2Think about it…. How could ocean pollution affect your life? Think of ways you contribute to ocean pollution in your daily life.
3Review Non-Point Source Pollution – Point-Source Pollution – comes from many sourcesPoint-Source Pollution –one specific source
4Non-Point source pollution Most ocean pollution is non-point sourceHuman activities on land pollute streams and rivers which flow to oceansStormwater runoff and agricultural runoff are the most common sources. They increase nutrients too much and cause algal blooms. Dissolved oxygen levels drop and cause fish to die = EUTRIFICATION!Difficult to control and clean
5Plastics- the beginning Cheap and durableAlternative to glass and animal products such as ivoryCould be used to replicate a variety of materials
6Plastics- the problemMost types created from the fossil fuel, petroleum, a non-renewable resourceUsed in a lot of packaging- a large part of the waste in our landfillsTakes a long time to break down- we don’t know how long!
7Plastics- the problem A lot of plastic never makes it to a landfill Ends up in habitats of many animalsPollutes the ocean
13Ways to reduce plastic waste… Reduce- use less plastic by using reusable bags, containers, bottles.Reuse- plastic bags from the grocery store can be used multiple timesRecycle- plastic is recyclable! And please don’t litter…Re-buy- buy goods made from recycled materials whenever possible!
14Recyclability of Common Materials… Aluminum cans: infinitely, and aluminum is a valuable resource!Paper: 5-7 times to make new paper, after that must be mixed with something else or used to create something else.Cardboard: many timesGlass: infinitely, doesn’t lose quality, and cheaper to recycle than make new glassPlastics: once to make same item, then must be created into something else such as fabrics, furniture, and carpet
15Trash Patches Pacific – World’s worst example of pollution Twice the size of TexasFloating soup of plastic bagsand other goods which hascollected over many yearsbecause the clockwise, circularcurrent and lack of wind drivesfloating debris into the centerof the gyre.
18So what?A turtle found dead in Hawaii had over a thousand pieces of plastic in its stomach and intestines.It has is estimated that over a million sea-birds and one hundred thousand marine mammals and sea turtles are killed each year by ingestion of plastics or entanglement.Animals can become entangled in discarded netting and line.
19Not for those with weak stomachs! CAUTIONNot for those with weak stomachs!
23Point-source pollution Clean-up is still difficult but it’s easier than cleaning up non-point source pollutionTrash dumpingSludge dumpingOil spills
24Trash Dumping1980’s scientists became alarmed at the kinds of trash in our oceans (bandages, vials of blood – contained AIDS, syringes)Found that hospitals dumped 3 million tons of medical waste/year = 6,000,000,000 pounds of trashStricter laws created and now it is buried in landfillsSome trash dumping still occurring in deep ocean by some countriesEFFECTS: trash (especially plastic) harmful to animals b/c they mistake it for food
25Sludge Dumping Sludge from raw sewage dumped into oceans Dumped offshore with hopes of it sinking to bottom, BUT due to currents, often it is moved closer to shore where it pollutes beaches and kills animals/plantsBanned in most places but some countries still dump
26Oil Spills Oil is in high demand all over the world Transported in huge tankers across oceansOil spills occur when oil is not handled properlyEFFECTS:Countless animals and plants die.Even after clean up, environment will suffer for decades
28Only 5% of oil pollution is from oil spills BUT…Only 5% of oil pollution is from oil spillsMost of oil that pollutes oceans is non-point source from cities and towns
29Saving our Ocean Resources Citizens of countries have acted by petitioning their government for stricter laws and starting events like “beach clean-ups”United States – 1972 – “Clean Water Act” put EPA in charge of issuing permits for ocean dumpingUnited States – 1972 – “US Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act” – prohibit dumping of any material that would affect human health or welfare, the marine environment or ecosystems, or businesses that depend on the ocean.1989 – Several nations joined together to pass a treaty that prohibits dumping of certain metals, plastics, oil and radioactive wasteDumping and oil spills still occurEnforcing laws is difficult b/c oceans take up 71 % of the Earth, hard to monitor
30Cleaning it upImagine that you are in charge of the ocean plastics clean up design a way to clean up the plastics with minimal harm to the ocean biosystem.
31Now compare and contrast your solution with click on picture to see video
32Quick Quiz List three types of ocean pollution. Raw sewage dumping is which type of ocean pollution?What would be an example of non-point source pollution? Point-source pollution?How can trash dumping and sludge dumping affect food webs/chains in the ocean?