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Energy Security for Economic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean Mark Lambrides Department of Sustainable Development Organization of American.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Security for Economic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean Mark Lambrides Department of Sustainable Development Organization of American."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Security for Economic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean Mark Lambrides Department of Sustainable Development Organization of American States (OAS)

2 Presentation Outline n Introduction to Energy Issues in LAC n Review of Energy Statistics n Several Strategies to Address Energy Sector Challenges n OAS/DSD Energy Programs n General Assembly Special Theme

3 What do we mean by Energy ? n What are the primary forms of energy use? u Electricity u Mechanical/Heat for industry u Transportation u Residential heat/cooking/non-electrical lighting n What are the primary fuels for energy production? u Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas) u Nuclear u Renewables (hydro, solar, wind, biomass, geothermal) u Traditional fuels (wood, dung, candles, batteries…)

4 What are some of the key challenges associated with the energy sector? n Grid-tied electricity u Addressing generation needs F Address growing demand (additional generation capacity; multinational interconnections) F Extension of transmission and distribution lines F Reliability of fuel supplies (natural gas lines; droughts; oil supply disruptions) u Rising/fluctuating fossil fuel prices (set by international markets) F Dependency on imports throughout much of the region u High capital cost of renewable energy options u Increasing the efficiency of energy generation and use

5 What are some of the key challenges associated with the energy sector? n Rural electrification u Grid extension vs. household/community systems (solar, diesel generation…) u Poverty alleviation (household pollution/safety, community/agricultural applications)

6 What are some of the key challenges associated with the energy sector? n Transportation issues u Reliability and cost of fuel supplies u Adequate roads and other modes of transport u Bio-fuels (and other alternatives)

7 What are some of the key challenges associated with the energy sector? n Environment u Local pollutants (smog/other effluents; image) u Global - Climate Change (mitigation by reducing carbon emissions; vulnerability issues) n Geography u The region has significant energy resources, but uneven distribution u Wide variation in consumption patterns (economic variances) u Highly urbanized region

8 Summary – Variety of concerns pertaining to the energy sector in LAC n LAC Countries face wide variety of concerns: u Energy resource supply/security u High energy price/import costs u Rural poverty/urban migration u Urban/household pollution u Climate change vulnerability/adaptation u Climate change mitigation pressures u Energy resource management u ALL can benefit from energy efficiency/savings n Summary of key challenges: u ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ENERGY SECURITY

9 Comparison between Energy use and Economic Development

10 Overview of the Energy Sector in LAC n LAC primary energy growth rate : 3.11% per year (OLADE) n During this decade, LAC will require a 50% increase in its installed capacity, more than 90GW n Approximately 10% of the total population in LAC does not have access to electricity ~50 million people ( Between 20% and 90% of the rural population in LAC does not have access to electricity)

11 Overview of the Energy Sector in LAC

12 Energy Demand in LAC (excluding Mexico), Year Mtoe Other Renewables Biomass and Waste Hydro Nuclear Gas Oil Coal Overview of the Energy Sector in LAC Source: IEA

13 Principal Characteristics of the Electricity Sector in LAC - Supply and Demand n Generalizations regarding the generation of electricity in LAC u Latin America: Electricity generation dominated by large scale hydropower, natural gas, and oil/diesel u Caribbean: Almost exclusively oil/diesel generator (imported oil)

14 Electricity Overview: Brazil Percentage of Electricity Generation per source Total Electricity Generation GWh (2004) Source: Ministry of Energy and Mines 2004 Petroleum Derivatives 10,2% Hydro 32,2% Biomasse 32,9% Mineral Coal 1,2% Natural Gas 12,1% Industrial Gas 11,4%

15 Electricity Overview: Mexico Mexico: Capacity by Source (MW)

16 Electricity Generation Portfolio: Central America Installed Capacity in Central America (MW) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean – ECLAC: Istmo Centroamericano: Resumen de la Estadística Eléctrica, Data updated in 2004, Mexico, September 2005.

17 Electricity Generation Portfolio: Caribbean Installed Capacity in the Caribbean (MW)

18 Electricity Generation Portfolio: Dominican Republic n Over 80% of electricity and almost 100% of transportation relies on imported fuels (approximately M barrels per year). n High cost of electricity due to high costs of petroleum (consumer price is US$ /KWh). n Limited connectivity: u Only 66% has access to electricity in rural areas. u Only 60% of total population of 8.5 M is legally connected.

19 Electricity Market Policies – Regional generalizations u Latin America: Competitive markets unbundled G, T and D; Independent Power Producers (IPPs); Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs); and Spot Markets u Caribbean: Vertical Monopolies, Electricity policies guarantee rate of return for utilities.

20 Strategies to Address Energy Security and Development Challenges n Energy resources diversification n Interconnections/Cooperation between countries n Energy savings

21 n Energy resources diversification u Expand portfolio of electricity fuels/resources (renewables, fossil fuels, nuclear) u Diversify transportation fuel options (i.e. biofuels Brazil; hybrid vehicles USA) u Diversify sources of fossil fuel supplies Strategies to Address Energy Security and Development Challenges

22 n Interconnections/Coopera tion among countries u Link power grids (i.e. SIEPAC in Central America; US-Mexico; South American interconnections) u Link fuel supply lines (i.e. Natural gas pipelines Bolivia/Brazil/Argentina; PetroCaribe virtual connection) u Harmonization of policies, regulations, codes & standards Strategies to Address Energy Security and Development Challenges

23 n Energy Savings u Demand Side Management (DSM) Programs (i.e. Mexicos CONAE/FIDE) u Commercial efficiency programs (i.e. Caribbean Hotel Association Efficiency Program) u Improve transportation systems (roads, public transport, efficiency standards) Strategies to Address Energy Security and Development Challenges

24 Electricity Market Policies – Renewable Energy Policies n Brazil – PROINFA: 3.3 GW of RE [biomasse, small scale hydro and wind (1,100MW each)]; and special RE investment fund n Argentina – Law regulating and promoting biofuels. Creates institutional framework and establishes a 5% mix of biofuel or bioethanol n Chile – 2006 Government program to increase RE electricity generation by 15% before 2010

25 Electricity Market Policies – Renewable Energy Policies n Mexico: In December 2005 the lower chamber approved the renewables law (LAFRE); Goal % of generation nationwide. n Guatemala: RE Incentive Law (2003) n St. Lucia: Sustainable Energy Plan n Barbados: Solar hot water heating tax incentives

26 n Sustainable Energy Policy Assistance n Renewable Energy Technical/Resource Assistance n Information/knowledge management & hemispheric energy partnerships n Increase Access to Sources of Financing OAS/DSD Sustainable Energy Programs (Renewable Energy in the America – REIA)

27 u Sustainable Energy Policy Assistance F Sustainable Energy Policy Initiative (Capacity building) F Guatemala Renewable Energy Incentive Law F Sustainable Energy Plans (St. Lucia, Dominica, St. Kitts & Nevis, Grenada) F Mexico (RE regulations)

28 OAS/DSD Sustainable Energy Programs (Renewable Energy in the America – REIA) u Renewable Energy Technical/Resource Assistance F Bio-Energy Feasibility Study (St. Kitts & Nevis) F Caribbean Basin Bioenergy Initiative (concept) F Eastern Caribbean Geothermal Development Project (Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Kitts & Nevis) F Rural Schools Electrification Program [link to FEMCIDI] (Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala) F Andean Region Geothermal Workshop (Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador) F Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (Central America – UNEP)

29 OAS/DSD Sustainable Energy Programs (Renewable Energy in the America – REIA) u Knowledge/Information Management & Hemispheric Energy Partnerships F Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) – OAS/DSD serves as LAC Technical Secretariat F Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) – OAS/DSD organized hemispheric conference and provides TA

30 u Increase Access to Sources of Financing F Cooperate with the IADB Sustainable Energy Financing Initiative F Facilitate access to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the World Bank F Technical Assistance in issues relating to climate change/Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) tools OAS/DSD Sustainable Energy Programs (Renewable Energy in the America – REIA)

31 OAS General Assembly – Panama, 2007 n Special Theme: Energy u Declaration F Key Themes of the Initial Draft u Private Sector Forum of the Americas F High level experts form the private, public and multilateral sector n Next Steps

32 Thank you! Mark Lambrides Energy Division Chief Department of Sustainable Development (DSD) Integral Development Secretariat (SEDI)


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