Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Labour s To explain the birth of the Labour party"— Presentation transcript:
1The Rise of Labour 1880-1920s To explain the birth of the Labour party To understand how the labour party transformed British politics
2Socialism and Socialist groups an economic theory in which the means of production, distribution, and exchange are owned by the community collectively, usually through the state (think NHS, Royal mail, Rail network 10 years ago).
3That sounds a bit like communism…what is the difference? In socialist theory, people who are capitalists can still exist and work as part of the economic structureIn communist theory, money is taken from the rich to be evenly distributed. Capitalists cannot exist.
4Different Socialist groups SDF (Social-Democratic Federation)Fabians (intellectuals wanting gradual reform not revolution)LRC (would later become the labour Party)
5TasksPg 27 – 28 of workbookFind out about the SDF, Fabians and LRC using your textbook – pg20 onwards.Write information in your workbook15 minutes
6Explaining the rise of Labour Liberal weakness?Previously elections were a 2 horse race – Libs Vs. ToriesBUT Liberals became associated with capitalism and poverty.Liberals failed to look after working class voters / candidatesFeared would lose voters to labour so set up LIB/LAB pact in 1903.‘New Liberalism ideas’Social reform programme (our next topic)Liberals weak and split over WW1 and Home RuleLabour BENEFITTED from the WEAKNESSES of the Liberals
7Electoral performance of the Labour Party 1900-23 DateVotesMPsCandidates% share in UK vote% share of vote in Scotland190063,3042151.82.31910371,72242567.13.619182,385,4726338822.122.919224,241,38314214129.532.219234,438,50819142230.535.9
8Explaining the rise of Labour Dynamic leadership – Keir Hardie and Ramsay MacDonaldAttacked poverty, inequality, housing and social welfare.Labour wanted state to be involved in all areas of peoples livesDid not agree with laissez faire
9James Keir HardyJames Keir Hardy was important to the emergence of the Labour party, as he was associated with all of the major points that led to the Labour party’s success in the 1906 general election.
10Early Life Born in Lanarkshire, Scotland on 15 August 1856 Illegitimate son of a servant, Mary Keir. His mother later married David Hardie, a carpenter.Keir Hardie was sent to work as a baker's delivery boy aged eight without any schooling, and was the sole wage-earner of the family.By the age of 11, he was a coal miner.By 17 he had taught himself to read and write.
11The SocialistCareer in politics began with the establishment of a worker's union at his colliery, and in 1881 he led the first ever strike of Lanarkshire miners.In 1892, Keir Hardie was invited to stand as the Independent Labour Party candidate for West Ham in east London. He won and took his seat in parliament.He marked himself out as a socialist radical both by his dress - he wore a tweed suit when most MPs wore more formal dress - and the subjects he advocated, including women's rights, free schooling and pensions.
12After a long battle to win another seat, he was finally elected MP to Merthyr Tydfil in 1900 and was one of only two Labour MPs in Parliament.But by 1906 this number had increased to 26.Keir Hardie was elected leader of the party in the House of Commons, but was not very good at dealing with internal rivalries and he resigned from the post in 1908.
13He devoted his energy to promoting the Labour Party and championing equality, particularly in the cause of women's suffrage.In 1910, 40 Labour MPs were elected to parliament and Keir Hardie gave up the party leadership to George Barnes.He died on 26 September 1915 in Glasgow.
15Taff ValeIn 1901 the Taff Vale Railway Company sued a railway workers union called the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants for losses during a strike.As a result of the case the union was fined £23,000.Up until this time it was assumed that unions could not be sued for acts carried out by their members.This court ruling exposed trade unions to being sued every time it was involved in an industrial dispute.
16Explaining the rise of Labour As as result of Taff Vale, the Trade Unions flooded to join up with the Labour Party.This was because they wanted to improve the legal rights of Trade Unions.RESULT = The TUs gave Financial backing to the Labour Party. (this solved critical weakness in 1890s when the ILP only afforded and won 2 MPs)
17Was Labour’s rise inevitable? How successful was the party? THREAT = In 1909 the Osborne judgment ruled that trade unions could no longer use their funds for political purposes.The judgement stopped the Labour party's main funding source. This was especially detrimental to the Labour party as its supporters were generally poorer than other political parties.
18Was Labour’s rise inevitable? How successful was the party? Before 1914 Labour was ‘a specialised interest group.’It did not represent the nation but only represented the Trade unions – to which ‘less than half’ of Britain’s working population belonged.So Labour’s rise was not inevitable.
19Was Labour’s rise inevitable? How successful was the party? Impact of the War = massiveShowed that state could control people’s lives – D.O.R.A was as far away from the old ways of Laissez faire as could get.The coalition government with Labour politicians in it showed the British people that Labour leaders could be trusted as responsible and capable members of government.
20Was Labour’s rise inevitable? How successful was the party? FACT: Extension of the Franchise Act 1918 led to more working class people getting the vote.All men over 21 and most women over 30Electorate rose from 7.9m (1910) to 21.4m(1918) – of which 40% were womenWorking class people increasingly identified themselves with the Labour party BUT this was not automatic.
21In 1918 these factory workers were given the right to vote. Can we tell who they voted for?
22In 1918 these miners were given the right to vote. Can we tell who they voted for?
23In 1918 these trainee electricians were given the right to vote. Can we tell who they voted for?
24In 1918 these women were given the right to vote. Can we tell who they voted for?
25Was Labour’s rise inevitable? How successful was the party? ConclusionKeep the rise of Labour in perspectiveRecent research showed that Labour’s rise was not inevitableIt was the product of several factorsIt’s big success in this time was to break the two-party politics of the past (Libs and Tories)
26Tasks A. Complete notes on Keir Hardy from last time B. Make further notes in your workbook (pg 28) on the following areas:Taff ValeOsborne judgementImpact of WW1Make a copy of the diagram on page 23 ensuring you understand the purpose of the diagram and the different groups thereinRead the rest of pg 31.Gather your notes on Labour and begin to look at an essay plan for the essay question on pg. 32
27Essay prep Complete all workbook tasks up to page 33 Begin an essay plan for your next essay on the Labour partyThe question is….“Support of the Trade Unions was the main reason for Labour’s success by 1918”. How far do you agree with this hypothesis?Answer: not very far