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Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Federalism Chapter 3 Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth AP* Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry.

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Presentation on theme: "Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Federalism Chapter 3 Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth AP* Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Federalism Chapter 3 Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth AP* Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry

2 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 1 Define federalism and explain why it is important to American government and politics.

3 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 I. Defining Federalism A. What is Federalism? – 1. Federalism: a way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the land and people – 2. Unitary governments: a way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government – 3. Confederation: The United Nations is a modern example. – 4. Intergovernmental Relations: the workings of the federal system- the entire set of interactions among national, state and local governments

4 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Authority Relations

5 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 B. Importance Why Is Federalism So Important? – 1.Decentralizes our politics More opportunities to participate – 2. Decentralizes our policies Federal and state governments handle different problems. –States regulate drinking ages, marriage, and speed limits. States can solve the same problem in different ways and tend to be policy innovators.

6 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 1 Summary In your Summary you should: 1. Define federalism and explain why it is important to American government and politics. You should have 7 Questions

7 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 2 Describe how the Constitution divides power between the national and state governments and understand why the supremacy of the national government is the central principle of American federalism.

8 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 II. Division of Power A. The Division of Power – 1. Supremacy Clause, Article VI of the Constitution states the following are supreme: The U.S. Constitution Laws of Congress Treaties – 2. Yet, national government cannot usurp state powers. Tenth Amendment

9 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Distribution of Powers

10 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 B. Establishing National Supremacy – 1. Implied and enumerated powers McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – 2. Commerce Powers Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – 3. The Civil War ( ) – The Struggle for Racial Equality Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

11 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 2 Summary In your Summary you should: Describe how the Constitution divides power between the national and state governments and understand why the supremacy of the national government is the central principle of American federalism. You should have 8 Questions

12 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 3 Explain the nature of the states' obligations to each other.

13 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 II. State Obligations A. States Obligations to Each Other – 1. Full Faith and Credit: Each state must recognize official documents and judgments rendered by other states. Article IV, Section I of Constitution – 2. Privileges and Immunities: Citizens of each state have privileges of citizens of other states. Article IV, Section 2 of Constitution – 3. Extradition: States must return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for punishment.

14 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 3 Summary In your Summary you should: Explain the nature of the states' obligations to each other. You should have 11 Questions

15 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 4 Explain how federalism in the United States has shifted from dual federalism to cooperative federalism.

16 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 IV. Federalism Shift A. Dual Federalism – 1. Definition: a system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies – 2. Like a layer cake – 3. Narrowly interpreted powers of federal government – 4. Ended in the 1930s

17 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 B. Cooperative Federalism – 1. Definition: a system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government – 2. Like a marble cake – 3. Shared costs and administration – 4. States follow federal guidelines

18 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 4 Summary In your Summary you should: Explain how federalism in the United States has shifted from dual federalism to cooperative federalism. You should have 19 Questions

19 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 5 Describe the nature of fiscal federalism and how states and cities compete for federal grants and aid.

20 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 V. Intergovernmental Relations Today A. Fiscal Federalism – 1. Definition: the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national governments relations with state and local governments

21 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Fiscal FederalismFiscal Federalism

22 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 – 3. The Grant System: Distributing the Federal Pie Categorical Grants: federal grants that can be used for specific purposes; grants with strings attached –Project Grants: based on merit –Formula Grants: amount varies based on formulas Block Grants: federal grants given more or less automatically to support broad programs Grants are given to states & local governments.

23 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 – 4. The Scramble for Federal Dollars $460 billion in grants every year Grant distribution follows universalisma little something for everybody. – 5. The Mandate Blues Mandates direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules under threat of penalties or as a condition of receipt of a federal grant. Unfunded mandates

24 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 5 Summary In your Summary you should: Describe the nature of fiscal federalism and how states and cities compete for federal grants and aid. You should have 24 Questions

25 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 6 Explain the relationship between federalism and democracy, and how federalism contributes to and detracts from democracy.

26 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Understanding Federalism 1. Advantages for Democracy – Increases access to government – Local problems can be solved locally – Hard for political parties or interest groups to dominate all politics 2. Disadvantages for Democracy – States have different levels of service – Local interest can counteract national interests – Too many levels of government and too much money

27 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Diversity in Public Policy

28 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Downside of Diversity

29 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Number of Governments in America

30 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 6 Summary In your Summary you should: Explain the relationship between federalism and democracy, and how federalism contributes to and detracts from democracy. You should have 29 Questions

31 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 7 Understand how federalism has contributed to the scope of the national government

32 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 VII. Federalism and the Scope of Government A. Federalism and the Scope of Government – 1. What should the scope of national government be relative to the states? National power increased with industrialization, expansion of individual rights, and social services. Most problems require resources afforded to the national, not state governments.

33 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Fiscal Federalism

34 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 7 Summary In your Summary you should: Understand how federalism has contributed to the scope of the national government Your Notes should have a total of 31 questions and 7 summaries.

35 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Summary American federalism is a governmental system in which power is shared between a central government and the 50 state governments. The United States has moved from dual to cooperative federalism; fiscal federalism. Federalism leads to both advantages and disadvantages to democracy.


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