2Early Nationalist Movements in Germany, 1815-1860. Example question : “Account for the lack of success of the Nationalist movement in Germany during the period 1815 – 1860.”Intro.Explain situation in 1815, end of Napoleonic Wars. German nationalism increasing during these years, but by 1860 all attempts had failed.Factors for:1815 Congress of Vienna, reduced Germany to 39 states.1815, Prussia/ Austria stronger as ‘buffer states’.German Confederation, good exampleCultural Nationalism (Romantic Movement)Students, Liberal + Nationalist, festivals1848 Revolutions failed, but Constitutions remainedFrankfurt Parliament failed, but gave ideaZollverein
4Factors against:Few wanted unification, espacially rulers1815 Congress of Vienna ‘put the clock back’German Confederation, article 2 preserved independenceRivalry Austria/Prussia, Klein/GrossdeutschReligious difference, north=protestant/ south=catholicStudents, academics, artists, little powerLiberals seen as threat to rulersAustria against unification (Carlsbad decrees, 1819, later 6 articles)1848 Revolutions failedFrankfurt Parliament failed, 18491850 Erfurt Union and Humiliation of OlmutzConclusionBalance factors for and against, mention historians views, explain why unification failed in spite of nationalist attempts, before 1860.
5Bismarck and Unification, 1860 –1871. Example question: “The role of the leader in bringing about unification has been greatly exaggerated.” Discuss with reference to Bismarck and Germany.Intro. Mildly important, he was the catalyst who got German unification moving, but there were long term factors as well.Bismarck’s contribution:Prime minister Prussia, raised taxes, pushed through army reforms, made Prussia strong enough to conquer (1862)Danish War, Made Danes look in the wrong , worked with Austria, but set scene for quarrel later.
6Austrian War, week war, made Austria appear in the wrong; deals with other countries; France promised land in Italy; North/South Germand Confederation, Austria out of Germany.Franco-Prussian War,1870/71, Hohenzollern Candidature, Spanish candidate; Ems telegram edited by Bismarck; France diplomatically isolated; France declared war, lost…..German Unification under the king of Prussia declared in Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, 1871.Bismarck was pragmatic and used realpolitik to gain unification, also luck and opportunism..”if he played the cards well, he had a good hand in the first place”.
8BUT OTHER FACTORS…Congress of Vienna, Austria and Prussia made stronger, fewer states(39)Cultural NationalismLiberal studentsPopulation growth, especially in PrussiaPrussia’s economy boomedZollverein (later Nationalverein as well)Frankfurt parliament, example, though failed, set an example.United against common enemy e.g. Napoleon, 1815; France again in 1840(Egypt/Rhine row)
9ConclusionBismarck important in way unified, but only one small factor, unification would most likely have been achieved anyway..possibly it would have been more peaceful. Weigh up economic/political factorsresponsible and answer the question.