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The Restoration and Age of Reason (1660-1800). Imperialism Wars vs. France 1689-1763 = Empire (Canada, India, & others) Wars vs. France 1689-1763 = Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "The Restoration and Age of Reason (1660-1800). Imperialism Wars vs. France 1689-1763 = Empire (Canada, India, & others) Wars vs. France 1689-1763 = Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Restoration and Age of Reason ( )

2 Imperialism Wars vs. France = Empire (Canada, India, & others) Wars vs. France = Empire (Canada, India, & others)

3 Nation becomes stronger: Glorious Revolution (1689) = rule of law (limits monarchy through Bill of Rights 1689) Glorious Revolution (1689) = rule of law (limits monarchy through Bill of Rights 1689) Act of Union (1707) creates Great Britain out of England, Scotland, Ireland, and imperial holdings Act of Union (1707) creates Great Britain out of England, Scotland, Ireland, and imperial holdings Parliament and Ministers gain power during rule of Hanover kings, George I-III, wealth increases, patronage dries up (king werent literary folks) Parliament and Ministers gain power during rule of Hanover kings, George I-III, wealth increases, patronage dries up (king werent literary folks)

4 Religious turmoil continues Book of Common Prayer legally established (1662) Book of Common Prayer legally established (1662) Non-Anglican forms of worship outlawed (1664)-also affected Puritans Non-Anglican forms of worship outlawed (1664)-also affected Puritans Great Fire allegedly set by Catholics Great Fire allegedly set by Catholics

5 Establishment of Political Parties Whigs- Liberals, reformers, Parliamentarians (H. of C.) = well-to-do middle class Whigs- Liberals, reformers, Parliamentarians (H. of C.) = well-to-do middle class Tories- Conservative, traditional, royalist = gentry and clergy Tories- Conservative, traditional, royalist = gentry and clergy

6 Philosophy Thomas Hobbes Leviathan = materialism and absolute rule to check humans egoistic and predatory passions Thomas Hobbes Leviathan = materialism and absolute rule to check humans egoistic and predatory passions Montaigne and Locke = skepticism (knowledge comes through senses, there are no absolutes) Montaigne and Locke = skepticism (knowledge comes through senses, there are no absolutes) Newton and Boyle= New Science (astronomy, physics, chemistry) Newton and Boyle= New Science (astronomy, physics, chemistry)

7 Philosophy contd. Deism/Natural Religion = New Science (astronomy, physics, chemistry) Deism/Natural Religion = New Science (astronomy, physics, chemistry) Creation presuppose a creator – Supreme Being or First Cause Creation presuppose a creator – Supreme Being or First Cause That creator is good, reasonable, wise; natures proves this That creator is good, reasonable, wise; natures proves this Because he is good, he must be revered Because he is good, he must be revered Because virtue and vice are not punished and rewarded in this life, must be afterlife Because virtue and vice are not punished and rewarded in this life, must be afterlife Duty is to cooperate with Deity and nature through benevolence, virtue wisdom Duty is to cooperate with Deity and nature through benevolence, virtue wisdom Disavows salvation and Chris Disavows salvation and Chris Rousseau rejects Hobbes: Belief in Noble Savage/ essential goodness of man. Rousseau rejects Hobbes: Belief in Noble Savage/ essential goodness of man.

8 Royal Time Line Charles II (good vs. bad) Charles II (good vs. bad) James II James II Whigs (Liberals – favored new mercantile middle-class – upper) Whigs (Liberals – favored new mercantile middle-class – upper) Tories (Conservatives – opposed change – aristocrats) Tories (Conservatives – opposed change – aristocrats) William & Mary William & Mary Anne Anne George I, II, III George I, II, III

9 Events/Dates Printing Press (pre-era) Printing Press (pre-era) Jan. 30, Restoration – Charles II Jan. 30, Restoration – Charles II Book of Common Prayer Book of Common Prayer plague plague fire (13,000 homes, 100 churches, 2/3 homeless) fire (13,000 homes, 100 churches, 2/3 homeless) deposing James (Catholic) Glorious Revolution (William & Mary) Great Britain formed- Act of Union (Anne) George I (Hanovarian – German) Dictionary of the English Language

10 Philosophers(ies)/scientists/movements Experience and Reason Locke- ( )/Montaigne- ( ) Locke- ( )/Montaigne- ( ) Use of reason to search for truth rather than to accept the opinions of authorities or to be subject to superstition Use of reason to search for truth rather than to accept the opinions of authorities or to be subject to superstition Hobbes- ( ) Hobbes- ( ) Used the method of justifying political principles or arrangements by appeal to the agreement that would be more among suitably situated rational: free and equal persons Used the method of justifying political principles or arrangements by appeal to the agreement that would be more among suitably situated rational: free and equal persons

11 Philosophers(ies)/scientists/movements contd. Rousseau- ( ) Rousseau- ( ) Expounded a new theory of education emphasizing the importance of expression rather than repression to produce a well- balanced free-thinking child Expounded a new theory of education emphasizing the importance of expression rather than repression to produce a well- balanced free-thinking child Newton- ( ) Scientific experiment Newton- ( ) Scientific experiment A natural philosopher who understood his theoretical and experimental work in the context of a wider and almost invariably religious world view A natural philosopher who understood his theoretical and experimental work in the context of a wider and almost invariably religious world view

12 Philosophers(ies)/scientists/movements contd. Deism Deism Rising social middle class (Industrial Revolution) Rising social middle class (Industrial Revolution) London in filth (inequality in distribution of wealth) London in filth (inequality in distribution of wealth) Womens roles/education (or lack of) Womens roles/education (or lack of)

13 Literature/Entertainment Essay/pamphlet popularity Essay/pamphlet popularity To improve manners and morals To improve manners and morals Theater shifts Theater shifts actresses in place of boys actresses in place of boys comedy of manners (intrigue & infidelity plots) Restoration Comedy comedy of manners (intrigue & infidelity plots) Restoration Comedy Satire Satire Ben Jonson (transition author) dates- ( ) Ben Jonson (transition author) dates- ( ) Satirical verse (in place of classical models and love sonnets) Satirical verse (in place of classical models and love sonnets)

14 Literature/Entertainment contd. Dryden- ( ) Dryden- ( ) from An Essay of Dramatic Poesy from An Essay of Dramatic Poesy Pepys- ( ) Pepys- ( ) Diary of Samuel Pepys Diary of Samuel Pepys Defoe- ( ) Defoe- ( ) 1 st to write with believable characters in real situations 1 st to write with believable characters in real situations from A Journal of the Plague Year from A Journal of the Plague Year Swift- ( ) Swift- ( ) A Modest Proposal A Modest Proposal Gullivars Travels Gullivars Travels

15 Literature/Entertainment contd. Pope- ( ) Pope- ( ) Essay on Criticism Essay on Criticism The Rape of the Lock The Rape of the Lock Epigrams Epigrams from An Essay on Man from An Essay on Man Montagu- ( ) Montagu- ( ) Letter to Her Daughter Letter to Her Daughter Samuel Johnson- ( ) Samuel Johnson- ( ) Dictionary of the English Language Dictionary of the English Language Letter to Lord Chesterfield Letter to Lord Chesterfield Gray- ( ) Gray- ( ) Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard


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