2I. Introduction Topic / Main Ideas Details A. Civil rights B. Debates on inequality in Americaare policies that extend basic rights to groups historically subject to discrimination.center on racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and discrimination based on age, disability, sexual orientation, and other factors.
3II. Racial Equality: Two Centuries of Struggle Topic / Main IdeasDetailsA. Conceptions of EqualityB. Early American Views of EqualityC. The Constitution and InequalityEquality of opportunity: everyone should have the same chance.Equal results or rewards: everyone should have the same rewards.Jefferson’s statement in the Declaration of Independence that “all men are created equal” did not mean that he thought there were no differences among people.Women’s rights received even less attention than did slavery at the Convention.The Fourteenth Amendment provides for equal protection of the laws, resulting in expansive constitutional interpretation.
4II. Racial Equality: Two Centuries of Struggle Summary:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Question A1. Policies that extend basic rights to groups historically subject to discrimination are known as ________________________2. The concept that everyone should have the same chance is called equality of _____________Question B Thomas Jefferson, who wrote in the Declaration of Independence “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal,” believedA) that blacks were genetically inferior to whites.B) that there were no differences among human beings.Question C The Fourteenth Amendment specifically forbids the states from denying to anyoneA) the right to vote on the basis of race.B) equal protection of the laws.
5III. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy Topic / Main IdeasDetailsA. The Era of SlaveryB. The Era of Reconstruction and ResegregationC. The Era of Civil RightsScott v. Sandford (1857) upheld slavery.The Civil War and the Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery.Jim Crow laws (segregation laws) established in the South.Plessy v. Ferguson justified segregation through the "equal but separate“ doctrine.Brown v. Board of Education (1954) overturned Plessy and ended legal segregation.The civil rights movement organized to end the policies and practice of segregation.The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made racial discrimination illegal in placesof public accommodation and in employment.
6III. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy Topic / Main IdeasDetailsA. The Era of SlaveryB. The Era of Reconstruction and ResegregationC. The Era of Civil RightsScott v. Sandford (1857) upheld slavery.The Civil War and the Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery.Jim Crow laws (segregation laws) established in the South.Plessy v. Ferguson justified segregation through the "equal but separate“ doctrine.Brown v. Board of Education (1954) overturned Plessy and ended legal segregation.The civil rights movement organized to end the policies and practice of segregation.The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made racial discrimination illegal in placesof public accommodation and in employment.
7III. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy Topic / Main IdeasDetailsD. Getting and Using the Right to VoteE. Other Minority Groups1. Native Americans2. Hispanic AmericansSuffrage was guaranteed to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870.Southern practices to deny African American suffrage (literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll taxes, and the White primary) were gradually struck down by the Supreme Court and the Twenty fourth Amendment.The Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibited any government from using voting procedures that denied a person the vote on the basis of race or color.The oldest minority group in America, but they were not made U.S. citizens until 1924.Have displaced African Americans as the largest minority group, comprising about 13 percent of the U.S. population.
8III. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy Topic / Main IdeasDetails3. Asian Americans:4. Other Groupsa. The fastest growing minority group, they now comprise four percent of the U.S. population.b. During World War II, the U.S. government rounded up more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent and placed them in internment encampments known as “war relocation centers.”c. The Supreme Court upheld the internment as constitutional in Korematsu v. United States (1944), but Congress later provided benefits for the former internees (which still have not been distributed).a. There are more than 1.2 million persons of Arab ancestry in the United States.
9III. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy Question A1. In the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, the United States Supreme CourtA) ruled that all adult African-American men had a right to vote under the Constitution.B) ruled that a black man, slave or free, was “chattel,” and upheld slavery itself asconstitutional.2. Slavery was declared unconstitutional by the_________Question B1. Jim Crow lawsA) imposed legal segregation on African Americans in the South after the Civil War.B) were an attempt to reimpose slavery in the South after the Civil War.2. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson,A) housing discrimination was forbidden.B) the principle of “separate but equal” was used to justify segregation.Question C The Brown v. Board of Education decision overturned the Supreme Court’s 1896 ruling in __Question D The Civil Rights Act of 1964A) guaranteed minority groups the right to vote.B) guaranteed equal access to hotels, restaurants, and other public accommodations.Question E In the case of Korematsu v. United States, the Supreme CourtA) ruled that the removal of Japanese Americans from the west coast and their placement ininternment camps during World War II was barbaric and unconstitutional.D) upheld the constitutionality of the removal of Japanese Americans from the west coastand their placement in internment camps during World War II.
10IV. Women, the Constitution, and Public Policy Topic / Main IdeasDetailsA. The Battle for the VoteB. The "Doldrums":C. The Second Feminist WaveD. Women in the WorkplaceE. Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth:the Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote.Public policy toward women was dominated by protectionism.The Equal Rights Amendment was first introduced in Congress in 1923.Reed v. Reed (1971) ruled that any "arbitrary" sex-based classification violated the Fourteenth Amendment.Craig v. Boren (1976) established a "medium scrutiny" standard.Congressional acts and Supreme Court decisions havereduced sex discrimination in employment and business activity.Women should receive equal pay for jobs of "comparable worth."
11IV. Women, the Constitution, and Public Policy Topic / Main IdeasDetailsF. Women in the MilitaryG. Sexual HarassmentOnly men must register for the draft.Statutes and regulations prohibit women from serving in combat.The Supreme Court has ruled that sexual harassment that is so pervasive as to create a hostile or abusive work environment is a form of sex discrimination.
12IV. Women, the Constitution, and Public Policy Question A ”Coverture”S) was the combination of electric shock therapy and drugs once used to “cure” homosexuals of their homosexuality.T) was the legal doctrine that deprived married women of any identity separate from that of their husbands.Question B The ________ gave women the constitutional right to vote.Question C From about , the feminist movementU) experienced great growth and activity.D) was in a period of hibernation.Question D In ________, the Supreme Court ruled that any “arbitrary” sex -based classification violated theequal protection clause.H) Craig v. BorenA) Reed v. ReedQuestion E The ________ banned gender discrimination in employment by law.R) Civil Rights Act of 1964D) Gender Equity Act of 1972Question F The issue of ________ deals with women seeking to redress the fact that jobs traditionally heldby men tend to pay far greater salaries than jobs requiring similar skills but are traditionally held by women.Y) gender equalityA) comparable worthQuestion G Which of the following statements about women in the military is FALSE?B) Women, as well as men, are now required to register for the draft.C) Statutes and regulations prohibit women from serving in most combat situations.Question G In 1993, the Supreme Court ruled that sexual harassment is sex discrimination that violates theCivil Rights Act whenA) the target objects a second time to touching, body language, or dirty talk.C) the workplace environment becomes hostile or abusive.
13V. Newly Active Groups Under the Civil Rights Umbrella) Topic / Main IdeasDetailsA. Civil Rights and the Graying of AmericaB. Civil Rights and People with DisabilitiesC. Gay and Lesbian RightsPeople in their eighties comprise the fastest growing age group in this country.Since 1967, Congress has passed several laws that ban various types of age discrimination.It is not clear what the fate of the gray liberation movement will be as its members approach the status of a minority majority.:the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 required employers and public facilities to make reasonable accommodations and prohibited employment discrimination against the disabled.Homosexual activity is illegal in some states, and homosexuals often face prejudice in hiring, education, access to public accommodations, and housing.Homophobia (fear and hatred of homosexuals) has many causes, and homosexuals are often seen as safe targets for public hostility.
14V. Newly Active Groups Under the Civil Rights Umbrella) Summary:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Question A The fastest growing age group in the American population isA) people in their 80s.B) baby-boomers.Question B The “gray liberation” movement refers toA) those fighting for the rights of the elderly.B) those fighting for equal rights and justice for the disabled.Question C In 1990, Congress enacted the ________, a far-reaching law to protect a particular group of Americans from discrimination, ignoring those who claimed the price tag would be too high.Opposition to Civil Rights laws for the handicapped has been justified primarily on the basisof theA) inability of disabled persons to handle most employment requirements.B) high cost of programs to help the disabled.Homophobia refers toA) fear and hatred toward gay men and lesbian women.B) the tendency to be sexually attracted to members of oneʹs own sex.
15VI. Affirmative Action Topic / Main Ideas Details A. Affirmative actionB. In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)C. The CourtsD. In Adarand Constructors v. Peña (1995)E. Opponentsinvolves efforts to bring about increased employment, promotion, or admission for members of groups that have suffered invidious discrimination.the Court ruled against the practice of setting aside a quota of spots for particular groups.have been more deferential to Congress than to local government in upholding affirmative action programs.the Court ruled that federal programs that classify people by race are constitutional only if they are "narrowly tailored“ to accomplish a "compelling governmental interest."view affirmative action as reverse discrimination.
16VI. Affirmative ActionSummary:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Question A Affirmative action seeks to move beyondA) equal results to equal opportunity.B) equal opportunity to equal results.Question B The strongest and most controversial form of affirmative action isA) busing.B) numerical quotas.In the case of Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the United States Supreme CourtA) upheld all affirmative action programs as justified and constitutional.B) upheld affirmative action programs, but limited their scope, and outlawed racial quota set-asides.Question C When proposition 209 was passed in California in 1996, it bannedA) affirmative action in public hiring, contracting, and educational admissions.B) affirmative action in federal hiring.Question D Affirmative action programs are referred to by critics asA) negative reaction.B) reverse discrimination.
17VII. Understanding Civil Liberties and the Constitution Topic / Main IdeasDetailsA. Civil Rights and DemocracyB. Civil Rights and the Scope of GovernmentEquality tends to favor majority rule, but equality threatens individual liberty in situations where the majority wants to deprive the minority of its rights.Majority rule is not the only threat to liberty: minorities have suppressed majorities as well as other minorities.Even when they lacked the power of the vote, both African Americans and women made many gains by using other rights (such as the First Amendment freedoms) to fight for equality.Civil rights laws increase the scope and power of government.These laws place both restrictions and obligations on individuals and institutions—they tell individuals and institutions that there are things they must do and other things they cannot do.Libertarians and those conservatives who want to reduce the size of government are uneasy with these laws (and sometimes hostile to them).Civil rights is an area in which increased government activity in protecting basic rights can lead to greater checks on the government by those who benefit from such protections.
18VII. Understanding Civil Liberties and the Constitution Summary:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Question A Equality tends to favor majority rule but __________individual liberty in situations where the majority wants to deprive the minority of its rights.A) strengthensB) threatensQuestion B Civil rights ________ the scope of governmentA) increaseB) decreases