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Chapter 12 Gross Domestic Product and Growth How Can We Measure Economic Growth? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – dollar value of all goods and services.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Gross Domestic Product and Growth How Can We Measure Economic Growth? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – dollar value of all goods and services."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 12 Gross Domestic Product and Growth

3 How Can We Measure Economic Growth? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – dollar value of all goods and services produced in the countrys borders in a year –Dollar Value is the final selling price to consumers

4 Calculating GDP Includes cars built in America by a Japanese company Does not include cars built in Japan by an American company

5 Calculating GDP Includes cars that are sold to consumers (the final good) Does not include rubber, glass, or steel bought by the automaker (intermediate good used to make the final good) –Prevents double counting; the cost of inputs is already in the price

6 Two Approaches to Calculating GDP The Expenditure Approach – add together final value of all goods and services

7 Formula for Expenditure Approach C + I + G + NX = GDP – C is Consumer spending – I is Business investments – G is Government spending – NX is Net Exports – U.S. current GDP = $13.8 Trillion (#1 in the World)

8 Two Approaches to Calculating GDP Income Approach – add all peoples annual income together –Easier, since IRS already does this

9 Nominal vs. Real GDP Just because GDP is higher, it does not mean the economy is necessarily better

10 Nominal GDP Nominal means by name only GDP is usually calculated by using current prices for either expenditure or income approach Problem: Inflation would cause GDP to rise, which would indicate economic growth falsely

11 Real GDP Real GDP compares current production to past production using constant prices

12 Per Capita GDP Measures economic output per person (per capita always means per person) Shows how changes in GDP are affecting the average person in an economy

13 Typical High School Boy Questions? This is stupid. Why do we have to learn this?

14 What GDP does not Measure Nonmarket Activities –Bartering –Doing Favors for people –Producing your own goods

15 What GDP does not Measure Underground Economy –Black markets –Drug dealing –Gambling Cookie Monster want $2Gs on Cookie!

16 What GDP does not Measure Negative Externalities –Pollution –Disease Cookie Monster have Type 2 Diabetes.

17 What GDP does not Measure Quality of Life –Personal safety –Leisure time

18 Other Economic Statistics to Watch Rate of Inflation –Measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Takes a market basket of commonly bought goods, measures changes in price of the market basket from month to month Rising CPI = Inflation Unemployment Rate –Poll taken by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics –Measures what % of people are looking for work and are not currently employed

19 GDP, Supply and Demand GDP and Price Levels in macroeconomics are graphed similarly to Quantity and Price in microeconomics

20 GNP GNP measures output of Americans, rather than output within the United States GDP + $ from U.S. Business overseas - $ from Foreign Business here = GNP Doesnt help measure success of economy… more a measure of national economic power abroad

21 The Business Cycle In any capitalist country, the economy will go up and down as time passes This process looks like a roller coaster when graphed

22 The Business Cycle

23 Phases of the Business Cycle Expansion – real GDP is rising Peak – real GDP stops rising, unemployment % is low Contraction – falling real GDP, increasing unemployment Trough – lowest point, real GDP stops falling

24 Terms for Describing Contraction and Trough Recession – contraction happens for 6 straight months Depression – no official definition, just means extremely bad, long contraction Stagflation – drop in GDP plus rising inflation

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27 Factors That Cause the Business Cycle Interest rates and credit fluctuations –The Fed helps to restrict these effects by increasing and decreasing rates to slow and speed the business cycle

28 Factors That Cause the Business Cycle Consumer Expectations – they will spend if they believe times are good, they will save if they believe bad times are coming –Spending means banks have less capital, economy will expand now but contract later –High savings provides capital for future economic growth

29 Factors that Cause the Business Cycle Savings Rate - % of disposable (spendable) income saved by Americans –Fun Fact! – Savings Rate generally drops in America during good economic times –What effect does that have?

30 Factors That Cause the Business Cycle External Shocks – Negatively affect aggregate supply, thus dropping GDP while raising prices

31 Economic Indicators Things to watch to see if the economy is in contraction or expansion – rate of new home construction – stock market activity – manufacturers new orders of capital goods


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