2Causes of ImperialismDefinition: Imperialism is the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country.Industrialization- raw resources, markets for goods, economic advancement.Europeans believed they were more advanced than other people in other parts of the world.
4Causes of ImperialismSocial Darwinism-survival of the fittest. This gave many people a justification for racism and different classes of people.Wealthy successful people were believed to better (more fit) than other people.
6AfricaThe Maxim gun, steamships, railroads, and other technologies helped the Europeans take land in Africa.The Berlin Conference divided Africa14 nations almost went to war over territorriesthey met to reach a peaceful solution.
7African ResistanceThe Zulu nation fought the British rule and the British army.The Zulu army almost defeated the British army but they eventually lost their kingdom.East Africa tried to fight against the Germans. Over 75,000 died.Ethiopia successfully rebelled against Italy and Menelik II became the African emperor of Ethiopia. They defeated Italy in the Battle of Adowa.
8Negatives: Positives: Africa lost control of their land breakdown of cultureboundaries created groups that didn’t get alongPositives:Schools and hospitals were establishedincreased life expectancyAfrican products were now valuable in the international market
9Ottoman EmpireOttoman Empire-around the Mediterranean Sea, and Black SeaSuleyman I dies and weak sultans take over.The people under Ottoman control wanted independence.
10Ottoman EmpireGeopolitics: an interest in taking of land for its strategic location or products.Ottoman Empire had a strategic location.Trade routesIn 1900 oil was discovered in Persia.Crimean War- Russia against the Ottomans, Britain and France.Russia wanted a warm weather port from the Ottomans.The Ottomans kept losing territory.
11Egypt ReformsMuhammad Ali- fought and gained control of Syria and ArabiaPlantation crops of cotton grownAli’s son Ismail supported the Suez Canal- A canal from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.Egypt lost lots of money. Britain occupied Egypt.
12British Imperialism in India British East India Company creates trading postsIndia had lots of raw materials, which British industries needed.
13Indian people lose self-sufficiency Positive benefits of Colonialism were railroads, increased literacy and the development of a modern economy.1857-Sepoy Mutiny-Indian soldiers became tired of British control and racist attitudes.The British soldiers greased the Indian soldiers gun cartridges with beef and pork fat. This allowed the cartridges to come out easier. Indians were both Hindu and Muslim. What was the problem with this?The soldiers captured Delhi, but Britain sent troops and defeated them.The Sepoy Mutiny causes direct British control.
14Imperialism in Southeast Asia Pacific Rim land-important because of sea route to China, agriculture, and minerals.Sugar cane, coffee, rubber, pineapple were great plantation crops
15U.S. Imperialism 1898-Spanish American War Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam are gained by the U.S.Philippine nationalists declare independenceU.S. fought the nationalists and wonThe U.S. creates hospitals, railroads, and schools.
16Hawaii-important port Sugar trade-sugar cane plantationsQueen Liliuokalani wanted power for herself and the Hawaiian people.1898-U.S. annexes Hawaii
17The Boxer Rebellion in China All of the European countries had “spheres of influence” in China.Sphere of influence- an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges
18The Boxer RebellionJohn Hay, the American Secretary of State, wanted an “Open Door” policy in ChinaA secret society-the Fists of Righteous Harmony-called the Boxers wanted to get rid of the foreigners and topple the Ching government.The Empress encouraged the Boxers to get rid of the foreigners, so they decided to support her.The Empress told the foreign diplomats that she would crush the Boxers, but she did nothing to stop them.
19The Boxer RebellionOver 20,000 angry Boxers carrying swords marched on the capital.The diplomats came together and defended themselves for two months.Eventually reinforcements came and they were rescued.
20Japanese ImperialismAdmiral Perry’s handBecause Japan is an island, countries used its ports along their trade routes.Japan refused many shipsThe United States threatened Japan with military power- this allowed the U.S. to dock at their ports. Thanks to Admiral PerryJapan
21Japan stared to modernize The Japanese were angry that their leaders gave into the Americans demands.Japan stared to modernizesent people to Europe and North America to study how the rest of the world did things.This made Japan the strongest country in Asia
22Japan had military, political, and economic strength. They became imperialisticattacked Korea ( peace treaty signed)attacked China (gained Taiwan and some islands)Attacked Russia (peace treaty signed, gained more territories)Attacked Korea again (annexed Korea, or gained partial control)