3States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Close up view of atoms and their behaviorAnimated images are from
4Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. States of MatterSolidsParticles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position.Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume.
5Solids Particle Movement Examples States of MatterSolidsParticle Movement Examples
6Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume. States of MatterLiquidsParticles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another.Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume.
7Liquids Particle Movement Examples States of MatterLiquidsParticle Movement Examples
8States of MatterGasesParticles of gases are very far apart and move freely.Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.
9Gases Particle Movement Examples States of MatterGasesParticle Movement ExamplesParticles of a gas move randomly and must be contained from all surfaces.
10States of Matter Plasma A plasma is an ionized gas. A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields.Plasma, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume.In a plasma the electrons have been stripped away from the central nucleus. Therefore, a plasma consists of a sea of ions and electrons and is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. Electrons are separated from their respective nucleus when enough heat is applied. In a controlled thermonuclear fusion research, plasmas are heated to over 100 million degrees.
11States of Matter Plasma Particles The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are freely streaming through the positively charged ions (blue).The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are freely streaming through the positively charged ions (blue).
12States of Matter Plasma Examples Plasma can be found in stars, fluorescent light bulbs, Cathode Ray Tubes, neon signs, and lightening.
13Physical vs. Chemical Change Changing from one state to another is aPhysical Change.If a new substance is formed it is aChemical Change.Images are from
14Atoms The building blocks of Matter Consists of Protons (+), Electrons (-),and Neutrons (N).Images are from
15Elements Consists of only one kind of atom, Cannot be broken down into a simplertype of matter by either physical orchemical meansCan exist as either atoms or molecules.
16MoleculesA molecule consists of two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements, that are chemically bound together.In the animation above, two nitrogen atoms(N + N = N2) make one Nitrogen molecule .
17Compounds Atoms of two or more different elements bound together. Can be separated into elements chemically, but not physically.In the animation above, water (H20) is a compound made of Hydrogen and Oxygen.Animated images and notes from
18Mixtures Heterogeneous They are substances held together by physical forces, not chemical.Can be separated physically.Solutions are also mixtures.HeterogeneousThe substances are not uniformly mixed.Example: Sand in a glass of water.Images are from
19Solutions Homogeneous Solutions are groups of molecules that are mixed up in a completely even distribution.HomogeneousUniform Distribution.Example: Sugar and WaterImages are from
20Solute Solvent The substance to be dissolved. The one doing the dissolving.Images are from
22Concentration of Solutions Concentrated – strongexamples; frozen orange juice in a can, laundry detergent, powdered milk, can of sodaDiluted – weakexamples; orange juice mixed in jug with water, powdered milk mixed with water, soda in melted ice
23Mixtures Suspensions Are heterogeneous mixtures consisting of parts that are visible to the naked eye.Substances will settle over time.Example: the ingredients in salad dressing
24ColloidsParticle sizes are in between the size of particles found in solutions and suspensions .Can be mixed and remain evenly distributed without settling out.
25Matter Mixtures Homogeneous Heterogeneous Pure Substances Solvent SolutionSolventColloidsHeterogeneousSuspensionsPure SubstancesElementMoleculeCompounds