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Chapter 7 Human Memory. Table of Contents Human Memory: Basic Questions We Will Answer This Chapter How does information get into memory? How is information.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Human Memory. Table of Contents Human Memory: Basic Questions We Will Answer This Chapter How does information get into memory? How is information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Human Memory

2 Table of Contents Human Memory: Basic Questions We Will Answer This Chapter How does information get into memory? How is information maintained in memory? How is information pulled back out of memory?

3 Table of Contents Today OBJECTIVES: –ROLE OF ATTENTION –LEVELS OF ENCODING –HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY –INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL

4 Table of Contents A NOTE ABOUT YOUR ASSIGNMENT FOR THIS CHAPTER. IT IS VERY DIFFICULT AND YOU NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO THE DETAILS OR YOU WILL FAIL. Before we begin today...

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6 Table of Contents 106

7 Table of Contents YOUR ASSIGNMENT TONIGHT IS TO FORGET THE NUMBER 106

8 Table of Contents YOU SHOULD ALL TRY TO NOT REMEMBER THE NUMBER 106 BECAUSE YOU WILL BE QUIZZED ON IT TOMORROW

9 Table of Contents Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory The role of attention – PAY ATTENTION!!! Focusing awareness – no multitasking Selective attention = selection of input –Our brain is always filtering information since it cant ALL get through

10 Table of Contents Levels of Processing: Craik and Lockhart (1972) Take 2 minutes to right down 1 example of: structural encoding; phonemic encoding; and semantic encoding Incoming information processed at different levels: Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes Encoding levels: –Structural (Visual) = shallow –Phonemic (Acoustic) = intermediate –Semantic (Meaning) = deep

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12 Which type works best?

13 Table of Contents Quiz Question Darren was asked to memorize a list of letters that included v, q, y, and j. He later recalled these letters as e, u, i, and k, suggesting that the original letters had been encoded A. Automatically B. Structurally(Visually) C. Semantically D. Phonemically (Acoustically)

14 Table of Contents Enriching Encoding: Improving Memory Elaboration = linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding –Thinking of examples Self-generated examples work best (self-referent) Visual Imagery = creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered –Easier for concrete objects: Dual-coding theory says both visual and semantic get encoded, since either can lead to recall Self-Referent Encoding –Making information personally meaningful

15 Table of Contents Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory Analogy: information storage in computers ~ information storage in human memory (fig.7.2) Information-processing model (fig.7.3) –Subdivide memory into 3 different stores Sensory, Short-term, Long-term

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17 Attention All the rest External Stimuli Sensory Registers gone Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Retrieval 1. Encoding 3. Retrieval 2. Storage Information Processing Model

18 Table of Contents Sensory Memory Brief preservation of information in original sensory form Auditory/Visual – approximately ¼ second –George Sperling (1960) Classic experiment on visual sensory store Iconic (visual) memory – sensory images - ¼ sec Echoic (auditory) memory – sensory sounds – 3 sec.

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20 Figure 7.1 – Nickerson & Adams (1979) – Which is the correct penny?

21 Table of Contents Penny

22 Table of Contents YOU HAVE 10 SEC. TO MEMEORIZE THESE NUMBERS

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24 Short Term Memory (STM) George Miller (1956) wrote a famous paper called The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information," Name one aspect of our lives where we use a 7-digit number? –Phone number Limited capacity – magical number 7 plus or minus 2 - Chunking – grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unit –Extends STM capacity

25 Table of Contents STM Name one aspect of our lives where we use chunking? –Social security, credit card Limited duration – about 20 seconds without rehearsal –Rehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information CHUNK from GOONIES

26 Table of Contents STM DEMO: MEMORY CAPACITY

27 Table of Contents DEMO: ALL PURPOSE MEMORY DEMONSTRATION LISTEN TO THE LIST OF WORDS I WILL READ AFTER READING YOU WILL TRY AND RECALL (WRITE DOWN ON SCRAP PAPER) AS MANY AS POSSIBLE

28 Table of Contents All-purpose memory demo Bed Quilt Dark Silence Fatigue Clock Snoring Night Toss Tired Night Artichoke Turn Night Rest Dream

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30 Short-Term Memory as Working Memory Baddeley (1986) – 3 components of working memory –Phonological rehearsal loop –Visuospatial sketchpad –Episodic buffer –Executive control system

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33 Long-Term Memory: Unlimited Capacity Our more or less permanent memory store Almost unlimited capacity and duration Permanent storage? –Flashbulb memories – not always accurate –Recall through hypnosis – can be false memories

34 Table of Contents READ THE FOLLOWING WORDS AND WRITE DOWN THE NAMES OF THE DIFFERENT GROUPS YOU SHOULD PLACE EACH INTO: grapes table bus apple chair airplane desk banana sofa car train plum lamp motorcycle strawberry dresser bicycle peach fruits, furniture, transportation

35 Table of Contents How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? Clustering -tendency to remember similar or related items in groups, and Conceptual Hierarchies - multilevel classification systems based on common properties among items. ex.- Animal-mammal-dog- beagle Schemas -organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience and Scripts -particular type of schema, organizing what a person knows about common activities.

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37 37. In a memory study, the experimenter reads the same list of words to two groups. She asks group A to count the letters in each word, and she asks group B to focus on the meaning of each word for a later memory quiz. During a recall test, participants in group B recall significantly more words than participants in group A. Memory researchers attribute this effect to differences in (A) priming (B) levels of processing (C) proactive interference (D) procedural memory (E) episodic memory

38 Table of Contents Quiz Question Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory. A. short-term B. Implicit C. Echoic D. Explicit E. Semantic

39 Table of Contents REVIEW WHAT IS THE DURATION & CAPACITY OF STM? 20 SEC., 7 +/- 2 UNITS HOW CAN YOU EXTEND STMS 20 SEC. DURATION? REHEARSAL A GROUP OF FAMILIAR STIMULI STORED AS A SINGLE UNIT WHAT IS CHUNKING? SEMANTIC ENCODING IS WHICH LEVEL OF PROCESSING? DEEP

40 Table of Contents How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies – F 7.13 Schemas and Scripts – Shank & Abelson (1977) Semantic Networks – Collins & Loftus (1975) – Figure 7.14 Connectionist Networks and PDP Models – McClelland and colleagues - pattern of activity – neuron based model

41 Table of Contents Figure 7.14 A semantic network..

42 Table of Contents Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information. Examples: what table you were seated at a restaurant; what you ate for breakfast, where on the page a word was, who you saw on the way to class today. Things can become automatic with practice (when you first learn a new word, every time you hear it, you consciously and effortfully pull up the definition from meaning; after hearing it 50 times, you can understand the word without effort – reading Shakespeare.)

43 Table of Contents Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Examples: vocabulary for school, dates, names Rehearsal is the most common It depends on the amount of time spent processing the information. Overlearning (reviewing things you already know) enhances retention.

44 Table of Contents Spacing Effect We increase long- term retention when we study or practice over time. Cramming is an inefficient means of studying (ie, cramming = less time for guitar hero)

45 Table of Contents Serial Positioning Effect We tend to remember the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list best. Primacy effect is stronger than recency effect if there is a delay between the list and recall. Order on list Words remembered

46 Table of Contents Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon – a failure in retrieval –Retrieval cues Recalling an event –Context cues – What president comes after Nixon? – car –State-dependent retrieval – retrieval is better if youre in the same mental disposition Reconstructing memories –ELIZABETH LOFTUS STUDY Eyewitness testimony of a car crash -misinformation effect

47 Table of Contents Forgetting: When Memory Lapses Retention – the proportion of material retained –Recall –Recognition –Relearning Ebbinghauss Forgetting Curve –Non-sense syllables –Curve is very steep-most information is forgotten in the first 9 hours, then it levels off over the next few weeks –Controversial due to non-sense syllables

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50 Why Do We Forget? Ineffective Encoding -pseudoforgetting Decay theory Interference theory –Proactive (forward acting)- previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information –Retroactive (backward acting) - new information impairs the retention for previously learned information

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53 Retrieval Failure Encoding Specificity - the closer a retrieval cue is to the way we encode the info, the better we are able to remember. Repression – Freuds term for motivated forgetting of painful, traumatic or unpleasant memories –Authenticity of repressed memories? –Memory illusions –Controversy

54 Table of Contents REVIEW WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MEMORY RECOVERY PROBLEM THAT LOFTUS SHOWED IN HER EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY (CAR CRASH) STUDY? MISINFORMATION EFFECT OR FALSE MEMORIES ESSAYS QUESTIONS USE WHICH TYPE OF MEMORY RETRIEVAL? RECALL WHATS THE TERM FOR FREUDS MOTIVATED FORGETTING OF PAINFUL MEMORIES REPRESSION

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56 The Physiology of Memory Biochemistry –Alteration in synaptic transmission Hormones modulating neurotransmitter systems –Cortisol helps make flashbulb memories Protein synthesis - if you give drugs that interfere with protein synthesis, memory is impaired Neural circuitry –Localized neural circuits Reusable pathways in the brain - may be specific for specific memories Long-term potentiation - long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway. Consolidation theory – gradual process of making memories permanent over time Anatomy –Anterograde (for subsequent events) –Retrograde Amnesia (for prior events) Cerebral cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, Dentate gyrus (Hippocampus), Amygdala, Cerebellum

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59 Explicit (Declarative) - involves intentional recall Episodic Memories –Bday, graduation, Christmas Semantic Memories –Concept-based knowledge, facts, Formed by the hippocampus; stored in the cerebral cortex.

60 Table of Contents Implicit (Non-declarative) - incidental, unintentional remembering - Procedural Memories –Locking doors, shooting a basketball, etc Conditioned Memories –Salivating, blinking, etc. Formed by the cerebellum; stored in the cerebral cortex.

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62 Neuroanatomy and memory Hippocampus is the chief structure implicated in episodic and semantic memories (Tulving) Plays a role is fixing memories during time after learning Clive Wearing

63 Table of Contents Clive Wearing 12 mins Part 1 Part 2 30 mins Learner.org

64 Table of Contents TECHNIQUES Method of Loci As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations Peg Word System Memorize a master list: one is a bun, two is a shoe… Use the same list, once youve memorized it, on any other list and visualize the 1 st item on the list in between a hot dog bun, and the second being inside a shoe, etc.

65 Table of Contents REVIEW: WHICH MEMORY SYSTEM HANDLES PERSONAL EVENTS SUCH AS YOUR FIRST KISS OR YOUR GRADUATION? EXPLICIT (DECLARATIVE) WHICH MEMORY SYSTEM IS A GOLFER USING WHEN THEY SWING THE GOLF CLUB? IMPLICIT (NON-DECLARATIVE) LONG-LASTING INCREASE IN NEURAL EXCITABILITY AT SYNAPSES ALONG A SPECIFIC NEURAL PATHWAY IS THE DEFINITION OF WHAT TERM? LONG-TERM POTENTIATION GRADUAL PROCESS OF MAKING MEMORIES PERMANENT OVER TIME IS THE DEFINITION ON WHAT TERM? CONSOLODATION THEORY

66 Table of Contents WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MEMORIES WOULD BE CONTAINED IN AN INDIVIDUALS SEMANTIC MEMORY? –GRADUATION PARTY, HOW TO PARK A CAR, A TEACHERS NAME, BROKEN ARM THEN THEY WERE 10 –TEACHERS NAME

67 Table of Contents Quiz Question Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. A. brainstem; hippocampus B. Explicit memory; implicit memory C. Automatic processing; effortful processing D. Short-term memory; long-term memory E. Iconic; echoic

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70 93. Memory for automatic activities, such as bike riding and handwriting, is known as (A) declarative (B) semantic (C) sensory (D) procedural (E) repressed

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