Presentation on theme: "6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500"— Presentation transcript:
16 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500 QUIT6CHAPTERAncient Rome and EarlyChristianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500Chapter OverviewTime LineSECTION1The Romans Create a RepublicMAPSECTION2The Roman Empire Brings ChangeSECTION3The Rise of ChristianitySECTION4The Decline of the Roman EmpireGRAPHSECTION5Rome and the Roots of Western CivilizationVisual Summary
26 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500 HOME6CHAPTERAncient Rome and EarlyChristianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500Chapter OverviewRome becomes the center of an empire, which aids in the spread of Christianity. Eventually the Western Empire falls, while the Eastern Empire remains. The Greco-Roman culture helps shape Western thought and culture for centuries.
36 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500 HOME CHAPTERAncient Rome and EarlyChristianity, 500 B.C. – A.D. 500Time Line509 B.C. Rome becomes a republic.218 B.C. In the Second Punic War, Hannibal invades Italy.A.D. 284 Diocletian, who will divide the Roman Empire, becomes emperor.500 B.C.A.D. 500264 B.C. The First Punic War with Carthage begins.44 B.C. Conspirators kill Julius Caesar.A.D. 476 Western Roman Empire falls with the ouster of the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus.
4The Romans Create a Republic Key Idea 1 HOME1The Romans Createa RepublicKey IdeaThe early Romans establish a republic on the Italian peninsula, conquer all of Italy, and defeat Carthage in a series of wars. The Romans create an extensive trade network.OverviewAssessment
5The Romans Create a Republic Overview 1 • republic • patrician HOME1The Romans Createa RepublicTERMS & NAMESOverview• republic• patrician• plebeian• tribune• consul• senate• dictator• legion• Hannibal• ScipioMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe early Romans established a republic, which grew powerful and spread its influence.Some of the most fundamental values and institutions of Western civilization began in the Roman Republic.Assessment
6451 B.C. Twelve Tables created. HOME1The Romans Createa RepublicSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the main events that mark the growth of Rome into a powerful republic.509 B.C. Romans overthrow Etruscan king.Republic established.451 B.C. Twelve Tables created.265 B.C. Italy conquered.B.C. Punic Wars fought.70 B.C. Rome controlledthe Mediterranean.continued . . .
7The Romans Create a Republic 1 1 HOME1The Romans Createa RepublicSection1Assessment2. Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success more to its form of government or to its army? Why?THINK ABOUT• the structure of the republic• how citizenship spread• Rome’s policies toward conquered peoplesANSWERPossible Response:The army’s conquests expanded the territory of Rome, which increased Rome’s power and wealth. However, the republic that Rome established gave it a stability that allowed it to grow by absorbing conquered peoples or making them allies.continued . . .
8The Romans Create a Republic 1 1 HOME1The Romans Createa RepublicSection1Assessment3. How did the office of dictator contribute to the balance and stability of the Roman Republic? THINK ABOUT• the role of the dictator• the power of consuls• the need for speedy decisions in a crisisANSWERA dictator could make the speedy decisions needed in a crisis, whereas the consuls could veto each other’s decisions, and the senate and assembly might take too long to make critical decisions.Possible Response:End of Section 1
9The Roman Empire Brings Change Key Idea 2 HOME2The Roman EmpireBrings ChangeMAPKey IdeaProblems in the republic lead to civil war. The republic collapses, and Julius Caesar becomes dictator. After Caesar’s assassination, Octavian emerges as Rome’s first emperor.OverviewAssessment
10The Roman Empire Brings Change Overview 2 • civil war • Julius Caesar HOME2The Roman EmpireBrings ChangeMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• civil war• Julius Caesar• triumvirate• absolute ruler• Augustus• Pax Romana• gladiatorMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe creation of the Roman Empire transformed Roman government, society, economy, and culture.The Roman Empire has served throughout history as a model of political organization and control.Assessment
11The Roman Empire Brings Change 2 2 HOME2The Roman EmpireBrings ChangeMAPSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain how Rome changed during the Pax Romana.Changes in RomeRome becomes an empire with one ruler.Civil service system established.Empire expands.Roman way of life extends to the provinces.Roman trade reaches India and China.Road network increases trade.Women have more freedom.Religions of southwestern Asia become influential.Gap between rich and poor increases.continued . . .
12The Roman Empire Brings Change 2 2 HOME2The Roman EmpireBrings ChangeMAPSection2Assessment2. What role did Julius Caesar play in the decline of the republic and the rise of the empire? THINK ABOUT• the problems facing the republic• how Caesar helped restore order• Caesar’s defiance of the senate• Caesar’s rule as dictatorANSWERPossible Response:Caesar helped restore order, then seized power. His occupation of Rome and his rule as dictator effectively ended the republic.End of Section 2
13The Rise of Christianity Key Idea 3 HOME3The Rise ofChristianityKey IdeaChristianity begins with the teachings of Jesus in Judea. The new religion spreads quickly throughout the empire.OverviewAssessment
14The Rise of Christianity Overview 3 • Jesus • apostle • Peter • Paul HOME3The Rise ofChristianityTERMS & NAMESOverview• Jesus• apostle• Peter• Paul• Diaspora• bishop• pope• Constantine• heresyMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWChristianity arose in Roman-occupied Judea and spread throughout the Roman Empire.As the world’s most widespread religion, Christianity guides the lives of millions today.Assessment
15The Rise of Christianity 3 3 HOME3The Rise ofChristianitySection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe five events that led to the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire.Theodosius makes Christianity the empire’s official religion.Rome takes overJewish kingdom.Jesus gathers many followers.Paul and other missionaries spread Jesus’ message.Constantine issuesEdict of Milan.continued . . .
16The Rise of Christianity 3 3 HOME3The Rise ofChristianitySection3Assessment2. Do you think Christianity would have developed in the same way if it had arisen in an area outside the Roman Empire? Explain. THINK ABOUT• Jesus’ growing popularity• the effect of actions Rome took against Jesus and his followers• the depth of belief of Jesus’ followers• the advantages of being part of a vast empireANSWERPossible Responses:No. Christianity would have grown more slowly outside the empire.Yes. It would have spread just as fast or faster without Roman persecutions.continued . . .
17The Rise of Christianity 3 3 HOME3The Rise ofChristianitySection3Assessment3. Who do you think did more to spread Christianity—Paul or Constantine? THINK ABOUT• Paul’s travels• the opening of Christianity to the Gentiles• Constantine’s power as an emperorANSWERPossible Responses:Paul did more to spread Christianity because he carried it throughout the empire and welcomed Gentiles.Constantine did more because he accepted Christianity and ended the persecution.End of Section 3
18The Decline of the Roman Empire Key Idea 4 HOME4The Decline of theRoman EmpireKey IdeaThe Roman Empire splits in two. Economic, military, and political decay and outside invaders bring down the Western Roman Empire, but the eastern half survives.OverviewAssessment
19The Decline of the Roman Empire Overview 4 • inflation • mercenary HOME4The Decline of theRoman EmpireTERMS & NAMESOverview• inflation• mercenary• Diocletian• Constantinople• Alaric• AttilaMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWInternal problems and nomadic invasions spurred the division and decline of the Roman empire.The decline and fall of great civilizations is a repeating pattern in world history.Assessment
20Decline of the Roman Empire HOME4The Decline of theRoman EmpireSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of each of the effects listed below.Decline of the Roman EmpireCausesEffectsInflationUntrustworthy armyDecreased citizen interest in governmentGold and silver squandered; coins worth lessSoldiers fought for money.Citizens had little influence; officialsburdened with debts. The empire couldn’tmaintain its defenses; army was weakened.continued . . .
21The Decline of the Roman Empire 4 4 HOME4The Decline of theRoman EmpireSection4Assessment2. How do you think the splitting of the empire into two parts helped it survive for another 200 years?THINK ABOUT• the differences between the eastern and western halves of the empire• the advantages of a smaller empireANSWERPossible Response:The wealthier eastern half included most of the empire’s great cities and trading centers. By creating a smaller area that was easier to defend, Constantine was able to preserve the empire for another 200 years.End of Section 4
22Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization Key Idea 5 HOME5Rome and the Roots ofWestern CivilizationGRAPHKey IdeaGreco-Roman culture continues to influence the arts, science and technology, government, and legal systems of the Western world and other parts of the globe.OverviewAssessment
23Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization Overview 5 HOME5Rome and the Roots ofWestern CivilizationGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Greco-Roman culture• Pompeii• Virgil• Tacitus• aqueductMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Romans developed many ideas and institutions that became fundamental to Western civilization.Evidence of Roman culture is found throughout Europe and North America and in Asia and Africa.Assessment
24Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization 5 5 HOME5Rome and the Roots ofWestern CivilizationGRAPHSection5Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. For each of the categories below, list the accomplishments of Roman culture.Fine ArtsLawEngineeringLiteratureRealistic sculpture,murals,mosaicsHistories,Virgil’s Aeneid,Ovid’s Amores,Tacitus’sAnnals and HistoriesArch,dome,aqueduct,roadsEqual treatment before the law, innocent until proven guilty, burden of proof on the accuser, unfair laws set asidecontinued . . .
25Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization 5 5 HOME5Rome and the Roots ofWestern CivilizationGRAPHSection5Assessment2. Which principle of law do you think has been Rome’s greatest contribution to modern legal systems? THINK ABOUT• equality before the law• innocent until proven guilty• unfair laws could be set asideANSWERPossible Responses:• Equal treatment before the law because it erases class differences.Innocent until proven guilty because there can be no punishment without conviction.• Unfair laws can be set aside because bad laws can be changed.continued . . .
26Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization 5 5 HOME5Rome and the Roots ofWestern CivilizationGRAPHSection5Assessment3. Why do you think the Greek philosophy of Stoicism was so appealing to Romans? THINK ABOUT• Stoic philosophy• the Roman citizen-soldier• Roman lawANSWERPossible Response:Stoicism emphasized virtue, duty, and endurance, qualities that would appeal to the citizen-soldier. Also, Stoics believed that human laws should be reasonable and just, concepts that influenced Roman legal systems.End of Section 5