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IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Musselburgh Grammar School NATO, Terrorism and World Security Presentation 23 March 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Musselburgh Grammar School NATO, Terrorism and World Security Presentation 23 March 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Musselburgh Grammar School NATO, Terrorism and World Security Presentation 23 March 2007

2 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance A few questions Has UK been involved in any conflicts? If so, what, why, how and when? Is UK involved in major alliances? If so, which ones? What do they do? Do we really need them? Terrorism-how big a problem? What are governments doing to protect us?

3 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Has UK been involved in any major conflicts in last ten years? UK has been involved in military operations in three continents in last ten years or so –but which? Europe Asia Africa North America South America Australasia

4 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 1. Europe UK got involved twice in South East Europe 1995 and 1999 Soldiers and aircraft As member of international alliance

5 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 1. Europe Break-up of Yugoslavia from 1989 Vicious civil wars Attempts at ethnic cleansing UN involved since 1989 UN peace keeping largely ineffective

6 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 1.Europe July 1995-Srebinica Massacre Bosnian Serbs expel Bosnian Muslims One solution via Ethnic cleansing Took over Bosnian Muslim Village Murdered 8300 Bosnian Muslims 400 UN troops there but couldnt stop massacre

7 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 1. Europe So UK got involved through NATO 1995 Bosnia- NATO Air Campaign - Dayton/ Treaty of Paris - IFOR/SFOR 1999 Kosovo- NATO Air Campaign - NATO Land based forces - KFOR

8 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 2. Asia UK involved twice Afghanistan- 1) US-led force -end 2001, 2) With NATO – from 2003 Iraq- 1) US-led force in ) With NATO- training to Iraqi army and police

9 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 2. Asia-Afghanistan Taliban regime provided training ground for terrorists If not tackled, terrorists could continue to operate freely United Nations asked NATO to lead an International Security Assistance Force Initially involved 20,000 people from all 26 NATO members and 11 non-NATO nations

10 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 2. Asia-Afghanistan Objective is to help establish peace and security after many years of conflict 5 year plan between Afghan Government and International Community covering security, governance, and economic development Both military and civil support

11 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 2. Asia-Afghanistan Latest position There are 50,700 troops there These come from 37 different countries, including all NATO members Includes soldiers from UK Major operation in Helmand province to deal with Taliban still ongoing

12 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance NATOs Role -Military

13 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance NATOs Role-Military training

14 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance NATOs Role-Economic/Social

15 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance NATOs role –Medical Aid

16 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 2.Asia-Afghanistan- Benefits/Achievements Made it very difficult for Al Quaida to operate from Afghanistan Enabled economic and social progress Improved co-operation among allies

17 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 3.Asia-Iraq Invasion USA claimed Iraq broken United Nations rules about weapons of mass destruction. USA/ UK failed to get Security Council support 20 March Invasion of Iraq began (about 250,000 from USA, 45,000 from UK) 9 April Fall of Baghdad 1 May Bush declared end of major combat operations 13 December, 2003 capture of Saddam Hussein

18 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 3.Asia-Iraq Latest position-2007 About 90% of non- Iraqi soldiers are from USA ( 7/8,000-UK) Iraqi Govt since 04 Iraqi army doing more Insurgency continues Iraqi casualties-any where between 65,000 and 650,000…

19 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 3.Asia-Iraq NATO-Training ONLY

20 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Iraq-Military Training

21 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 4. Africa-Sierra Leone Long-running civil war UN went in but failed to stop fighting Early ,000 UK troops went in to help evacuation of foreigners UK then helped UN, trained Government army, drove back and secured capital UK reduced commitment –training only

22 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Is UK involved in major alliances? North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) US- led alliances/coalitions in Iraq in 2003 and in Afghanistan in 2001 United Nations

23 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance NATO-What did they do? Washington Treaty Collective defence Article 5-Attack on one is attack on all 12 Members initially USA/Canada commit to Europes defence Protected West against Communist Threat

24 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance A flavour of life under Communists/Soviets

25 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 1989/90-Ending of Cold War Collapse of Soviet Union End of Warsaw Pact What happens next?

26 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 1990-Did we really need NATO? Small club-16 Members only Just covered West Europe Hardly spoke to non-members Cost a lot ( 8 million soldiers, 61,000 tanks and artillery pieces, 80 regional HQs)

27 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance So what happened then? Need to settle problems in South East Europe: -NATO adapted to deal with peace-keeping and crisis management Need to build relationships especially with former enemies and neighbours: - North Atlantic Council/ Partnership for Peace - Mediterranean Dialogue

28 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Before S11... little political discussion on the nature of terrorism and on its implications for the Alliances concepts, policies, military structure and capabilities... Allies invoked art.5 Attack against US is an attack against all 8 initial measures to implement art.5 (4 October 2001)

29 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance Threats to global security or western security Terrorist threats Afghanistan Rogue states- eg North Korea, Iran Nuclear proliferation Middle East Russia Note overlap between different factors

30 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance What makes terrorism different post Unique combination of factors: - global reach - capability - resilience - sophistication - ambition - lack of restraint

31 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance New Terrorists -What are key driving forces? Uncompromising message from a group of Muslim radicals Their views: - West represents threat to Islam - Loyalty to religion and loyalty to democratic institutions are incompatible - Violence is the only proper response

32 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance What was so significant about 9.11? Changed terrorist landscape Showed Al Quaeda would attack : - on large scale/ reaching across world - with high impact - indifferent to mass casualties - using innovative methods

33 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance So how serious? Terrorists have attacked in New York, London, Madrid, Athens etc Numerous scares or rumours Terrorist groups in Middle East Look at scale of response in terms of government legislation and actions

34 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance So what are Governments doing to protect us? More resource for police and anti-terrorist groups(cash, kit and training) More co-operation between governments Guidance for companies/organisations (eg MI5 Website) Extra protection (eg airports, power stations,water ) Through United Nations- requiring members to act against terrorism Either working with or supporting NATO

35 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 1. NATO-Protecting Shipping in Mediterranean Active Endeavour Strategic Objective:...help deter, defend, disrupt and protect against terrorism...and demonstrate the Alliances determination in the campaign against terrorism... Partner involvement (Istanbul Summit – June 2004)

36 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 2.NATO-Afghanistan- Establishing security/peace etc

37 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 3. NATO-South East Europe Maintaining peace NATO HQs (Sarajevo, Skopje) Kosovo – NATO-led International Force: troops from 35 NATO and non-NATO nations Mission : To establish and Maintain a Secure Environment in Kosovo

38 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 4. NATO - Response Force (NRF) to deal with potential crises Land component: brigade size Air: about 200 sorties per day Up to NATO Task Force NRF (total about )

39 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 5. NATO- NRF MISSIONS Crisis Response including Peacekeeping Peace Enforcement Counter Terrorism Operations Consequence Management including CBRN events and humanitarian crises Embargo operations: maritime, initial land, and no-fly zone Initial Entry Force…or enabling force Demonstrative Force Package Non-combatant Evacuation

40 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance 6. NATO - Building Understanding/Cooperation Partnership for Peace NATO - Russia NATO - Ukraine Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Countries around Mediterranean NATO - EU: Strategic Partnership NATO – United Nations

41 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance But can NATO do more? Darfur Crisis-Sudan

42 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance SUMMARY UK has been involved in several big international military operations in last 10 years UK acted mostly with NATO NATO has changed a lot since end of Cold War Dealing with Terrorism has been a priority for NATO since 2001 NATO is involved in 4 major missions NATO has the ability to respond quickly to new crises and to achieve cooperation through stronger relationships

43 IS - DPP Defence Policy and Planning for the Alliance


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