Presentation on theme: "PROGRESS IN ESTABLISHING NUCLEAR- WEAPON-FREE ZONES Randy Rydell Ph. D. UN Office for Disarmament Affairs Statement at the Organization of American States."— Presentation transcript:
PROGRESS IN ESTABLISHING NUCLEAR- WEAPON-FREE ZONES Randy Rydell Ph. D. UN Office for Disarmament Affairs Statement at the Organization of American States Committee on Hemispheric Security 26 February 2009 Randy Rydell Ph. D. UN Office for Disarmament Affairs Statement at the Organization of American States Committee on Hemispheric Security 26 February 2009
The Nuclear Weapon Challenge … un atentado a la integridad de la especie humana y aún pueden tornar finalmente toda la Tierra inhabitable. Preamble, Treaty of Tlatelolco The mere existence of nuclear weapons constitutes a threat to all humanity … Resolved, in Santiago de Chile Declaration (Opanal General Conference, 2005)
Estimates of World Nuclear Arsenals (2009) Total nuclear weapons: > 23,300 Russia: 13,000 (3100 strategic) USA: 9,400 (2200 strategic) Deployment limits under SORT: 1,700 – 2,200 (by 31 Dec 2012) ~ 2,000 on high-alert status Source: Federation of American Scientists
NWFZ TREATIES: OVERVIEW TREATYYEARMEMBERS Tlatelolco Rarotonga Bangkok Pelindaba Central Asia TOTAL 112
The Importance of Tlatelolco First nuclear-weapon-free zone in a heavily populated region First multilateral treaty to define the term, nuclear weapon First treaty to establish legally binding negative security assurances First NWFZ with its own verification system Remains the only NWFZ treaty whose Protocols are in effect with all NWS.
Recent Events in Mexico City in Support of NWFZs April 2005: First Conference of States Parties to Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones February 2008: 41st Anniversary Commemoration of Tlatelolco August 2008: Extraordinary Session of OPANAL, with UN Secretary-General
NWFZ LEGAL FOUNDATION UN CHARTER : … regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. (Art. 52) NPT : Nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories. (Art. VII) -- Also stressed at 1995 & 2000 NPT Review Conferences SSOD-I : an important disarmament measure (Para 60)
NWFZ PRINCIPLES (UNDC, 1999) 1.Prohibit development, manufacturing, control, possession, testing, stationing or transporting of any type of nuclear-explosive device, for any purpose – within a defined geographical entity 2.Effective verification -- IAEA full-scope safeguards 3.Freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned 4.Status respected by NWS and states with territories in the region; consultation with NWS in negotiations 5.NWS binding commitment not to use or threaten use of NW 6.Conformity with international law & law of the sea 7.Should not prevent, and could also promote, peaceful uses
NPT vs. NWFZ? Legally-binding security assurances Outlaws stationing/basing Infrastructures of support: Commissions Physical security controls Environmental controls: dumping Terms for implementing withdrawals No attacks on nuclear facilities (Pelindaba) Procedures for settling disputes
The Evolution of NWFZs: The Pelindaba Treaty Scope: covers R & D Duty to declare/destroy old NW facilities Full-scope IAEA safeguards IAEA physical protection standard Prohibits testing No attacking nuclear facilities Commission: AFCONE Environmental: no nuclear dumping
Progress on WMD-Free Zones Long-standing goal in the Middle East, recognized by all states We declare our objective to make the Americas a region free of biological and chemical weapons. Declaration on Security in the Americas (2003) A model WMD-free zone treaty? Challenge to keep the nuclear disarmament priority, and coordinate with international WMD regimes.
Disarmament: Action on Many Levels Unilateral Bilateral Plurilateral Regional Multilateral/global
Next Steps Pelindaba: entry into force Universal regional membership P5 ratification of Protocols Promote new zones: Southern Hemisphere, Middle East, South Asia, Northeast Asia Explore WMD-free zone concept Problem of non-NPT States
Importance of Expanding Participation Parliamentarians, mayors, governors Networking among diverse NGOs Expanded support from foundations Coordinated action in multilateral fora High-level policy statements Education and training
Conclusion Freeing the world from WMD requires sustained efforts at all political levels -- grassroots to global The OAS has shown how regional action can advance global norms -- a strong foundation for meeting the WMD challenges ahead.