2Human Memory: Basic Questions We Will Answer This Chapter How does information get into memory?How is information maintained in memory?How is information pulled back out of memory?Memory is much more than taking in information and putting it in some mental compartment…we have to get it back out, too. Many psychologists study factors that help or hinder memory storage and retrieval…thus attempting to answer 3 basic questions…How does information get into memory?How is information maintained in memory?How is information pulled back out of memory?
3Today OBJECTIVES: ROLE OF ATTENTION LEVELS OF ENCODING HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORYINFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL
4Before we begin today. . .A note about your assignment FOR THIS CHAPTER. It is very difficult and you need to pay attention to the details or you will fail.
7YOUR ASSIGNMENT TONIGHT IS TO FORGET THE NUMBER 106
8YOU SHOULD ALL TRY TO NOT REMEMBER THE NUMBER 106 BECAUSE YOU WILL BE QUIZZED ON IT TOMORROW
9Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory The role of attention – PAY ATTENTION!!!Focusing awareness – no multitaskingSelective attention = selection of inputOur brain is always filtering information since it can’t ALL get throughThe first step in getting information into memory is to pay attention to it.Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.Selective attention is a term used by many psychologists to describe this paying-attention-to-something process; however, the word selective is really redundant…attention IS selection of input.Usually, attention is likened to a filter in an information-processing model of memory…the filter screens out most stimuli, while allowing a select few to get by.Much research has been done to determine whether this filtering process occurs early in the information processing sequence or later.It appears that both may be at play…sometimes you are paying attention to someone talking with you at a party, and you suddenly hear your name from across the room.
10Levels of Processing: Craik and Lockhart (1972) Take 2 minutes to right down 1 example of: structural encoding; phonemic encoding; and semantic encodingIncoming information processed at different levels:Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codesEncoding levels:Structural (Visual) = shallowPhonemic (Acoustic) = intermediateSemantic (Meaning) = deepAccording to Craik and Lockhart, whether or not we will be able to remember something depends on how deeply we processed the information. Figure 7.4 illustrates different levels of processing.
13Quiz QuestionDarren was asked to memorize a list of letters that included v, q, y, and j. He later recalled these letters as e, u, i, and k, suggesting that the original letters had been encodedAutomaticallyStructurally(Visually)SemanticallyPhonemically (Acoustically)
14Enriching Encoding: Improving Memory Elaboration = linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encodingThinking of examplesSelf-generated examples work best (self-referent)Visual Imagery = creation of visual images to represent words to be rememberedEasier for concrete objects: Dual-coding theory says both visual and semantic get encoded, since either can lead to recallSelf-Referent EncodingMaking information personally meaningfulElaboration is a process by which a stimulus is linked to other information at the time of encoding…for example, you are studying phobias for your psychology test, and you apply this information to your own fear of spiders.Elaboration often consists of thinking of examples…self-generated examples seem to work best.Visual imagery involves the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered…concrete words are much easier to create images of (example, juggler vs. truth).Dual-coding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic or visual codes, since either can lead to recall.Self-referent encoding involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant, that is, information that is personally meaningful is more memorable.
15Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory Analogy: information storage in computers ~ information storage in human memory (fig.7.2)Information-processing model (fig.7.3)Subdivide memory into 3 different storesSensory, Short-term, Long-termPlato and Aristotle compared memory to a block of wax that differed in size and hardness for various individuals…remembering was like stamping an impression into the wax…Today, with technological advances, the analogies have become much more sophisticated...Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968, proposed an analogy between information storage by computers and information storage in human memory – the information processing approach.Basically, this approach divides memory into 3 different stores: sensory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.This is depicted in the following figures.
17Information Processing Model 1. Encodinggone2. StorageLong Term Memory3. RetrievalAll the restRetrievalSensory RegistersExternal StimuliAttentionShort Term Memory
18Sensory MemoryBrief preservation of information in original sensory formAuditory/Visual – approximately ¼ secondGeorge Sperling (1960)Classic experiment on visual sensory storeIconic (visual) memory – sensory images - ¼ secEchoic (auditory) memory – sensory sounds – 3 sec.Sensory Memory is basically information preserved in its original sensory form for a brief time. This type of memory allows the sensation to linger briefly after the sensory stimulation is over…in the visual system, an afterimage.The visual and auditory sensory stores appear to decay after about ¼ secondGeorge Sperling (1960) performed a classic experiment on the visual sensory store, illustrating how brief the sensory store actually is…his experiment is depicted in the following figure.
24Short Term Memory (STM) George Miller (1956) wrote a famous paper called “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information,"Name one aspect of our lives where we use a 7-digit number?Phone numberLimited capacity – magical number 7 plus or minus 2 - Chunking – grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unitExtends STM capacityShort-term memory is defined as a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.George Miller (1956) wrote a famous paper called “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information," where he illustrated that the average person can hold between 5 and 9 chunks of information in STM.A chunk of information is a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit…for example, the following numbers can be thought of as 7 individual numbers or they can be chunked together in groups of 2, 3, etc.STM also has a limited duration…in other words, information can only be kept there for a brief time before it is lost, unless rehearsal occurs.Rehearsal is the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information…keeping it in use.Peterson and Peterson (1959) conducted a study illustrating how quickly information is lost from STM…this study is illustrated on the next slide.
25STMCHUNK fromGOONIESName one aspect of our lives where we use chunking?Social security, credit cardLimited duration – about 20 seconds without rehearsalRehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information
30Short-Term Memory as “Working Memory” Baddeley (1986) – 3 components of working memoryPhonological rehearsal loopVisuospatial sketchpadEpisodic bufferExecutive control system30 years of research eventually uncovered a number of problems with the original model of STM…STM is not limited to phonemic encoding, as originally thought, and decay is not the only process responsible for loss of information.These and other findings indicated that STM might be a much more complicated aspect of memory.Alan Baddeley ( ) proposed a more complex model of STM that characterizes it as “working memory," with 4 components.The phonological rehearsal loop represented ALL of STM in the original model. This component is active when one uses recitation to temporarily hold on to information.The visuospatial sketchpad allows temporary holding and manipulation of visual images (mentally rearrange the furniture in your bedroom).The executive control system handles the limited amount of information juggled at one time as people engage in reasoning and decision making…at work when you weigh pros and cons of something.The episodic buffer is a temporary, limited capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information, and that serves as an interface between working and LTM.
33Long-Term Memory: Unlimited Capacity Our more or less permanent memory storeAlmost unlimited capacity and durationPermanent storage?Flashbulb memories – not always accurateRecall through hypnosis – can be false memoriesWhile most researchers agree that LTM has an unlimited capacity; that is, our memory store never gets FULL, much debate remains over whether storage is permanent.Flashbulb memory and hypnosis based memory suggest that LTM is indeed permanent, that the only reason we forget is that we aren’t able to access information that is still in LTM (interference theory). Research shows, however, that flashbulb and hypnosis based memories are not always accurate. Is the information still there, or does it decay over time, and we make up for this by building up decayed memories so that they make sense?And are STM and LTM really different stores? We used to think that phonemic encoding occurred in STM and semantic (or meaning based) encoding in LTM. Now we know that both occur for both. We also used to think that decay occurred in STM and interference in LTM, with regard to forgetting. Now, it is unclear what exactly occurs in LTM, it may be both.Some researchers argue that STM and LTM are the same thing, that STM is just a little part of LTM that is in a state of heightened activation, although the multiple stores view is still dominant.
34READ THE FOLLOWING WORDS AND WRITE DOWN THE NAMES OF THE DIFFERENT GROUPS YOU SHOULD PLACE EACH INTO:grapes table bus apple chair airplane desk banana sofa car train plum lamp motorcycle strawberry dresser bicycle peachfruits, furniture, transportation
35How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? Clustering -tendency to remember similar or related items in groups, and Conceptual Hierarchies -multilevel classification systems based on common properties among items. ex.- Animal-mammal-dog-beagleSchemas -organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience and Scripts -particular type of schema, organizing what a person knows about common activities.Clustering is the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups.Conceptual hierarchies are multilevel classification systems based on common properties among items.Schemas are organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience.A script is a particular type of schema, organizing what a person knows about common activities…for example going to a restaurant. Research shows that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not…the reverse is also true – people sometimes exhibit better recall if information really clashes with a schema.Semantic networks consist of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts….explains why thinking of butter makes bread easier to remember…depicted on following slide.Connectionist, or parallel distributed processing models, assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks….that is, this model of memory uses as inspiration the way neurons appear to handle information through connections…according to this model, specific memories correspond to specific patterns of activation in these networks.
3737. In a memory study, the experimenter reads the same list of words to two groups. She asksgroup A to count the letters in each word, andshe asks group B to focus on the meaning of eachword for a later memory quiz. During a recall test,participants in group B recall significantly morewords than participants in group A. Memoryresearchers attribute this effect to differences in(A) priming(B) levels of processing(C) proactive interference(D) procedural memory(E) episodic memory
38Quiz QuestionYour consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.short-termImplicitEchoicExplicitSemantic
39REVIEW WHAT IS THE DURATION & CAPACITY OF STM? 20 SEC., 7 +/- 2 UNITS HOW CAN YOU EXTEND STM’S 20 SEC. DURATION?REHEARSALA GROUP OF FAMILIAR STIMULI STORED AS A SINGLE UNITWHAT IS CHUNKING?SEMANTIC ENCODING IS WHICH LEVEL OF PROCESSING?DEEP
40How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies – F 7.13Schemas and Scripts – Shank & Abelson (1977)Semantic Networks – Collins & Loftus (1975) – Figure 7.14Connectionist Networks and PDP Models – McClelland and colleagues - pattern of activity – neuron based modelClustering is the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups.Conceptual hierarchies are multilevel classification systems based on common properties among items.Schemas are organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience.A script is a particular type of schema, organizing what a person knows about common activities…for example going to a restaurant. Research shows that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not…the reverse is also true – people sometimes exhibit better recall if information really clashes with a schema.Semantic networks consist of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts….explains why thinking of butter makes bread easier to remember…depicted on following slide.Connectionist, or parallel distributed processing models, assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks….that is, this model of memory uses as inspiration the way neurons appear to handle information through connections…according to this model, specific memories correspond to specific patterns of activation in these networks.
42Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information. Examples: what table you were seated at a restaurant; what you ate for breakfast, where on the page a word was, who you saw on the way to class today.Things can become automatic with practice (when you first learn a new word, every time you hear it, you consciously and effortfully pull up the definition from meaning; after hearing it 50 times, you can understand the word without effort – reading Shakespeare.)
43Effortful ProcessingEncoding that requires attention and conscious effort.Examples: vocabulary for school, dates, namesRehearsal is the most commonIt depends on the amount of time spent processing the information.Overlearning (reviewing things you already know) enhances retention.
44Spacing EffectWe increase long-term retention when we study or practice over time.Cramming is an inefficient means of studying (ie, cramming = less time for guitar hero)
45Serial Positioning Effect We tend to remember the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list best.Primacy effect is stronger than recency effect if there is a delay between the list and recall.Words rememberedOrder on list
46Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon – a failure in retrievalRetrieval cuesRecalling an eventContext cues – “What president comes after Nixon?” – carState-dependent retrieval – retrieval is better if you’re in the same mental dispositionReconstructing memoriesELIZABETH LOFTUS STUDYEyewitness testimony of a car crash-misinformation effectThe tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon shows that recall is often guided by partial information about a word….retrieval cues.Memories can also be reinstated by context cues…easier to recall long-forgotten events if you return after a number of years to a place where you used to live.Memories are reconstructions of the past, which may not be entirely accurate. Research shows that reconstructions can be influenced by new information…the misinformation effect. Elizabeth Loftus has shown that eyewitness testimony can be influenced by information presented to witnesses. Example…showed a video of two cars in an accident…asked some people how fast the cars were going when they HIT each other, asked others how fast the cars were going when the SMASHED INTO each other…a week later asked whether there was any broken glass in the video…the “smashed into” group said yes, the “hit” group said no.The misinformation effect is explained in part by the unreliability of source monitoring…the process of making attributions about the origins of memories…people make decisions at the time of retrieval about where their memory is coming from (did I read that somewhere or think of it on my own?…cryptomnesia is inadvertent plagiarism that occurs when you think you came up with it but were really exposed to it earlier).Reality monitoring is a type of source monitoring involving determining whether memories are based in actual events (external sources) or your imagination (internal sources)…kidnapped by aliens? Possible error in reality monitoring.
47Forgetting: When Memory Lapses Retention – the proportion of material retainedRecallRecognitionRelearningEbbinghaus’s Forgetting CurveNon-sense syllablesCurve is very steep-most information is forgotten in the first 9 hours, then it levels off over the next few weeksControversial due to non-sense syllablesTo study forgetting empirically, psychologists must measure it precisely. To measure forgetting, we must measure memory.Retention refers to the proportion of material remembered or retained. Three types of tasks are used to measure retention…recall, which involves requiring subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues…recognition, which involves requiring subjects to select previously learned material from an array of options…and relearning, which involves requiring subjects to relearn previously learned information to see how much LESS time or effort it takes them.Hermann Ebbinghaus studied forgetting using retention in the late 1800s, by using himself as a subject. He found that retention and forgetting occur over time and plotted his data…the famous forgetting curve depicted on the next slide. Current research suggests that this curve is unusually steep, probably due to the fact that Ebbinghaus was using nonsense syllables that are difficult to encode semantically.
50Why Do We Forget? Ineffective Encoding -pseudoforgetting Decay theory Interference theoryProactive (forward acting)- previously learned information interferes with the retention of new informationRetroactive (backward acting) - new information impairs the retention for previously learned informationResearch indicates that forgetting may be related to encoding, storage, or retrieval processes.Much forgetting may only look like forgetting…it may have never been inserted into memory in the first place…pseudoforgetting…usually due to lack of attention so that encoding does not occur. Ineffective encoding occurs when you encode on a more superficial level than you need to…for example, you are distracted when studying and encode what you are reading on a phonemic rather than a semantic level.Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.The negative impact of competing information on retention is called interference. Interference theory holds that people forget information because of competition from other material.Proactive interference occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information, while retroactive interference occurs when new information impairs the retention for previously learned information.Figure 7.21, presented on the next slide, illustrates the two types of interference.
53Retrieval FailureEncoding Specificity - the closer a retrieval cue is to the way we encode the info, the better we are able to remember.Repression – Freud’s term for motivated forgetting of painful, traumatic or unpleasant memoriesAuthenticity of repressed memories?Memory illusionsControversypreviously learned information interferes with the retention of new informationThe encoding specificity principle holds that the effectiveness of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code that represents the stored item…the closer a retrieval cue is to the way we encode the info, the better we are able to remember.The transfer-appropriate processing theory holds that when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention, retrieval is easier.Repression involves the motivated forgetting of painful or unpleasant memories. Recent years have seen a surge of reports of repressed memories of child sexual abuse. The authenticity of these repressed memories is challenged by empirical studies that show that it is not at all hard to create false memories and that many recovered memories are actually the product of suggestion.Roediger and McDermott (2000) have shown that when participants are asked to learn a list of words, and another target word that is not on the list but is strongly associated with the learned words is presented, the subjects remember the non-presented target word over 50% of the time…on a recognition test, they remember it about 80% of the time…a memory illusion.While research clearly shows that memories can be created by suggestion, in cases of child sexual abuse memories, for example, this issue becomes quite emotionally charged. Some cases of recovered memories are authentic, and we don’t yet have adequate data to estimate what proportion of recovered memories of abuse are authentic and what proportion are not. Still, this controversy has helped inspire a great deal of research that has increased our understanding of the fallibility and malleability of human memory.
54REVIEWWHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MEMORY RECOVERY PROBLEM THAT LOFTUS SHOWED IN HER EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY (CAR CRASH) STUDY?MISINFORMATION EFFECT OR FALSE MEMORIESESSAYS QUESTIONS USE WHICH TYPE OF MEMORY RETRIEVAL?RECALLWHAT’S THE TERM FOR FREUD’S ‘MOTIVATED FORGETTING’ OF PAINFUL MEMORIESREPRESSION
56The Physiology of Memory BiochemistryAlteration in synaptic transmissionHormones modulating neurotransmitter systemsCortisol helps make flashbulb memoriesProtein synthesis - if you give drugs that interfere with protein synthesis, memory is impairedNeural circuitryLocalized neural circuitsReusable pathways in the brain - may be specific for specific memoriesLong-term potentiation - long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway.Consolidation theory – gradual process of making memories permanent over timeAnatomyAnterograde (for subsequent events)Retrograde Amnesia (for prior events)Cerebral cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus,Dentate gyrus (Hippocampus), Amygdala, CerebellumFrom a biochemical perspective, memory appears to be related to alterations in synaptic transmission at specific sites. Durable changes in synaptic transmission may be the building blocks of memories. Other research shows that learning causes hormonal changes which may modulate activity in a variety of neurotransmitter systems. Protein synthesis has also been shown to be necessary for memory formation…if you give drugs that interfere with protein synthesis, memory is impaired (at least in chicks and rats).From a neural perspective, memories appear to depend on localized neural circuits in the brain. These are reusable pathways in the brain that may be specific for specific memories. Research indicates that long-term potentiation occurs with learning. Long-term potentiation is a long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway. This supports the idea that memory traces consist of specific neural circuits.The anatomy of memory is complex, and many brain structures have been shown to be important in memory. Figure 7.25, on the next slide, illustrates the brain structures involved in memory, while the following slide, Figure 7.26, illustrates the two types of amnesia, retrograde (for prior events) and anterograde (for subsequent events).
57Bloom, Nelson, and Lazerson, Brain, Mind, and Behavior Figure 10.06
59Explicit (Declarative) - involves intentional recall Episodic MemoriesBday, graduation, ChristmasSemantic MemoriesConcept-based knowledge, facts,Formed by the hippocampus; stored in the cerebral cortex.
60Implicit (Non-declarative) - incidental, unintentional remembering - Procedural MemoriesLocking doors, shooting a basketball, etcConditioned MemoriesSalivating, blinking, etc.Formed by the cerebellum; stored in the cerebral cortex.
62Neuroanatomy and memory Hippocampus is the chief structure implicated in episodic and semantic memories (Tulving)Plays a role is “fixing” memories during time after learningClive Wearing
63Clive Wearing12 mins Part 1Part 2 30 minsLearner.org
64TECHNIQUES Method of Loci Peg Word System As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locationsPeg Word SystemMemorize a master list: “one is a bun, two is a shoe…”Use the same list, once you’ve memorized it, on any other listand visualize the 1st item on the list in between a hot dog bun, and the second being inside a shoe, etc.
65REVIEW:WHICH MEMORY SYSTEM HANDLES PERSONAL EVENTS SUCH AS YOUR FIRST KISS OR YOUR GRADUATION?EXPLICIT (DECLARATIVE)WHICH MEMORY SYSTEM IS A GOLFER USING WHEN THEY SWING THE GOLF CLUB?IMPLICIT (NON-DECLARATIVE)LONG-LASTING INCREASE IN NEURAL EXCITABILITY AT SYNAPSES ALONG A SPECIFIC NEURAL PATHWAY IS THE DEFINITION OF WHAT TERM?LONG-TERM POTENTIATIONGRADUAL PROCESS OF MAKING MEMORIES PERMANENT OVER TIME IS THE DEFINITION ON WHAT TERM?CONSOLODATION THEORY
66WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MEMORIES WOULD BE CONTAINED IN AN INDIVIDUAL’S SEMANTIC MEMORY? GRADUATION PARTY, HOW TO PARK A CAR, A TEACHERS NAME, BROKEN ARM THEN THEY WERE 10TEACHERS NAME
67Quiz QuestionMemory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________.brainstem; hippocampusExplicit memory; implicit memoryAutomatic processing; effortful processingShort-term memory; long-term memoryIconic; echoic