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Welcome to HELL!. The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri- Only copy the notes Dantes Background Dantes Background Born in Middle Ages Florence in 1265 Born.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to HELL!. The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri- Only copy the notes Dantes Background Dantes Background Born in Middle Ages Florence in 1265 Born."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to HELL!

2 The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri- Only copy the notes Dantes Background Dantes Background Born in Middle Ages Florence in 1265 Born in Middle Ages Florence in 1265 Married Gemma Donati and had three children Married Gemma Donati and had three children Two boys-exiled; one daughter who was sent to convent Two boys-exiled; one daughter who was sent to convent Died in Ravenna in 1321 Died in Ravenna in 1321

3 Dantes Career Dantes career started in 1295 Dantes career started in 1295 There were two ruling families in Florence There were two ruling families in Florence The Guelphsfriends of the Pope The Guelphsfriends of the Pope The Ghibellinessupporters of the Germanic emperor The Ghibellinessupporters of the Germanic emperor The families battled repeatedly for power The families battled repeatedly for power

4 Dantes Career 2 The Guelphs were in power; the Ghibellines were exiled The Guelphs were in power; the Ghibellines were exiled The Gulphs had a major fight from within and split into two groupsthe whites and blacks The Gulphs had a major fight from within and split into two groupsthe whites and blacks The blacks staged a coup sending Dante ad all the whites into permanent exile The blacks staged a coup sending Dante ad all the whites into permanent exile Dante remained in exile for the rest of his life for graft and hostility against the Pope Dante remained in exile for the rest of his life for graft and hostility against the Pope Dantes fortunes were confiscatedhe lived off of friends for remainder of his life Dantes fortunes were confiscatedhe lived off of friends for remainder of his life

5 Writing Career Writing Career Was angered over injustices to his life Was angered over injustices to his life He wanted it clarified what was goodwhat was evil He wanted it clarified what was goodwhat was evil He was bored and began to explore concerns in writing He was bored and began to explore concerns in writing Wrote The Comedy of Dante Alighieri, Florentine by Citizenship, Not by Morals. Wrote The Comedy of Dante Alighieri, Florentine by Citizenship, Not by Morals.

6 The Characters Dante Dante Is a sinner who has wandered from the right road and must get back Is a sinner who has wandered from the right road and must get back Has fallen prey to seven deadly sins: (dont need to copy sins) Has fallen prey to seven deadly sins: (dont need to copy sins) Pride Pride Envy Envy Wrath Wrath Acedia (laziness/sloth) Acedia (laziness/sloth) Avarice (greed) Avarice (greed) Gluttony Gluttony Lust Lust Dante must compensate for laziness. Dante must compensate for laziness. If he can overcome his sin, so can you (his message!) If he can overcome his sin, so can you (his message!)

7 Virgil Why did Dante choose Virgil as his guide through hell? Why did Dante choose Virgil as his guide through hell? Virgil knew hell well as described in his book The Aeneid. Virgil knew hell well as described in his book The Aeneid. Virgil foretold the coming of Christ and was seen as a mystic who could predict the future, manipulate spirits. Virgil foretold the coming of Christ and was seen as a mystic who could predict the future, manipulate spirits. He created the mythology that explained the Roman Empire. He created the mythology that explained the Roman Empire. Virgil stands for human reason. Virgil stands for human reason.

8 Beatrice Dante met her at age 9 and fell in love with her Dante met her at age 9 and fell in love with her Beatrice was married to an older man Beatrice was married to an older man Dante only saw her a few times Dante only saw her a few times She was the embodiment of the spiritually pure She was the embodiment of the spiritually pure She died at a young age and this sent Dante into a depression She died at a young age and this sent Dante into a depression Beatrice sent Virgil to bring Dante out of hell and purgatory in hopes that he can reach heaven Beatrice sent Virgil to bring Dante out of hell and purgatory in hopes that he can reach heaven

9 Dantes Beliefs Religion: Religion: Believed in one church, the Roman Catholic Church Believed in one church, the Roman Catholic Church Believed in heaven, purgatory, and hell Believed in heaven, purgatory, and hell

10 Dualities: Believed that two extreme opposites exist in most things. Believed that two extreme opposites exist in most things. Power of church versus power of state Power of church versus power of state Philosophy versus religion Philosophy versus religion Plato versus Aristotle (look for both in this work) Plato versus Aristotle (look for both in this work) Animals versus man versus angels Animals versus man versus angels Realism versus symbolism Realism versus symbolism Common language versus elegant language Common language versus elegant language

11 Physical world: Believed in Ptolemys view of the universe or that the planets circle the earth: Believed in Ptolemys view of the universe or that the planets circle the earth: Earth Earth Moon Moon Venus Venus Sun Sun Mars Mars Jupiter Jupiter Saturn Saturn Starry Heaven Starry Heaven Crystalline Heavens Crystalline Heavens Home of God Home of God

12 Education Bible and St. Augustine Bible and St. Augustine Classic Greek and Myths Classic Greek and Myths

13 The Plot This is Dantes journey through hell in his attempt to get to heaven This is Dantes journey through hell in his attempt to get to heaven There are three canticles: hell, purgatory, and heaven. There are three canticles: hell, purgatory, and heaven. See map See map

14 Setting Hell is a medieval hierarchy, a huge funnel shaped pit that occupies the center of the earth. Hell is a medieval hierarchy, a huge funnel shaped pit that occupies the center of the earth. Hell is established around Dantes vision of it. Dante believes man has free will and gets what he has chosen Hell is established around Dantes vision of it. Dante believes man has free will and gets what he has chosen Hell is an individuals potential for sin Hell is an individuals potential for sin

15 Form Comedy- has a positive ending Comedy- has a positive ending Epic- long narrative poem of a grand scale involving superhuman upon who the world (or a nation) depends Epic- long narrative poem of a grand scale involving superhuman upon who the world (or a nation) depends A Quest- a journey to achieve a prize or knowledge-wisdom A Quest- a journey to achieve a prize or knowledge-wisdom

16 Language and Style First to write an epic in Italian, not Latin First to write an epic in Italian, not Latin First to combine low, bawdy language with elevated poetic language First to combine low, bawdy language with elevated poetic language First to consciously use obscene language First to consciously use obscene language

17 Themes The whole world has meaning, reason, and order The whole world has meaning, reason, and order The source of meaning, reason, and order is Gods divine plan. The source of meaning, reason, and order is Gods divine plan. The divine order is knowable and achievable by humankind. The divine order is knowable and achievable by humankind. In sum if youll just be good, you can make it to the top or heaven. In sum if youll just be good, you can make it to the top or heaven.

18 HELL: Vestibule: The uncommitted Neither Good nor evil- only for themselves Living in maggots

19 Acheron River Charon- A monster takes him across

20 Circle 1 (Limbo): Virtuous unbaptized Not tormented Not tormented Pagans Pagans Virgil joins Dante here Virgil joins Dante here Others include: Others include: Homer Homer Horace Horace Ovid Ovid

21 Circle II: Lustful Youll be reading Canto 5 for the punishment in this level. Youll be reading Canto 5 for the punishment in this level. Includes: Includes: Helen, Achilles, and Paris Helen, Achilles, and Paris Tristan and Isolte Tristan and Isolte Paolo and Francesca Paolo and Francesca Cleopatra Cleopatra

22 Circle III: Gluttonous 3 headed dog Cerberus chasing souls around and eating them 3 headed dog Cerberus chasing souls around and eating them Stinking snow and freezing rain fall Stinking snow and freezing rain fall A gigantic garbage dump A gigantic garbage dump

23 Circle IV: Prodigal, Avaricious Hoarders vs. wasters Hoarders vs. wasters Carrying dead weight that they push back and forth between themselves Carrying dead weight that they push back and forth between themselves Plutus- monster who whips them Plutus- monster who whips them

24 Circle V (Styx): Wrathful The river Styx The river Styx Constantly fighting Constantly fighting Buried under slim Buried under slim Pop bubbles so they can speak Pop bubbles so they can speak

25 Walls of the City of Dis Furies Furies Rebellious Angels Rebellious Angels Medusa Medusa Split between upper and lower Hell Split between upper and lower Hell

26 Circle VI: Heretics Violence to God Violence to God Vast cemetery Vast cemetery Coffins inflamed by fire Coffins inflamed by fire

27 Circle VII: Violent against Neighbors Violent against Themselves Violent against God, Nature, and Art Suicides trapped in trees- branches broke to speak and bleed- causes pain Suicides trapped in trees- branches broke to speak and bleed- causes pain A river of boiling blood A river of boiling blood Harpies picking people apart Harpies picking people apart Burning sand- slow rain Burning sand- slow rain Minotaur eating people Minotaur eating people

28 Abyss A water fall over a cliff A water fall over a cliff Hell becomes frozen after this Hell becomes frozen after this

29 Circle VIII: (Malebolge): Evil ditches- or trenches that must be crossed Evil ditches- or trenches that must be crossed Solgs Solgs The ten ditches of the Malebolge, in descending order, are listed thus: Bolgia One: Panderers and Seducers are punished here. They are forced to march, single file around the circumference of their circle, constantly lashed by horned demons. The ten ditches of the Malebolge, in descending order, are listed thus: Bolgia One: Panderers and Seducers are punished here. They are forced to march, single file around the circumference of their circle, constantly lashed by horned demons. Bolgia Two: Sinners guilty of excessive flattery are punished in this bolgia, immersed forever in a river of human excrement. Bolgia Two: Sinners guilty of excessive flattery are punished in this bolgia, immersed forever in a river of human excrement.

30 Circle VIII: (Malebolge): continued Bolgia Three: Simonists (sinners guilty of selling church offices for personal gain) are punished here. They are turned upside down in large baptismal fonts cut into the rock, with their feet set ablaze by oily fires. The heat of the flames burns according to the guilt of the sinner. Bolgia Three: Simonists (sinners guilty of selling church offices for personal gain) are punished here. They are turned upside down in large baptismal fonts cut into the rock, with their feet set ablaze by oily fires. The heat of the flames burns according to the guilt of the sinner. Bolgia Four: Astrologists, seers, sorcerers and others who attempted to pervert Gods laws to divine the future are punished here. Their heads have been twisted around to face backwards, and thus they are forced to walk backwards around the circumference of their circle for all of time. Bolgia Four: Astrologists, seers, sorcerers and others who attempted to pervert Gods laws to divine the future are punished here. Their heads have been twisted around to face backwards, and thus they are forced to walk backwards around the circumference of their circle for all of time.God

31 Circle VIII: (Malebolge): continued Bolgia Five: Grafters (peculators, extortionists, blackmailers and unscrupulous businessmen: sinners who used their positions in life to gain personal wealth or other advantages for themselves) are punished by being thrown into a river of boiling pitch and tar. In addition, should any of the grafters try to escape the pitch, a horde of demons ("Malebranche", meaning "evil claws") armed with grappling hooks and barbs stands guard over them, ready to tear them to pieces. Bolgia Five: Grafters (peculators, extortionists, blackmailers and unscrupulous businessmen: sinners who used their positions in life to gain personal wealth or other advantages for themselves) are punished by being thrown into a river of boiling pitch and tar. In addition, should any of the grafters try to escape the pitch, a horde of demons ("Malebranche", meaning "evil claws") armed with grappling hooks and barbs stands guard over them, ready to tear them to pieces.tar Bolgia Six: Hypocrites are punished in this circle. They are forced to wear heavy lead robes as they walk around the circumference of their circle. The robes are golden and resemble a monks cowl but are lined with heavy lead, symbolically representing hypocrisy. Also, Caiphas, the Pharisee who insisted on the execution of Jesus, is crucified in this circle, staked to the ground so that the ranks of the lead-weighted hypocrites march across him. Bolgia Six: Hypocrites are punished in this circle. They are forced to wear heavy lead robes as they walk around the circumference of their circle. The robes are golden and resemble a monks cowl but are lined with heavy lead, symbolically representing hypocrisy. Also, Caiphas, the Pharisee who insisted on the execution of Jesus, is crucified in this circle, staked to the ground so that the ranks of the lead-weighted hypocrites march across him.CaiphasPhariseeJesusCaiphasPhariseeJesus

32 Circle VIII: (Malebolge): continued Bolgia Seven: This bolgia houses the souls of thieves. The bolgia is also filled with serpents, dragons and other vengeful reptiles that torture the thieves endlessly. The bites of some of the snakes cause the thieves to spontaneously combust, only to regenerate their bodies for further torment in a few moments. Other thieves are denied human forms and appear as reptiles themselves, and can only assume their true shape if they steal a human shape from another sinner; this involves a very painful transformation for both souls involved. Bolgia Seven: This bolgia houses the souls of thieves. The bolgia is also filled with serpents, dragons and other vengeful reptiles that torture the thieves endlessly. The bites of some of the snakes cause the thieves to spontaneously combust, only to regenerate their bodies for further torment in a few moments. Other thieves are denied human forms and appear as reptiles themselves, and can only assume their true shape if they steal a human shape from another sinner; this involves a very painful transformation for both souls involved.serpentsdragonssoulsserpentsdragonssouls Bolgia Eight: In this trench, the souls of Deceivers who gave false or corrupted advice to others for personal benefit are punished. They are constantly ablaze, appearing as nothing so much as living, speaking tongues of flame. Bolgia Eight: In this trench, the souls of Deceivers who gave false or corrupted advice to others for personal benefit are punished. They are constantly ablaze, appearing as nothing so much as living, speaking tongues of flame.

33 Circle VIII: (Malebolge): continued Bolgia Nine: Sinners who, in life, promoted scandals, schism, and discord are punished here; particularly those who caused schism within the church or within politics. They are forced to walk around the circumference of the circle bearing horrible, disfiguring wounds inflicted on them by a great demon with a sword. The nature of the wound mirrors the sins of the particular soul; while some only have gashes, or fingers and toes cut off, others are decapitated, cut in half (as schismatics), or are completely disemboweled. In the Inferno, Muslim prophet Muhammad is tortured in this ditch. Bolgia Nine: Sinners who, in life, promoted scandals, schism, and discord are punished here; particularly those who caused schism within the church or within politics. They are forced to walk around the circumference of the circle bearing horrible, disfiguring wounds inflicted on them by a great demon with a sword. The nature of the wound mirrors the sins of the particular soul; while some only have gashes, or fingers and toes cut off, others are decapitated, cut in half (as schismatics), or are completely disemboweled. In the Inferno, Muslim prophet Muhammad is tortured in this ditch.InfernoMuslimMuhammadInfernoMuslimMuhammad Bolgia Ten: Falsifiers, those who attempted to alter things through lies or alchemy, or those who tried to pass off false things as real things, such as counterfeiters of coins, are punished here. This bolgia has four subdivisions where specific classes of falsifiers (alchemists, impostors, counterfeiters, and liars) endure different degrees of punishment based on horrible, consumptive diseases such as rashes, dropsy, leprosy and consumption. Bolgia Ten: Falsifiers, those who attempted to alter things through lies or alchemy, or those who tried to pass off false things as real things, such as counterfeiters of coins, are punished here. This bolgia has four subdivisions where specific classes of falsifiers (alchemists, impostors, counterfeiters, and liars) endure different degrees of punishment based on horrible, consumptive diseases such as rashes, dropsy, leprosy and consumption. alchemyrashesdropsyleprosy consumption alchemyrashesdropsyleprosy consumption The lower edge of Malebolge is guarded by a ring of titans and earth giants, many of whom are chained in place as punishment for their rebellion against the gods. Beyond and below the giants lies Cocytus, hell's final depth. The lower edge of Malebolge is guarded by a ring of titans and earth giants, many of whom are chained in place as punishment for their rebellion against the gods. Beyond and below the giants lies Cocytus, hell's final depth.

34 Giants Well Frozen and angry Giants who try to kill Dante Frozen and angry Giants who try to kill Dante

35 Circle IX (Cocytus): Traitors To kindred, To country, To Guests, To Masters To kindred, To country, To Guests, To Masters In Inferno, the first cantica of Dante's The Divine Comedy, Cocytus is the ninth and lowest circle of Hell. Cocytus is referred to as a frozen lake rather than a river, although it originates from the same source as the other infernal rivers. The lake is frozen by the flapping wings of Lucifer, or Satan; his tears replenish the lake, and are then frozen by his attempts to escape via the wings. It is divided into four descending "rounds," or sections: In Inferno, the first cantica of Dante's The Divine Comedy, Cocytus is the ninth and lowest circle of Hell. Cocytus is referred to as a frozen lake rather than a river, although it originates from the same source as the other infernal rivers. The lake is frozen by the flapping wings of Lucifer, or Satan; his tears replenish the lake, and are then frozen by his attempts to escape via the wings. It is divided into four descending "rounds," or sections:DanteThe Divine ComedyHellLucifer SatanDanteThe Divine ComedyHellLucifer Satan Caina, after the Biblical Cain; traitors to blood relatives. Caina, after the Biblical Cain; traitors to blood relatives.Cain Antenora, after Antenor from the Iliad; traitors to country. Antenora, after Antenor from the Iliad; traitors to country.AntenorIliadAntenorIliad Ptolomea, after Ptolemy, governor of Jericho, who murdered his guests (1 Maccabees); traitors to guests. Ptolomea, after Ptolemy, governor of Jericho, who murdered his guests (1 Maccabees); traitors to guests.Jericho1 MaccabeesJericho1 Maccabees Judecca, after Judas Iscariot; traitors to masters and benefactors. Judecca, after Judas Iscariot; traitors to masters and benefactors.Judas IscariotJudas Iscariot Lucifer is at the center of the circle, his lower body trapped in ice, and is depicted with three mouths. One mouth gnaws on Brutus and another on Cassius, the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and both are chewed feet foremost with their heads protruding. The chewed head of Judas is in the third mouth. Lucifer is at the center of the circle, his lower body trapped in ice, and is depicted with three mouths. One mouth gnaws on Brutus and another on Cassius, the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and both are chewed feet foremost with their heads protruding. The chewed head of Judas is in the third mouth. LuciferBrutus CassiusJulius Caesar Judas LuciferBrutus CassiusJulius Caesar Judas

36 Works Cited Alegheri, Dante. The Inferno. Trans. John Ciardi. New York: Penguin, 1982. Alegheri, Dante. The Inferno. Trans. John Ciardi. New York: Penguin, 1982. Inferno. Encyclopedia Reference. Ask.com. Keyword: Inferno. 30 Oct. 2008. http://www.reference.com Inferno. Encyclopedia Reference. Ask.com. Keyword: Inferno. 30 Oct. 2008. http://www.reference.comhttp://www.reference.com


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