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Chapter 2 Historical Roots of American Government Word.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Historical Roots of American Government Word."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 2 Historical Roots of American Government Word.

3 Leading Up to the Declaration The Magna Carta (1215) The Magna Carta (1215)

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5 Leading Up to the Declaration The Magna Carta (1215) The Magna Carta (1215) First document to ever limit the power of a king First document to ever limit the power of a king Guaranteed some rights of citizens – king could not punish someone without jury trial Guaranteed some rights of citizens – king could not punish someone without jury trial

6 Leading Up to the Declaration John Lockes 2 nd Treatise on Government John Lockes 2 nd Treatise on Government Natural Rights – men had rights given to them by God before governments were ever created. Natural Rights – men had rights given to them by God before governments were ever created. Mack Daddy John Locke

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8 Leading Up to the Declaration Mans natural rights are: Mans natural rights are: LIFE LIFE LIBERTY LIBERTY PROPERTY PROPERTY Governments purpose is to protect these, not take them away! Governments purpose is to protect these, not take them away! Mack Daddy John Locke

9 Britain Messes with the Colonies The Stamp Act 1765 The Stamp Act 1765 Required every published piece of paper to receive a British stamp of approval, and pay a tax with it Required every published piece of paper to receive a British stamp of approval, and pay a tax with it True intention was likely to stop colonists from publishing essays and newspapers critical of Britains government True intention was likely to stop colonists from publishing essays and newspapers critical of Britains government

10 Colonial Unity Stamp Act Congress (1765) 9 colonies joined together to protest Englands Stamp Act, and England repealed it

11 Colonial Unity First Continental Congress (1774) Trying to repair relationship with Britain Sent a Declaration of Rights and Grievances to the king, boycotted trade with England

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13 Colonial Unity Second Continental Congress ( ) Trying to defeat Britain Convened in the middle of the Revolutionary War

14 Colonial Unity Second Continental Congress (1775) Elected George Washington Commander-in-Chief of the Army

15 The Declaration of Independence July 4 th, 1776

16 Jefferson Explains the Trouble With Writing This Thing:

17 Fundamentals of the Declaration Men have inalienable natural rights Governments exist by the consent of the governed Abusive governments can be replaced

18 Our First Government The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation A huge mistake, but a good learning experience A huge mistake, but a good learning experience

19 The Articles of Confederation

20 Was not a strong national government Was not a strong national government Rather, it was a firm league of friendship between 13 independent states Rather, it was a firm league of friendship between 13 independent states

21 Problems with the Articles National Government could not: National Government could not: Collect Taxes Collect Taxes Regulate Trade Between States Regulate Trade Between States Create a Court System Create a Court System Use Troops Without Permission from the States Use Troops Without Permission from the States

22 Problems with the Articles As a result: As a result: States never sent the government any money States never sent the government any money States boycotted each others goods and currency States boycotted each others goods and currency States made trade agreements with foreign countries States made trade agreements with foreign countries

23 Features of the Articles Government Legislative Branch (Congress) Legislative Branch (Congress) Unicameral (One House) Unicameral (One House) States could send as many or as few Reps. as they wanted States could send as many or as few Reps. as they wanted Each state gets 1 vote regardless of number of Reps. Each state gets 1 vote regardless of number of Reps. Any change to the Articles required approval of all 13 states Any change to the Articles required approval of all 13 states

24 Features of the Articles Government Executive Branch Executive Branch No national executive branch No national executive branch All executive and judicial powers were given to the states All executive and judicial powers were given to the states

25 Problems Lead to the Need for a Change:

26 The Constitutional Convention May 25 th to September 17 th, 1787

27 The Constitutional Convention Original purpose was to slightly edit the Articles of Confederation Original purpose was to slightly edit the Articles of Confederation What ended up happening was a secret meeting where the Founding Fathers created a brand new government What ended up happening was a secret meeting where the Founding Fathers created a brand new government

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29 Washington: Okay, any suggestions on how to fix this thing?

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31 Madison: Aint gonna happen, Georgie.

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33 Hamilton: Yeah, its time to smack it up, ballaz!

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35 Washington: You know, I really like the Articles, guys.

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37 Washington: j/k, dawgs.

38 lol :)

39 lol ;-> Ben Franklin: Holla!

40 The Framers Who were the Framers (Writers)? Who were the Framers (Writers)? A gathering of 55 of the most brilliant minds in history? A gathering of 55 of the most brilliant minds in history? Most were in their 30s and 40s Most were in their 30s and 40s All upper class, well educated, white males All upper class, well educated, white males Middle and lower classes, women and racial minorities were not given the opportunity to participate Middle and lower classes, women and racial minorities were not given the opportunity to participate Most famous names : George Washington, James Madison, Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton Most famous names : George Washington, James Madison, Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton

41 The Framers: Demi-Gods? The Framers are really just men – or politicians, even The Framers are really just men – or politicians, even They are fighting with one another on every issue, and forming compromises to resolve the fights They are fighting with one another on every issue, and forming compromises to resolve the fights

42 The Framers James Madison becomes known as the Father of the Constitution, as he became the leader of the convention, and did much of the writing James Madison becomes known as the Father of the Constitution, as he became the leader of the convention, and did much of the writing Mack Daddy James Madison

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44 I think we all know who the true Mack Daddy is.

45 Two Competing Ideas The Virginia Plan The Virginia Plan The Big State Plan The Big State Plan 3 Branches – Legislative, Executive, Judicial, each with checks and balances against the others 3 Branches – Legislative, Executive, Judicial, each with checks and balances against the others Bicameral legislature with representation based on population alone Bicameral legislature with representation based on population alone

46 Two Competing Ideas The New Jersey Plan The New Jersey Plan The Small State Plan The Small State Plan Unicameral legislature with all states represented equally Unicameral legislature with all states represented equally Executive would be three presidents, who chose the Judicial branch Executive would be three presidents, who chose the Judicial branch

47 Compromises The Connecticut Compromise The Connecticut Compromise The Great Compromise The Great Compromise Bicameral legislature, one house based on population, one on equality Bicameral legislature, one house based on population, one on equality

48 How the Great Compromise Works StatePopulation # in House # in Senate California 35 million 532 Arizona 5 million 82 Wyoming 0.5 million 12

49 Compromises The 3/5ths Compromise Southern states wanted to count slaves as part of their populations to get more votes in Congress Compromise allowed them to count slaves as 3/5 ths of a person in the census *Note* - slaves did NOT get 3/5 ths of a vote!

50 Compromises The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Southern states feared that slavery would be banned by more heavily populated Northern states in Congress Southern states feared that slavery would be banned by more heavily populated Northern states in Congress Compromise prevented Congress from acting on the matter of slave trade for at least 20 years Compromise prevented Congress from acting on the matter of slave trade for at least 20 years

51 Sources of the Constitution Framers pulled from a number of places to get the final product: Framers pulled from a number of places to get the final product: Ancient Greeces Democracy and Romes Republic Ancient Greeces Democracy and Romes Republic John Lockes 2 nd Treatise on Government John Lockes 2 nd Treatise on Government Charles de Montesquieus ideas about separating the powers of government Charles de Montesquieus ideas about separating the powers of government Great Britains government Great Britains government

52 British Government Bicameral Legislature (House of Lords and Commons) Strong Executive (King) Royal Court System Federal Relationship w/ Colonies Articles of Confederation Unicameral Legislature No Executive No Court System Confederation of States New Constitution Bicameral Legislature (House and Senate) Strong Executive (President) Supreme Court System Federal Government

53 Ratifying the Constitution Ratify – vote on and pass Ratify – vote on and pass Constitution required that 9 of the 13 states needed to approve it to take effect Constitution required that 9 of the 13 states needed to approve it to take effect Did someone say Ratify?

54 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Federalists – favored ratification of the Constitution and a new federal government Federalists – favored ratification of the Constitution and a new federal government Anti-Federalists - opposed the new Constitution on almost all grounds Anti-Federalists - opposed the new Constitution on almost all grounds Especially wanted to add a bill of rights Especially wanted to add a bill of rights

55 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Famous Federalists: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, George Washington Famous Federalists: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, George Washington Madison, Hamilton, and Jay write The Federalist Papers – persuasive essays to explain why the new Constitution can be effective and preserve personal liberty Madison, Hamilton, and Jay write The Federalist Papers – persuasive essays to explain why the new Constitution can be effective and preserve personal liberty

56 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Famous Anti- Federalists: Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, John Hancock Famous Anti- Federalists: Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, John Hancock

57 And Now for Something Completely Different


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