9 9 Selected Hazard Impacts in the Caribbean TIMEPLACEDISASTERIMPACT 1988Jamaica Hurricane Gilbert 65% GDP countries Hurricane Hugo US$412 M 1999Dominica Hurricane Lenny 53% GDP 2004 Haiti & DR Flooding 270 deaths 2004Grenada Hurricane Ivan US$895 M 2004Jamaica Hurricane Ivan US$592 M 2005GuyanaFlooding 60% GDP Various sources: Collated by CDERA

10 10 Climate change impacts Sea Level Rise – IPCC 3 rd Assessment Report avg 5.0mm/yr over the 21 st Century Sea Level Rise – IPCC 3 rd Assessment Report avg 5.0mm/yr over the 21 st Century Temperature increases: 11 of the 12 warmest years on record have occurred in the last 12 years. If concentrations of all GHG and aerosols kept constant at 2000 levels, further warming of 0.1degrees C would be expected * Temperature increases: 11 of the 12 warmest years on record have occurred in the last 12 years. If concentrations of all GHG and aerosols kept constant at 2000 levels, further warming of 0.1degrees C would be expected * Very likely that extreme heat events and heavy precipitation will become more frequent* Very likely that extreme heat events and heavy precipitation will become more frequent* Likely that future tropical cyclones will become more intense with larger peak wind speeds and more heavy precipitation* Likely that future tropical cyclones will become more intense with larger peak wind speeds and more heavy precipitation* * 4th IPCC Assessment Report

11 11 Climate change impacts Actions to address current climate variability are the first steps towards addressing climate change adaptation for the future Actions to address current climate variability are the first steps towards addressing climate change adaptation for the future Climate change impacts will vary from country to country, region to region, may also vary from community to community since impacts are linked to existing vulnerabilities Climate change impacts will vary from country to country, region to region, may also vary from community to community since impacts are linked to existing vulnerabilities Climate change, climate variability and natural disasters are development issues Climate change, climate variability and natural disasters are development issues

12 12 Overarching context – social dimensions of natural hazard impacts and climate change Overarching context – social dimensions of natural hazard impacts and climate change –Susceptibility vs resilience How do natural disasters and climate change affect women?

13 13 Framework for the social dimension of vulnerability SOURCE: Kambon, 2005

14 14 Differential vulnerability of males and females to natural disaster and climate change impacts are reflective of their socially constructed roles Differential vulnerability of males and females to natural disaster and climate change impacts are reflective of their socially constructed roles Responses of males and females to disaster differ Responses of males and females to disaster differ How do natural disasters and climate change affect women?

15 15 Women s roles result in … Limited access to resources including credit, extension services, information and technology Limited access to resources including credit, extension services, information and technology Limited mobility – linked to burden of care Limited mobility – linked to burden of care Insecure land tenure Insecure land tenure Limited access to information, training and capacity building initiatives Limited access to information, training and capacity building initiatives

16 16 Women s roles result in … Do not receive adequate information on hazards and risks and the links to natural resource use and environmental sustainability to the same extent as men Do not receive adequate information on hazards and risks and the links to natural resource use and environmental sustainability to the same extent as men Limited access to decision-making and leadership positions Limited access to decision-making and leadership positions Unequal value given to paid work by women Unequal value given to paid work by women Women make up a large number of the poor in communities highly dependent on local natural resources for livelihood Women make up a large number of the poor in communities highly dependent on local natural resources for livelihood

17 17 Some key impacts … May require additional support eg. to respond to early warnings due to limited mobility May require additional support eg. to respond to early warnings due to limited mobility Higher mortality rates: 2004 Indian Tsunami female mortality 3 – 4 X that of men in some communities Higher mortality rates: 2004 Indian Tsunami female mortality 3 – 4 X that of men in some communities Inability or reduced ability to fulfill the role as providers of food water and fuel eg. Drought Inability or reduced ability to fulfill the role as providers of food water and fuel eg. Drought Lose their jobs and have no means of securing compensation where such recovery programmes exist: eg. Hurricane Ivan Grenada 60 – 70% of workers in the informal sector were women Lose their jobs and have no means of securing compensation where such recovery programmes exist: eg. Hurricane Ivan Grenada 60 – 70% of workers in the informal sector were women Constrained potential for recovery in the aftermath of disasters due in part to insecure land tenure Constrained potential for recovery in the aftermath of disasters due in part to insecure land tenure

18 18 Selected Examples: Case Study Grenada Hurricane Ivan 2004

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20 20 Map Of Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique

21 21 Impacted Grenada on September 7, 2004 Impacted Grenada on September 7, 2004 Category 3 Hurricane Category 3 Hurricane 115 mile per hour winds 115 mile per hour winds Hurricane Ivan 2004

22 22 Caribbean Case Study – Grenada, Hurricane Ivan 2004 Pre Event Conditions: A relatively high elderly dependency ratio of 31.8 per cent; Elderly 61+, 26.5 per cent of population; A relatively high elderly dependency ratio of 31.8 per cent; Elderly 61+, 26.5 per cent of population; The poorest fifth of the population had reported first childbirth between the ages of Teenage fertility rate 16.3 per cent; The poorest fifth of the population had reported first childbirth between the ages of Teenage fertility rate 16.3 per cent; Post-Event Impact: Burden of care increased Burden of care increased Source: Grenada: A Gender Impact Assessment Of Hurricane Ivan – Making the Invisible Visible, UNECLAC and UNIFEM 2005

23 23 Pre Event Conditions: Informal sector: 60 – 70% female Informal sector: 60 – 70% female 32% of the population unemployed 32% of the population unemployed 28.8% of households defined as poor and 10.3% of households classified as indigent; 28.8% of households defined as poor and 10.3% of households classified as indigent; 48% of women-headed households are among poor women, 52 per cent of women head households; 48% of women-headed households are among poor women, 52 per cent of women head households; Post Event Impacts: Direct impact on rural household income Direct impact on rural household income Increase in womens vulnerabilities related to access to land and care services and income for themselves and children Increase in womens vulnerabilities related to access to land and care services and income for themselves and children Women de-prioritizing the level of abuse in their lives – to their needs for shelter, food and income Women de-prioritizing the level of abuse in their lives – to their needs for shelter, food and income Caribbean Case Study – Grenada, Hurricane Ivan 2004 Source: Grenada: A Gender Impact Assessment Of Hurricane Ivan – Making the Invisible Visible, UNECLAC and UNIFEM 2005

24 24 Resilience of Women Resilience of Women –storytelling to children by women as a coping mechanism –One-pot cooks – community spirit Caribbean Case Study – Grenada, Hurricane Ivan 2004 Source: Grenada: A Gender Impact Assessment Of Hurricane Ivan – Making the Invisible Visible, UNECLAC and UNIFEM 2005

25 25 Climate change adaptation specific areas where gender specific aspects should be addressed Energy Energy Water Water Food security Food security Agriculture Agriculture Fisheries Fisheries Biodiversity and ecosystem services Biodiversity and ecosystem services Health Health Industry Industry Human settlements Human settlements Disaster management Disaster management Conflict and security Conflict and security SOURCE: Kambon, 2008

26 26 Way Forward: Platforms for Action 1. POLICY, LEGAL FRAMEWORKS AND PLANNING: Mainstreaming of gender perspectives into national policies, plans, legislation and other measures including those related to sustainable development and climate change. Gender policy integration into recovery planning Caribbean Regional Strategy for Comprehensive Disaster Management (CDM) – Views gender as a critical cross cutting issue

27 27 COMPREHENSIVE DISASTER MANAGEMENT (CDM) OUTPUTSOUTPUTSOUTPUTSOUTPUTS OUTCOME 4: Enhanced community resilience in CDERA states/ territories to mitigate and respond to the adverse effects of climate change and disasters OUTCOME 3: Disaster Risk Management has been mainstreamed at national levels and incorporated into key sectors of national economies (including tourism, health agriculture and nutrition) OUTCOME 2: An effective mechanism and programme for management of comprehensive disaster management knowledge has been established PURPOSE To strengthen regional, national and community level capacity for mitigation, management, and coordinated response to natural and technological hazards, and the effects of climate change. OUTCOME 1: Enhanced institutional support for CDM Program implementation at national and regional levels GOAL Regional Sustainable Development enhanced through CDM Programme Framework

28 28 Way Forward: Platforms for Action 2. GENDER INFUSED INFORMATION FOR DECISION MAKING - Does the information which informs policy decisions reflect a gender lens? 3. FINANCIAL –Flexibility of (eg. Post disaster) financing mechanisms to reflect women s needs and priorities –Gender analysis of all budget lines and financial instruments for climate change essential to ensure gender-sensitive investments on programmes for adaptation, mitigation, technological transfer and capacity building

29 29 Way Forward: Platforms for Action 4. GOVERNANCE: Participation of women in decision making processes on natural disasters and climate change – creation of opportunities; inclusiveness 5. ENABLING ACTIVITES FOR PARTICIPATION –Increasing the understanding of natural hazard risk and the potential implications of climate change –Equal access for women to training, credit and skills development programmes to ensure full participation

30 30 Way Forward View women as agents of change View women as agents of change (Indigenous) knowledge and expertise can used assist in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and disaster risk reduction (Indigenous) knowledge and expertise can used assist in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and disaster risk reduction

31 31 Thank You! Questions? Contact Information Telephone:


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