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Labour would not have grown powerful without the First World War. How far do you agree with this statement? Friday 16 th September.

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Presentation on theme: "Labour would not have grown powerful without the First World War. How far do you agree with this statement? Friday 16 th September."— Presentation transcript:

1 Labour would not have grown powerful without the First World War. How far do you agree with this statement? Friday 16 th September

2 How successful were the Liberal reforms? What? An evaluation of the Liberal Reforms Why? The Reforms have been seen as the birth of the Welfare state. Were they really?

3 Was it a welfare state? What is a Welfare state? Be ready with a definition of this What is a Welfare state? Be ready with a definition of this The idea of comprehensive social services and social security provision The idea of comprehensive social services and social security provision

4 Past paper essay questions How far were the reports on poverty produced by Booth and Rowntree responsible for the Liberal social reforms of ? (2005) To what extent did the social reforms of the Liberal government ( ) improve the lives of the British people? (2006)

5 WHY did the Liberal Government pass reforms? Evidence of poverty (Booth and Rowntree )was widely read. This was inescapable evidence Fear for Britains place in the world - national security. When potential recruits tried to join the army for the Boer War (1899), almost 25% were turned down on the grounds of poor health National Efficiency – Britain no longer the top industrial nation. Belief that this was connected to poor health and educational standards. Chancellor Bismarcks social reforms were making Germans strong in comparison. Political pragmatism – Liberals could lose votes to Labour if nothing was done to help the poor. New Liberals -had new ideas on state intervention. Recap diagram

6 1906 General election 377 seats (Tories 157, Labour 29) 377 seats (Tories 157, Labour 29) Ended long period of Tory dominance Ended long period of Tory dominance Tories lost it because of Boer War and failing education and tax systems Tories lost it because of Boer War and failing education and tax systems Liberal success the result of individuals..... Liberal success the result of individuals.....

7 Henry Campbell Bannermann Prime Minister Prime Minister Retired from ill-health and died a few days later Retired from ill-health and died a few days later Key reformer Key reformer

8 Herbert Asquith Chancellor of Exchequer Chancellor of Exchequer Prime Minister Prime Minister

9 David Lloyd George Chancellor of Exchequer Chancellor of Exchequer

10 Winston Churchill Left Conservatives in 1904 Left Conservatives in 1904 Home secretary Home secretary Lord of Admiralty Lord of Admiralty

11 Edward Grey Foreign Secretary Foreign Secretary Longest continuous holding of office in British History Longest continuous holding of office in British History

12 Their reforms This section is about their reforms. This section is about their reforms. There is little value in simply reciting the reforms in an essay. There is little value in simply reciting the reforms in an essay. You need to be able to explain how and why this form of Liberal welfarism was different from the ideas of Laissez Faire. You need to be able to explain how and why this form of Liberal welfarism was different from the ideas of Laissez Faire.

13 What were the reforms about? Aimed at helping people who faced poverty through no fault of their own: Young people Young people Old people Old people Sick people Sick people Unemployed people Unemployed people

14 Reform area ReformsSuccessFailure Young Free school meals for young people… Old Sick Unemployed Other

15 Young Free school meals for young people Free school meals for young people 1907 – School medical inspections started 1907 – School medical inspections started 1908 – juvenile courts / borstals started 1908 – juvenile courts / borstals started Childrens charter restricted the sale of alcohol and cigarettes Childrens charter restricted the sale of alcohol and cigarettes

16 How effective were these reforms? Research showed that growth of poor children slowed during school holidays. Research showed that growth of poor children slowed during school holidays. This showed that school meals were an important part of health of poor children. This showed that school meals were an important part of health of poor children. Medical inspections did little to solve any problems discovered Medical inspections did little to solve any problems discovered Attempts to protect children from smoking and alcohol had limited success. Attempts to protect children from smoking and alcohol had limited success.

17 Old 1908 – government started paying 5 shillings (25p) per week to people over 70 who had a current income of up to £21 per year 1908 – government started paying 5 shillings (25p) per week to people over 70 who had a current income of up to £21 per year A married couple got 37.5p each week A married couple got 37.5p each week Less pension given to higher earners Less pension given to higher earners

18 How effective were these reforms? Providing pensions is the basis of a Welfare state. Providing pensions is the basis of a Welfare state. But remember, Rowntree calculated a poverty line for an individual to be 35p a week. But remember, Rowntree calculated a poverty line for an individual to be 35p a week. Old age pensions therefore helped the elderly but did not solve old age poverty Old age pensions therefore helped the elderly but did not solve old age poverty Many elderly people needed help long before they reached 70 and most died before receiving a pension. Many elderly people needed help long before they reached 70 and most died before receiving a pension.

19 Sick There was no free National Health Service at the time There was no free National Health Service at the time The poor could not usually afford treatment The poor could not usually afford treatment 1911 National Insurance Act gave some medical benefits 1911 National Insurance Act gave some medical benefits Every worker contributed 4p per week towards medical help Every worker contributed 4p per week towards medical help Every employer then added 3p and the government added 2p per week. Every employer then added 3p and the government added 2p per week. Called nine-pence for four-pence Called nine-pence for four-pence

20 How effective were these reforms? Illness and absence from work were a major cause of poverty. So money coming in as sick pay did help families in hard times. Illness and absence from work were a major cause of poverty. So money coming in as sick pay did help families in hard times. However, only the insured worker got free medical treatment from a doctor. However, only the insured worker got free medical treatment from a doctor. Other family members did not benefit from the scheme, no matter how sick they were. Other family members did not benefit from the scheme, no matter how sick they were.

21 Unemployed Labour Exchanges (like todays job centres) were started. Labour Exchanges (like todays job centres) were started. Part II of the NI Act dealt with unemployment and workers paid into the scheme and got contributions from their employers and the state. Part II of the NI Act dealt with unemployment and workers paid into the scheme and got contributions from their employers and the state.

22 How effective were these reforms? The 1911 act only covered temporary unemployment The 1911 act only covered temporary unemployment Also only applied to seven trades Also only applied to seven trades When unemployment increased after WW1 the system failed as too many people claimed benefit and there was not enough money to pay out. When unemployment increased after WW1 the system failed as too many people claimed benefit and there was not enough money to pay out.

23 Other reforms worth noting You should add these if a question asks about Liberal Reforms in general You should add these if a question asks about Liberal Reforms in general 1908 miners act secured an 8 hour day (first time the length of a working day was fixed) 1908 miners act secured an 8 hour day (first time the length of a working day was fixed) 1909 Trade Boards Act protected sweated trades such as tailoring. These fixed minimum wages and maximum hours 1909 Trade Boards Act protected sweated trades such as tailoring. These fixed minimum wages and maximum hours 1911 Shops Act gave shop assistants a weekly half day off 1911 Shops Act gave shop assistants a weekly half day off

24 Assessment The liberal reforms were more important psychologically than anything else The liberal reforms were more important psychologically than anything else They set precedents for future reform They set precedents for future reform They did not improve much for ordinary British citizens They did not improve much for ordinary British citizens The idea of comprehensive social services and social security provision

25 Positves? If we compare them against the old Victorian ideas of self-help and the poor-law then the Liberal Reforms mark a Giant step. If we compare them against the old Victorian ideas of self-help and the poor-law then the Liberal Reforms mark a Giant step. They paved the way towards the later proposals of the welfare state which WAS set up later in They paved the way towards the later proposals of the welfare state which WAS set up later in

26 Essay Question: Did the Liberals create a Welfare state? NO NO It was a transition point between old laissez-faire attitudes and what was later called the Welfare state It was a transition point between old laissez-faire attitudes and what was later called the Welfare state A change of ideas but still wanted the poor to help themselves A change of ideas but still wanted the poor to help themselves Liberal MP Winston Churchill If we see a man drowning we do not drag him to the shore. Instead we provide help to allow him to swim ashore himself. Liberal MP Winston Churchill If we see a man drowning we do not drag him to the shore. Instead we provide help to allow him to swim ashore himself. The Liberals tried to help poorer sections of society to help themselves. The Liberals tried to help poorer sections of society to help themselves. The Reforms were not always successful The Reforms were not always successful

27 Tasks 1. Complete all work up to and including page Create a table about the Liberal reforms and their success. Complete it using the statements on page Copy the diagram on page 39 and add detail to it using the textbook pages 48 to 57 as well as slide 1. Arguments for the success of the Liberal Reforms Arguments against the success of the Liberal Reforms Etc…….

28 MINI ESSAY In your opinion, were the liberal reforms successful in creating a welfare state? Write a detailed answer with evidence to back up your argument.


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