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Chapter 4 The Law of Demand What is Demand? Quantity demanded of a product or service is the number that would be bought by the public at a given price.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 The Law of Demand What is Demand? Quantity demanded of a product or service is the number that would be bought by the public at a given price."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 4 The Law of Demand

3 What is Demand? Quantity demanded of a product or service is the number that would be bought by the public at a given price Quantity demanded of a product or service is the number that would be bought by the public at a given price

4 The Law of Demand When a goods price is lower, consumers will buy more of it When a goods price is lower, consumers will buy more of it When a goods price is higher, consumers will buy less of it When a goods price is higher, consumers will buy less of it

5 The Law of Demand The Law of Demand is affected by two behavior patterns The Law of Demand is affected by two behavior patterns The Substitution Effect The Substitution Effect The Income Effect The Income Effect

6 The Substitution Effect As the price for one good rises compared to a similar good, consumers will substitute the similar good for their purchases. As the price for one good rises compared to a similar good, consumers will substitute the similar good for their purchases.

7 The Income Effect As prices go up, your money becomes worth less than it was worth before As prices go up, your money becomes worth less than it was worth before People are less likely to buy the good now People are less likely to buy the good now

8 Demand Schedule A demand schedule shows the likely number of purchases based on a series of arbitrarily chosen prices A demand schedule shows the likely number of purchases based on a series of arbitrarily chosen prices

9 Demand Schedule

10 Demand Schedule Demand Curve

11 A Change (Shift) in Demand If one of 5 other factors changes, the entire demand curve will shift to the left or right If one of 5 other factors changes, the entire demand curve will shift to the left or right The curve does NOT shift if the price of the good is the only change The curve does NOT shift if the price of the good is the only change

12 A Change in Demand (Graph)

13 A Change in Quantity Demanded (Graph)

14 Income When peoples income changes, demand shifts accordingly When peoples income changes, demand shifts accordingly Normal Goods – Normal Goods – Higher income = higher demand Higher income = higher demand Lower income = lower demand Lower income = lower demand

15 Income When peoples income changes, demand shifts accordingly When peoples income changes, demand shifts accordingly Inferior Goods – Inferior Goods – Higher income = lower demand Higher income = lower demand Lower income = higher demand Lower income = higher demand

16 Consumer Expectations If consumers expect a price to rise in the future, current demand increases If consumers expect a price to rise in the future, current demand increases If consumers expect a price to fall in the future, current demand decreases If consumers expect a price to fall in the future, current demand decreases

17 Population When one sector of the population grows, demand increases for products that sector uses When one sector of the population grows, demand increases for products that sector uses Fastest growing sector of the population today? Fastest growing sector of the population today?

18 Consumer Tastes and Advertising Increased advertising can increase consumer demand Increased advertising can increase consumer demand Bad news about a product can decrease demand Bad news about a product can decrease demand

19 Price of Related Goods Complimentary Goods – goods that are bought and used together Complimentary Goods – goods that are bought and used together Higher Complementary Price = decrease in demand Higher Complementary Price = decrease in demand Lower Complementary Price = increase in demand Lower Complementary Price = increase in demand

20 Price of Related Goods Substitute Goods – goods that are used in place of one another Substitute Goods – goods that are used in place of one another Higher Substitute Price = increase in demand Higher Substitute Price = increase in demand Lower Substitute Price = decrease in demand Lower Substitute Price = decrease in demand

21 Elasticity of Demand Elasticity refers to how responsive the quantity demanded is to a change in prices Elasticity refers to how responsive the quantity demanded is to a change in prices

22 Elasticity of Demand An inelastic good will still sell about the same quantity even if the price goes up or down An inelastic good will still sell about the same quantity even if the price goes up or down

23 Elasticity of Demand An elastic good will have a higher change in Qd when there is a price change An elastic good will have a higher change in Qd when there is a price change

24 Calculating Elasticity Elasticity = Elasticity = % change in quantity demanded __________________________ % change in price

25 Calculating Elasticity If Elasticity is < 1, the good is inelastic If Elasticity is < 1, the good is inelastic If Elasticity is > 1, the good is elastic If Elasticity is > 1, the good is elastic If Elasticity = 1, the good has a unitary elastic demand If Elasticity = 1, the good has a unitary elastic demand

26 Factors Affecting Elasticity Availability of Substitutes – if you have no other options, demand is inelastic. Availability of Substitutes – if you have no other options, demand is inelastic.

27 Factors Affecting Elasticity Availability of Substitutes – if you have equally appealing options, demand is highly elastic Availability of Substitutes – if you have equally appealing options, demand is highly elastic

28 Factors Affecting Elasticity Relative Importance – what percentage of your budget is spent on the good? Relative Importance – what percentage of your budget is spent on the good? If it is low, price changes will not alter demand If it is low, price changes will not alter demand If it is high, even small price changes can greatly affect demand If it is high, even small price changes can greatly affect demand

29 Factors Affecting Elasticity Necessities vs. Luxuries – consumption of milk might stay the same with price changes, while consumption of lobster would greatly change with price changes Necessities vs. Luxuries – consumption of milk might stay the same with price changes, while consumption of lobster would greatly change with price changes

30 Factors Affecting Elasticity Change over time – price changes may produce inelastic demand in the short term, but elastic demand long term Change over time – price changes may produce inelastic demand in the short term, but elastic demand long term 1970s fuel crisis – people still bought the same amount of gas at first, but eventually started buying smaller cars 1970s fuel crisis – people still bought the same amount of gas at first, but eventually started buying smaller cars

31 Elasticity and Revenue Total Revenue – the amount of money a company receives by selling its good or service Total Revenue – the amount of money a company receives by selling its good or service With elastic demand, revenue will decrease greatly with price increases With elastic demand, revenue will decrease greatly with price increases

32 Elasticity and Revenue With Inelastic demand, price increases will increase revenue With Inelastic demand, price increases will increase revenue


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