Presentation on theme: "Protecting Our Freedoms"— Presentation transcript:
1Protecting Our Freedoms The Bill of RightsProtecting Our Freedoms
2What is the Bill of Rights? The Bill of Rights is made up of the first 10 amendments to the Constitution.The Bill of Rights defines US citizens freedoms and protects them from the powers of the US government.The B of R was passed as a group of 10 in 1791
3The First AmendmentCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or of the right of people to peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
4The First Amendment: List of Rights Congress cannot:establish a religioninterfere with my choice of religionlimit my free speechlimit my free presslimit my right to assemblelimit my right to petition the government
5Key Event: Bethel School District v Fraser 1986 BackgroundQuestion:Does the First Amendment prevent a school district from disciplining a high school student for giving a lewd speech at a high school assembly?
6Key Event: Bethel School District v Fraser 1986 Decision7-2No. The Court found that it was appropriate for the school to prohibit the use of vulgar and offensive language. Chief Justice Burger distinguished between political speech which the Court previously had protected in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969) and the supposed sexual content of Fraser's message at the assembly.
7NOTES: Establishment Clause verses Free Exercise Clause Government may not establish an official religion, nor favor one religion.Government may not support religious activities.Free Exercise ClauseGovernment cannot interfere with your exercise of religious beliefs.Can these 2 clauses conflict with each other?
8Key Event 2: Lemon v Kurtzman 1971 A Pennsylvania Law called the Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act reimbursed all private schools for teacher pay, books, instructional materials.Is it a violation of the establishment clause?
9Lemon v Kurtzman 1971: The Lemon Test The government's action must have a secular legislative purpose;The government's action must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion;The government's action must not result in an "excessive government entanglement" with religion.
10THE SECOND AMENDMENTA well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
11The Second Amendment: List of Rights I have a right toown a weapon.form a militia.
12Second Amendment First Thoughts Do you plan to or currently own a gun? Any Questions?Thoughts?Do you plan to or currently own a gun?
13Key Issue Does 2nd Amendment Protect… Individual right to bear arms…? If you do not include the part before the comma after the word State, does it change the meaning?Does 2nd Amendment Protect…Individual right to bear arms…?State’s right to raise a militia…?
14Key Event: Washington DC v Heller (2008) http://www. oyez BackgroundQuestion:Does the District of Columbia’s law banning hand-gun ownership and limiting use by licensed officials violate the 2nd Amendment?
15Key Event: Washington DC v Heller (2008) http://www. oyez Decision5-4The DC Law does violate a Constitutional right to own a handgun for self-protection.
16DC v Heller (2008)From Justice Scalia’s majority opinion: “that the operative clause of the Second Amendment—"the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed"—is controlling and refers to a pre-existing right of individuals to possess and carry personal weapons for self-defense.”
17in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the Third AmendmentNo Soldier shall bein time of peace be quarteredin any house, without theconsent of the owner,nor in time of war,but in a mannerprescribed by law.
183rd Amendment: List of Rights I cannot be forced to provide food and shelter to a soldier during peacetime.I can be forced to provide food and shelter during war time, if there is a law passed by Congress that says so.
20NOTES: (put at bottom of page) 2 Key Issues possible expanded meanings Part of implied intention by our founders to allow for less individual freedom during times of war.Suspension of habeas corpus during Civil War, suspension of free speech during WW1, and Japanese Internment Camps during WWIIPart of an implied right to privacy?Griswold v Connecticut, 1965 contraceptive casePart of a penumbra of rights that are implied by the Bill of Rights.
213rd amendment key event: Engblom v. Carey, 1982 The case was decided in US Court of Appeals, NOT Supreme Court.Background: Prison guards went on strike in New York state at Mid-Orange Correctional Facility. The guards lived in dorms on prison grounds, for most guards this was their only home. During the strike they were locked out of their rooms and the rooms were given to National Guardsmen called in to man the prison during the strike.
22Engblom v. Carey, 1982 Questions before the Court: Are National Guardsmen legally considered as soldiers under the Third Amendment?Does the amendment applies to state as well as federal authorities?Does the protection of this amendment extends beyond home owners?
23Engblom v. Carey, 1982 Decisions: The National Guardsmen legally qualify as soldiers.The amendment applies to state as well as federal authorities. (Incorporation)Yes, the protection of this amendment extends beyond home owners. Tenants, renters, and any other non-owner is protected.
24Fourth AmendmentThe Right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
25Rights Protected I am… Secure in persons, houses, and effects. Protected from unreasonable searches and seizures.Protected from warrants being issued to search my property without probable cause.
26Key Event: Illinois v Wardlow 2000 http://www. oyez Background?Is a person's sudden and unprovoked flight from identifiable police officers, patrolling a high crime area, sufficiently suspicious to justify the officers' stop of that person?
27Illinois v. Wardlow Decision Court does not issue a decision either for or against flight being enough to justify a stop and search. ONLY says it can be an important factor in determining if the stop and search is necessary.US v. Arvizu (2002)“totality of circumstances”
28NOTES: EXCLUSIONARY RULE Any evidence obtained during an illegal search or seizure is inadmissible in a trial.“the criminal is to go free because the constable has blundered”;Do we need this?It only protects the guilty…
29Fun Bonus Facts: Allowable warrentless searches During a lawful arrestIn Plain View (in car seat or public view)Hot PursuitCarsExigent Circumstances (emergency)
30Fifth AmendmentNo person shall be held to answer dory capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject For the Same Offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or the limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case, to be witness against himself, nor to be denied right to life, liberty, and property, without due process of law; nor shall private party be taken for public use without just compensation.
31Listed rights Capital crimes are charged by Grand Jury. Protected from being charged twice for the same crime.You can’t be forced to incriminate yourself.Protected by due processJust compensation for property taken by government.
325th Amendment: Key Issue Just compensation and Due Process with regard to property.The issue here is, what is a legitimate government interest in seizing private property. We all agree that homes must be taken for roads, parks, etc…But, Can a government use eminent domain to seize a home for, say, a movie theater or Wal-Mart?
33KEY EVENT: Miranda v Arizona (1966) http://www. oyez Background?Question: Does the police practice of interrogating individuals without notifying them of their right to counsel and their protection against self-incrimination violate the Fifth Amendment?
34Miranda v Arizona (1966) Decision 5-4 The Court held that prosecutors could not use statements stemming from custodial interrogation of defendants unless they demonstrated the use of procedural safeguards "effective to secure the privilege against self-incrimination." The Court specifically outlined the necessary aspects of police warnings to suspects, including warnings of the right to remain silent and the right to have counsel present during interrogations.
35SIXTH AMENDMENTIn All Criminal Prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witness against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have assistance of counsel for his defense.
36You have the right to… Speedy trial Public trial Impartial jury in communityBe informed of your accusationFace your accuserPower to bring witnessesRight to have counsel (lawyer)
37Powell v Alabama (1932) Johnson v Zerbst (1938) Betts v Brady (1942) Key Issue: An example of precedents Establishment of ‘right to counsel’ It is important to understand that the Supreme Court often works slowly toward protecting rights, each of these cases improves the right to counsel provision toward giving us our key event.Powell v Alabama (1932)9 black men, accused of raping 2 white women on a train, given a one day trial, all sentenced to death, met their lawyers after cases were heard.In capital cases, states must provide counsel for your trial.Johnson v Zerbst (1938)At FEDERAL level, every person charged with a felony is required to have a lawyer appointed to represent them.Betts v Brady (1942)At state level, in noncapital cases the defendant is only entitled to a public defender if the defendant is mentally handicapped.
38KEY EVENT: Gideon v Wainwright (1963) Background?Questions:Did the state court's failure to appoint counsel for Gideon violate his right to a fair trial and due process of law as protected by the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments?
39KEY EVENT: Gideon v Wainwright (1963) “lawyers in criminal cases are necessities, not luxuries”Establishes right to counsel for defendants in all felony cases at state level, not just capital.Gideon had spent 2 years in prison for a crime he did not commit.
40SEVENTH AMENDMENTIn suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rule of common law.
41Rights Protected: Trial by Jury in nearly all civil cases. Judges can never overturn decision of a jury
42Key Issue: Lack of Incorporation REMEMBER: The Bill of Rights was written to protect you and I from the National Government, since the 14th Amendment was ratified with its due process clause that applies to the States, we have had the B of R, applied to State piece by piece, yet a few remain including the 7thThe right to a jury trial in civil cases has never been applied to the states. States do not have to give you a trial by jury in civil cases.
43Key Event: Colgrove v Battin (1973) http://www. oyez Background? Montana Federal Judge allows for a 6 person jury in a trial, rather than a 12 person jury.Question:Does the Seventh Amendment guarantee the size of a jury?
44Key Event: Colgrove v Battin (1973) http://www. oyez No. The Seventh Amendment does not guarantee the size of a jury.The Court held that the framers of the Constitution intended the Seventh Amendment to preserve the right to trial by jury in civil cases at law, but not the various incidents of trial by jury, and that the Constitution does not bind the federal courts to the exact procedural details of jury trial according to the common law in 1791.The Court held that the right to a 12 member jury was not a substantive aspect of the right of trial by jury. The Montana rule did not violate the right of a jury trial at common law and it did not conflict with Rule 48.
458th AmendmentExcessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment be inflicted.
468th Amendment Rights Protected: I have the right not to…be forced to pay excessive bailpay excessive finesbe punished cruelly/unusuallyEVOLVING STANDARD***
47Key Issue: Bail You do not have a right to bail. Excessive would be more than an amount necessary to ensure accused presence at a trialCan be denied bail by anticipation of possibility that accused may flee in capital cases.
48Cruel and Unusual Punishment? What isCruelandUnusualPunishment?
49Modern Death Penalty Enforcement Lethal InjectionGas ChamberElectrocutionHangingFiring Squad
50Key Issue 2: Death Penalty since 1976 3 People killed by Federal GovernmentTimothy McVeigh is most recent1,119 people executed by State Governments (38 of 50 have D.P.)463 by Texas, 108 by Virginia, 23 by Arizona (13th Place)Over 600,000 Americans have been murdered in same time periodOver 3,300 Americans on Death Row Today
51Race of Homicide Victims in Cases Resulting in an Execution since 1976
52Crimes receiving Death Penalty in American History (last time used) Rape – 1964Kidnapping – 1960Assault – 1962Espionage – 1953Arson – 1884Burglary – 1941Horse TheftForgery – 1840Treason – 1862WitchcraftMurder
53Key Event: Roper v Simmons 2005 Background?Question:Does the execution of minors violate the prohibition of "cruel and unusual punishment" found in the Eighth Amendment and applied to the states through the incorporation doctrine of the 14th Amendment?
549th AmendmentThe Enumeration in the Constitution of Certain Rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
55Rights Protected? This is the catch all amendment. Americans have rights not listed in the Bill of Rights.Remember Federalists?
56KEY EVENT: Griswold v Connecticut (1965) Background:1879 Connecticut law: prohibited the use of "any drug, medicinal article or instrument for the purpose of preventing conception."Estelle Griswold opens a Planned Parenthood clinic. Is arrested under this law, convicted in a trial, and fined $100.How would you decide?
57KEY EVENT: Griswold v Connecticut (1965) 7-2 decisionMajority 4: Cite a penumbra of rights suggested by 3rd,4th, and 5th Amends.Concurring 3: 9th Amendment includes possibility that right to privacy in bedroom is a Constitutional right.Dissent 2: Allow state legislatures to make laws they think are appropriate to govern local affairs.
5810th AmendmentThe powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
59Rights Protected?Protects states OR people from excessive federal government power.Federalism!
60KEY EVENT: Meaning of the Amendment The 10th Amendment is ABOUT:FederalismPowerVoiceMcCulloch v MarylandCivil WarSegregationMorality