2I.The Nomination Game A. Nomination B. Campaign Strategy The official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political partyGenerally, success requires momentum, money, and media attention.B. Campaign StrategyThe master game plan candidates lay out to guide their electoral campaign
3C.Deciding to RunCampaigns are more physically and emotionally taxing than ever.American campaigns are much longer.Barack Obama made clear his intention to run for president in January 2007.Other countries have short campaigns, generally less than two months.
4D. Competing for Delegates Nomination game is an elimination contestGoal is to win a majority of delegates’ support at the national party convention, or the supreme power within each of the partiesThe convention meets every four years to nominate the party’s presidential and vice-presidential candidates.Conventions are but a formality today.
5The Caucus RoadCaucus: meetings of state party leaders for selecting delegates to the national conventionOrganized like a pyramid from local precincts to the state’s conventionA handful of states use a caucus—open to all voters who are registered with a partyThe Iowa caucus is first and most important.
6The Primary RoadPrimary: elections in which voters in a state vote for a nominee (or delegates pledged to the nominee)Began at turn of 20th century by progressive reformersMcGovern-Fraser Commission led to selection of delegates through primary electionsMost delegates are chosen through primaries.Superdelegates: democratic leaders who automatically get a delegate slotFrontloading is the tendency of states to hold primaries early to capitalize on media attention. New Hampshire is first.Generally primaries serve as elimination contests.
7Evaluating the Primary and Caucus System Disproportionate attention to early onesProminent politicians do not run.Money plays too big a role.Participation in primaries and caucuses is low and unrepresentative; 20 percent vote in primaries.The system gives too much power to the media.
9E. The Convention Send-off National conventions once provided great drama, but now are a formality, which means less TV time.Significant rallying point for partiesKey note speaker on first day of ConventionParty platform: statement of a party’s goals and policies for next four yearsDebated on the second day of the ConventionFormal nomination of president and vice-president candidates on third and fourth daysAnn Romney 2012 Republican Convention SpeechMichelle Obama 2012 Democratic Convention Speech
11II.The Campaign Game A. The High-Tech Media Campaign Direct mail used to generate support and money for the candidateGet media attention through ad budget and “free” coverageEmphasis on “marketing” a candidateNews stories focus more on the “horse race” than substantive policy issues
12B. Organizing the Campaign Get a campaign managerGet a fund-raiser and campaign counselHire media and campaign consultantsAssemble staff and plan logisticsGet research staff, policy advisors, and pollstersGet a good press secretaryEstablish a website
14III. Money and Campaigning A. The Maze of Campaign Finance ReformsFederal Election Campaign Act (1974)Created the Federal Election Commission (FEC) to administer campaign finance laws for federal electionsCreated the Presidential Election Campaign FundProvided partial public financing for presidential primariesMatching funds: Contributions of up to $250 are matched for candidates who meet conditions, such as limiting spending.Provided full public financing for major party candidates in the general electionRequired full disclosure and limited contributions
15Soft Money: political contributions (not subject to contribution limits) earmarked for party-building expenses or generic party advertisingThe McCain-Feingold Act (2002) banned soft money, increased amount of individual contributions, and limited “issue ads.”527s: independent groups that seek to influence political process but are not subject to contribution restricts because they do not directly seek election of particular candidates
16B. The Proliferation of PACs Political Action Committees (PACs): created by law in 1974 to allow corporations, labor unions and other interest groups to donate money to campaigns; PACs are registered with and monitored by the FEC.As of 2006 there were 4,217 PACs.PACs contributed over $372.1 million to congressional candidates in 2006.PACs donate to candidates who support their issue.PACs do not “buy” candidates, but give to candidates who support them in the first place.
18C. Are Campaigns Too Expensive? Fundraising takes a lot of time.Incumbents do worse when they spend more money because they need to spend to defeat quality challengers.The doctrine of sufficiency suggests that candidates need just “enough” money to win, not necessarily “more.”
19IV.The Impact of Campaigns A. Campaigns have three effects on voters:Reinforcement, Activation, ConversionB. Several factors weaken campaigns’ impact on voters:Selective perception: pay most attention to things we agree withParty identification still influence voting behaviorIncumbents begin with sizeable advantage
20V.Understanding Nominations and Campaigns A. Are Nominations and Campaigns Too Democratic?Campaigns are open to almost everyone.Campaigns consume much time and money.Campaigns promote individualism in American politics.B. Do Big Campaigns Lead to an Increased Scope of Government?Candidates make numerous promises, especially to state and local interests.Hard for politicians to promise to cut size of government
21Summary Campaigns are media-oriented and expensive. Delegates are selected through caucuses and primaries.Money and contributions from PACs regulated by the FEC are essential to campaigns.Campaigns reinforce perceptions but do not change minds.