Presentation on theme: "OAS Department of Public Security 1 Department of Public Security OAS Secretariat for Multidimensional Security."— Presentation transcript:
OAS Department of Public Security 1 Department of Public Security OAS Secretariat for Multidimensional Security
OAS Department of Public Security 2 The OAS DPS is carrying out an evaluation of security in the region, Phase I of which has already been completed. (1) (1)Project financed by Human Security Policy Division
OAS Department of Public Security 3 4 consultants, 12 countries El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras. Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. Phase II - remaining countries.
OAS Department of Public Security 4 The analysis covered … Standards Structures Statistics Interviews with qualified informers Regional surveys (Latinobarómetro, Barómetro de las Américas, etc.)
OAS Department of Public Security 5 CRIME Most pressing problem Latin America 2007 In your opinion, what is the most pressing problem in the country? Here only the two most important problems in the region. Most pressing problem: Unemployment Latin America 1995 – 2007 In your opinion, what is the most pressing problem in the country? Here only unemployment, crime, and inflation. Unemployment Crime Unemployment Crime Inflation
OAS Department of Public Security 6 Source : Barómetro de las Américas 2006. ¿How satisfied are you with the police? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Colombia Ecuador Bolivia Peru Jamaica Guyana Total Very satisfiedVery dissatisfied
OAS Department of Public Security 7 S ource : Barómetro de las Américas 2006. Do the police protect citizens? Police protect Police involved in crime
OAS Department of Public Security 8 Source: Barómetro de las Américas 2006. Corresponds to the question: How much confidence do you have in the police? (1: None…7:A lot). Confidence in the police 2006 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Mexico Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Colombia Ecuador Bolivia Peru Paraguay Chile Uruguay Brazil Venezuela Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica Guyana Total None A lot
OAS Department of Public Security 9 Source: King´s College. 2003-2006 Percentage of prison occupancy, by country – several years 050100150200 Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Peru Uruguay Venezuela France Spain England USA
OAS Department of Public Security 10 Source: King´s College Percentage of the prison population not yet sentenced, by country, several years 0 20 40 60 80 100 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Dominican R. Uruguay Venezuela France Spain England USA
OAS Department of Public Security 11 Democracy Insecurity Corruption LAPOP Latin American Public Opinion Project.
OAS Department of Public Security 12 Government improves public security and stable democracy in Latin American and the Caribbean
OAS Department of Public Security 13 The evaluation shows, among other things, … that in most countries …
OAS Department of Public Security 14 Organizational structures that belong to another era. Difficulties with infrastructure and equipment. In some cases, lack of up-to-date legislation and/or enforcement of public security policies. The police force lacks modern management tools. Functions and mandates are not clearly specified (manuals, procedures). Lack of reliable and systematic information (monitoring, evaluation, and impact measurement) exacerbated by the difficulty of comparing country data. Downgrading of police work: low wages, low morale, and lack of appreciation for police work, multiple jobs Major shortcomings in education and training Obstacles to coordination among the multiple actors in public security and with the judicial system.
OAS Department of Public Security 15 Need to train civilians who manage security issues. Reactive models take precedence over crime prevention policies. Corruption is an obvious serious problem. There is talk of decentralization but municipalities lack the necessary resources. Criminal investigations problems. Emphasis on crime control and suppression policies, such as increasing the number of police officers. Exponential increase in prison population resulting in a dysfunctional prison system. Limited technical capacity of civilians involved in security management. Increased use of the Armed Forces in police activities. Increase in the number of complaints of human rights violations. Lowering of the age for criminal liability of adolescents who break the law, as a solution to the problem of participation of minors in criminal acts.
OAS Department of Public Security 16 Private security
OAS Department of Public Security 17 Principal items: Physical surveillance, electronic security, armored transportation, services, and residential alarms Increase in the private security industry, by region (market values). Region Market US$ mn) (%) increase North America49,2007 – 8 Europe37,8006 – 10 Japan7,4007 – 9 Latin America6,5009 – 11 Rest of the world 16,20010 – 12 TOTAL117,1007 – 8 Source: Frigo, Edgardo (2006).
OAS Department of Public Security 18 Private security in one country… Source: Superintendency of Companies, Ecuador, 2007. Cumulative number of private security firms annually and rate per 100,000 inhabitants 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 6,00 7,00 Number 11554163390435487562648758849 Rate 0,020,180,561,523,283,583,924,435,005,736,29 19681982199019952000200120022003200420052006
OAS Department of Public Security 19 Private security Lack of regulation, monitoring, and control results in: –A high percentage of companies are not legally established –Companies can hire personnel that public security cannot (background, minimum standards are not complied with, etc.) –The carrying of weapons is not controlled. –Salaries and benefits may not be adequate (As is often the case with police officers, too). –Public security personnel work for private security firms.
OAS Department of Public Security 20 In some countries, public security policies often do not include private security, even though there are twice as many security guards as police.