Presentation on theme: "Labour would not have grown powerful without the First World War"— Presentation transcript:
1Labour would not have grown powerful without the First World War Labour would not have grown powerful without the First World War. How far do you agree with this statement? Friday 16th September
2How successful were the Liberal reforms? What? An evaluation of the Liberal ReformsWhy? The Reforms have been seen as the birth of the Welfare state. Were they really?
3Was it a welfare state?What is a Welfare state? Be ready with a definition of thisThe idea of comprehensive social services and social security provision
4Past paper essay questions How far were the reports on poverty produced by Booth and Rowntree responsible for the Liberal social reforms of ? (2005)To what extent did the social reforms of the Liberal government ( ) improve the lives of the British people? (2006)
5Government pass reforms? Fear for Britain’s place in theworld - national security.When potential recruits tried to jointhe army for the Boer War (1899),almost 25% were turned downon the grounds of poor healthEvidence of poverty(Booth and Rowntree )waswidely read. Thiswasinescapable evidenceRecap diagram“New Liberals” -had new ideas on state intervention.WHY did the LiberalGovernment pass reforms?National Efficiency –Britain no longer the top industrial nation. Belief that this was connected to poor health and educational standards.Chancellor Bismarck’s social reforms were making Germans strong in comparison.Political pragmatism –Liberals could lose votes to Labour if nothing was done to help the poor.
61906 General election 377 seats (Tories 157, Labour 29) Ended long period of Tory dominanceTories lost it because of Boer War and failing education and tax systemsLiberal success the result of individuals.....
7Henry Campbell Bannermann Prime MinisterRetired from ill-health and died a few days laterKey reformer
8Herbert Asquith Chancellor of Exchequer 1905-1908 Prime Minister
10Winston Churchill Left Conservatives in 1904 Home secretary 1910-1911 Lord of Admiralty
11Edward Grey Foreign Secretary 1905-1916 Longest continuous holding of office in British History
12Their reforms This section is about their reforms. There is little value in simply reciting the reforms in an essay.You need to be able to explain how and why this form of Liberal welfarism was different from the ideas of Laissez Faire.
13What were the reforms about? Aimed at helping people who faced poverty through no fault of their own:Young peopleOld peopleSick peopleUnemployed people
14Reform area Reforms Success Failure Young Old Sick Other Unemployed Free school meals for young people…OldSickUnemployedOther
15Young 1906 - Free school meals for young people 1907 – School medical inspections started1908 – juvenile courts / borstals startedChildren’s charter restricted the sale of alcohol and cigarettes
16How effective were these reforms? Research showed that growth of poor children slowed during school holidays.This showed that school meals were an important part of health of poor children.Medical inspections did little to solve any problems discoveredAttempts to protect children from smoking and alcohol had limited success.
17Old1908 – government started paying 5 shillings (25p) per week to people over 70 who had a current income of up to £21 per yearA married couple got 37.5p each weekLess pension given to higher earners
18How effective were these reforms? Providing pensions is the basis of a Welfare state.But remember, Rowntree calculated a poverty line for an individual to be 35p a week.Old age pensions therefore helped the elderly but did not solve old age povertyMany elderly people needed help long before they reached 70 and most died before receiving a pension.
19Sick There was no free National Health Service at the time The poor could not usually afford treatment1911 National Insurance Act gave some medical benefitsEvery worker contributed 4p per week towards medical helpEvery employer then added 3p and the government added 2p per week.Called ‘nine-pence for four-pence’
20How effective were these reforms? Illness and absence from work were a major cause of poverty. So money coming in as ‘sick pay’ did help families in hard times.However, only the insured worker got free medical treatment from a doctor.Other family members did not benefit from the scheme, no matter how sick they were.
21Unemployed Labour Exchanges (like today’s job centres) were started. Part II of the NI Act dealt with unemployment and workers paid into the scheme and got contributions from their employers and the state.
22How effective were these reforms? The 1911 act only covered temporary unemploymentAlso only applied to seven tradesWhen unemployment increased after WW1 the system failed as too many people claimed benefit and there was not enough money to pay out.
23Other reforms worth noting You should add these if a question asks about Liberal Reforms in general1908 miners act secured an 8 hour day (first time the length of a working day was fixed)1909 Trade Boards Act protected ‘sweated trades’ such as tailoring. These fixed minimum wages and maximum hours1911 Shops Act gave shop assistants a weekly half day off
24AssessmentThe liberal reforms were more important psychologically than anything elseThey set precedents for future reformThey did not improve much for ordinary British citizensThe idea of comprehensive social services and social security provision
25Positves?If we compare them against the old Victorian ideas of self-help and the poor-law then the Liberal Reforms mark a Giant step .They paved the way towards the later proposals of the welfare state which WAS set up later in
26Essay Question: Did the Liberals create a Welfare state? NOIt was a transition point between old laissez-faire attitudes and what was later called the Welfare stateA change of ideas but still wanted the poor to help themselvesLiberal MP Winston Churchill “If we see a man drowning we do not drag him to the shore. Instead we provide help to allow him to swim ashore himself.”The Liberals tried to help poorer sections of society to help themselves.The Reforms were not always successful
27Tasks Complete all work up to and including page 38 Create a table about the Liberal reforms and their success. Complete it using the statements on page 39Copy the diagram on page 39 and add detail to it using the textbook pages 48 to 57 as well as slide 1.Arguments for the success of the Liberal ReformsArguments against the success of the Liberal ReformsEtc…….
28MINI ESSAYIn your opinion, were the liberal reforms successful in creating a welfare state? Write a detailed answer with evidence to back up your argument.