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**Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz**

Analyze Arithmetic Sequences and Series Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz

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Warm-Up How is each term in the sequence related to the previous term? 1. 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, … ANSWER Each is 3 more than the previous term. 2. 13, 8, 3, –2, –7, … ANSWER Each is 5 less than the previous term.

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Warm-Up Write a rule for the nth term of the sequence. Then find a5. 3. 3, 6, 9, 12, … ANSWER an = 3n; a5 = 15 4. –8, –16, –24, –32, … ANSWER an = –8n; a5 = –40

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Example 1 Tell whether the sequence is arithmetic. a. –4, 1, 6, 11, 16, b , 5, 9, 15, 23, . . . SOLUTION Find the differences of consecutive terms. a2 – a1 = 1 – (–4) = 5 a. b. a2 – a1 = 5 – 3 = 2 a3 – a2 = 6 – 1 = 5 a3 – a2 = 9 – 5 = 4 a4 – a3 = 11 – 6 = 5 a4 – a3 = 15 – 9 = 6 a5 – a4 = 16 – 11 = 5 a5 – a4 = 23 – 15 = 8

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Example 1 ANSWER ANSWER Each difference is 5, so the sequence is arithmetic. The differences are not constant, so the sequence is not arithmetic.

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Guided Practice 1. Tell whether the sequence 17, 14, 11, 8, 5, is arithmetic. Explain why or why not. ANSWER Arithmetic; There is a common differences of –3.

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**Write a rule for the nth term of the sequence. Then find a15. a.**

Example 2 Write a rule for the nth term of the sequence. Then find a15. a. a , 9, 14, 19, . . . b. 60, 52, 44, 36, . . . SOLUTION The sequence is arithmetic with first term a1 = 4 and common difference d = 9 – 4 = 5. So, a rule for the nth term is: an = a1 + (n – 1) d Write general rule. = 4 + (n – 1)5 Substitute 4 for a1 and 5 for d. = –1 + 5n Simplify. The 15th term is a15 = –1 + 5(15) = 74.

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Example 2 b. The sequence is arithmetic with first term a1 = 60 and common difference d = 52 – 60 = –8. So, a rule for the nth term is: an = a1 + (n – 1) d Write general rule. = 60 + (n – 1)(–8) Substitute 60 for a1 and – 8 for d. = 68 – 8n Simplify. The 15th term is a15 = 68 – 8(15) = –52.

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**a. Write a rule for the nth term. b. Graph the sequence.**

Example 3 One term of an arithmetic sequence is a19 = 48. The common difference is d = 3. a. Write a rule for the nth term. b. Graph the sequence. SOLUTION a. Use the general rule to find the first term. an = a1 + (n – 1)d Write general rule. a19 = a1 + (19 – 1)d Substitute 19 for n 48 = a1 + 18(3) Substitute 48 for a19 and 3 for d. –6 = a1 Solve for a1. So, a rule for the nth term is:

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**Example 3 an = a1 + (n – 1)d = –6 + (n – 1)3 = –9 + 3n b.**

Write general rule. = –6 + (n – 1)3 Substitute –6 for a1 and 3 for d. = –9 + 3n Simplify. Create a table of values for the sequence. The graph of the first 6 terms of the sequence is shown. Notice that the points lie on a line. This is true for any arithmetic sequence. b.

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Example 4 Two terms of an arithmetic sequence are a8 = 21 and a27 = 97. Find a rule for the nth term. SOLUTION STEP 1 Write a system of equations using an = a1 + (n – 1)d and substituting 27 for n (Equation 1) and then 8 for n (Equation 2).

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**Example 4 a27 = a1 + (27 – 1)d 97 = a1 + 26d a8 = a1 + (8 – 1)d**

Equation 1 a8 = a1 + (8 – 1)d 21 = a d Equation 2 STEP 2 Solve the system. 76 = 19d Subtract. 4 = d Solve for d. 97 = a1 + 26(4) Substitute for d in Equation 1. –7 = a1 Solve for a1. STEP 3 Find a rule for an. an = a1 + (n – 1)d Write general rule. = –7 + (n – 1)4 Substitute for a1 and d. = –11 + 4n Simplify.

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Guided Practice Write a rule for the nth term of the arithmetic sequence. Then find a20. , 14, 11, 8, . . . ANSWER an = 20 – 3n; –40 3. a11 = –57, d = –7 ANSWER an = 20 – 7n; –120 4. a7 = 26, a16 = 71 ANSWER an = –9 + 5n; 91

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**( ) Example 5 SOLUTION a1 = 3 + 5(1) = 8 a20 = 3 + 5(20) =103 8 + 103**

Identify first term. a20 = 3 + 5(20) =103 Identify last term. S20 = 20 ( ) 2 Write rule for S20, substituting 8 for a1 and 103 for a20. = 1110 Simplify. ANSWER The correct answer is C.

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Example 6 House Of Cards You are making a house of cards similar to the one shown. Write a rule for the number of cards in the nth row if the top row is row 1. a. What is the total number of cards if the house of cards has 14 rows? b.

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Example 6 SOLUTION Starting with the top row, the numbers of cards in the rows are 3, 6, 9, 12, These numbers form an arithmetic sequence with a first term of 3 and a common difference of 3. So, a rule for the sequence is: a. an = a1 + (n – 1) = d Write general rule. = 3 + (n – 1)3 Substitute 3 for a1 and 3 for d. = 3n Simplify.

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Example 6 SOLUTION b. Find the sum of an arithmetic series with first term a1 = 3 and last term a14 = 3(14) = 42. Total number of cards = S14 = 14 ( ) a1 + a14 2 3 + 42 = 315

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Guided Practice 12 5. Find the sum of the arithmetic series (2 + 7i). i = 1 ANSWER S12 = 570 6. WHAT IF? In Example 6, what is the total number of cards if the house of cards has 8 rows? ANSWER 108 cards

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Lesson Quiz 1. Is the sequence 2, 103, 204, 305, 406, arithmetic? Explain your answer. ANSWER Yes; the common difference is 101. Write a rule for the nth term of the sequence 5, 2, –1, –4, Then find a5. 2. ANSWER an = 8 – 3n ; a5 = –7 Two terms of an arithmetic sequence are a5 = 14 and a30 = 89. Find a rule for the nth term. 3. ANSWER an = –1 + 3n

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Lesson Quiz A movie theater has 24 seats in the first row and each successive row contains one additional seat. There are 30 rows in all. 4. Write a rule for the number of seats in the nth row. ANSWER an = 23 + n 5. How many seats are in the theater? ANSWER 1155 seats

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