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Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Camilo Garcia, M. Ed.

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Presentation on theme: "Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Camilo Garcia, M. Ed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Camilo Garcia, M. Ed.

2 The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. By: Diogenes Laertius, author of The Lives of the Philosophers Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 3 -

3 Historical overview of Tertiary Education in the Americas Historical overview of Tertiary Education in the Americas Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 4 -

4 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Four basic structural models for tertiary institutions: Four basic structural models for tertiary institutions: Elitist – aims at quantitative limitations Elitist – aims at quantitative limitations Vertical– Structured and separated components Vertical– Structured and separated components Unitary model – aims to establish uniformity to reduce inequality Unitary model – aims to establish uniformity to reduce inequality Recurrent education – the acquisition of occupational qualifications Recurrent education – the acquisition of occupational qualifications - 5 -

5 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education 1. Martin Trow's definition of access to Higher Education 2. Economic factors 3. Lack of cohesion 4. Student Affairs Components 5. Weaknesses in the system 6. Emergency Education 7. Importance (value) given to education and other factors 8. IMF and WB requirements and demands on countries 9. Millennium Goals 2 nd Summit of the Americas - 6 -

6 1. Martin Trows (1973) three phases in the development of higher education in every advanced society: advanced society: Education for the elite(5 %) Education for the elite(5 %) Education for the masses(20 %) Education for the masses(20 %) Universal education (60 %) Universal education (60 %) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 7 -

7 2. Economic factors Initial inequality is related to the frequently inadequate health and nutrition of poor children Initial inequality is related to the frequently inadequate health and nutrition of poor children Extremely high costs of tertiary education Extremely high costs of tertiary education Tertiary education is exclusively private or extremely competitive Tertiary education is exclusively private or extremely competitive During economic recession – tertiary education is affected During economic recession – tertiary education is affected Need for child to work Need for child to work Lack of opportunities after graduation Lack of opportunities after graduation - High unemployment rates - Lack of a labor market for given industry - Need for a meritocratic and democratic society Universal approach versus a particularistic approach to education and economic reform Universal approach versus a particularistic approach to education and economic reform - Contemporary proposals often attempt a fix all approach Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education - 8 -

8 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Source: U.S. Higher Education Institutions - 9 -

9 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education

10 Learning gap Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Secondary and tertiary institutions are not working together to bridge gaps in tertiary opportunities Weak linkages between universities and non- university tertiary institutions No systems for the transfer of academic credits Skill level Short cycle for non-university education Educational dead-end Low quality Secondary University 3. Lack of cohesion

11 Low quality, lack of relevance and brain drain Insufficient qualifications of university professors Insufficient qualifications of university professors Deteriorating physical facilities, lack of equipment, obsolete instruction material and outdated curricula Deteriorating physical facilities, lack of equipment, obsolete instruction material and outdated curricula University graduates do not meet the skills needs in the economy University graduates do not meet the skills needs in the economy Source: Brunner (2002), World Bank (2002); UK Higher Education Statistics Agency Individualized Staff Record 2001/02; García Gaudilla (1998) and Schwartzman and Balbachevsky (1996) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

12 4.Student Affairs Components Feeling disenfranchised Feeling disenfranchised Special treatment leads to resentment Special treatment leads to resentment Lack of or no cultural cohesion Lack of or no cultural cohesion No extra curricular component No extra curricular component Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

13 5. Weakness in the system Low production and mobility of Ph.D.s and post-docs Low production and mobility of Ph.D.s and post-docs Inward orientation of university researchers Inward orientation of university researchers Lack of incentives to commercialize research and solve real-life problems Lack of incentives to commercialize research and solve real-life problems Red tape impeding partnerships and cross-sectoral mobility Red tape impeding partnerships and cross-sectoral mobility Source: IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2003 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

14 Weak system and institutional management Weak university management structures Weak university management structures Insufficient capacity in ministries of education for sector oversight and strategy Insufficient capacity in ministries of education for sector oversight and strategy Low access to relevant management information Low access to relevant management information Regional governments Private Universities Public Universities Regional Tertiary institutions Private Sector International networks Science Agency Tertiary Education System Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education Multilateral Organizations

15 Large increase in tertiary enrollment in recent decades Source: WDI 2003 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

16 Growth in private provision and non-university tertiary education Percent of total enrollment Year75%-40%40%-30%30%-20%20%-10%Less than 10% 1985 Brazil Colombia Dom. Republic Chile El Salvador Peru Argentina Guatemala Paraguay Costa Rica Ecuador Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Venezuela Bolivia Panama Uruguay Cuba 2002* Brazil Colombia Chile Dom. Republic El Salvador Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Venezuela Costa Rica Ecuador Argentina Guatemala Mexico HondurasBolivia Panama Uruguay Cuba Source: Schwartzman (2002); World Bank (2002c and 2003); Zúñiga (2003); OECD (2002a) and García Gaudilla (1998) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

17 6.Emergency education Poor preparedness for: Poor preparedness for: Civil war or armed conflict Civil war or armed conflict Natural disasters Natural disasters I.E. Hurricane Katrina I.E. Hurricane Katrina Economic issues Economic issues Political climate (lip service) Political climate (lip service) Epidemics Epidemics Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

18 7.Importance of education Political lip service (campaign promises) Political lip service (campaign promises) Funding and proper allocation Funding and proper allocation Parents own educational achievements Parents own educational achievements Gender inequality Gender inequality Ethnic divisions Ethnic divisions Tertiary education seen as a luxury Tertiary education seen as a luxury Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

19 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education

20 8.IMF and World Bank Lack of seriousness: UN Millennium Project has found that multilateral and bilateral institutions have not encouraged the countries to take the MDG seriously as operational objectives Lack of seriousness: UN Millennium Project has found that multilateral and bilateral institutions have not encouraged the countries to take the MDG seriously as operational objectives IMF and WB loan requirements are stringent and lead developing nations to compromises that are not always in their countrys economic and socials best interests. IMF and WB loan requirements are stringent and lead developing nations to compromises that are not always in their countrys economic and socials best interests. Knowledge based economy (WB, 2003) Knowledge based economy (WB, 2003) Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education

21 9.Millennium Goals: Education Education Universal primary education, expanded secondary and tertiary education by 2015 Universal primary education, expanded secondary and tertiary education by 2015 Gender equality Gender equality Science, technology and innovation Science, technology and innovation Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education

22 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education

23 Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education Source: UN MDG Report

24 2 nd Summit of the Americas The principal objective set by the 2 nd Summit of the Americas consisted of: Universal access to quality primary education for all children and access to quality secondary education for at least 75 percent of young people while providing the general population with opportunities for life-long learning However, secretary general Jose Miguel Insulza recently stated that the most talked about and advanced topic was the free trade negotiations. Primary example of lip service. Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Higher Education CP15633


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