Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: Foundations of Economics What comes to your mind when you hear the word SCARCE? (video about scarcity)"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 1: Foundations of Economics What comes to your mind when you hear the word SCARCE? (video about scarcity)
2What is Economics?“A science that deals with the allocation, or use, of scarce resources for the purpose of fulfilling society’s needs and wants.” – Addison-Wesley
3OBJECTIVES 1.1EXPLAIN why scarcity and choice are basic problems of economicsIDENTIFY land, labor, and capital as the three factors of production, and identify the two types of capitalEXPLAIN the role of entrepreneursEXPLAIN why economists say all resources are scarce
4What is Economics? So then the big two concepts are that: Resources are scarce!Society has unlimited needs and wants!Economics decides the “best” way of providing one to the other
15FACTORS of PRODUCTIONExample of FRENCH FRIES … page 6IN N OUT
16Making Economic Decisions Every decision we make involves trade-offs – alternatives that we must give up when we make a choiceExample – “I could stay up for 3 hours playing Halo, study, or sleep.”
17PROFILE – Gary Becker!Read p. 7 about Gary Becker’s thoughts about the “marriage market”… hmmm… Then discuss with neighbor:1. Do you agree or disagree that economics guides even life’s most personal decisions???
181.1 QUIZ – get a partner! Number your paper 1 - 6 1. Which of the following are factors of production?a. Capital and Landb. Scarcity and shortagesc. Technology and productivityd. economics and business decisions
20Next question …2. Which of the following is an example of using physical capital to save time and money?a. hiring more workers to do a job?b. building extra space in a factory to simplify productionc. switching from oil to coal to make production cheaperd. lowering workers’ wages to increase profits
21Answer is …b. building extra space in a factory to simplify production
22next question …3. To what part of an industry does a worker’s education contribute?a. technologyb. physical capitalc. human capitald. scarce resources
24next question … 4. Which of the following is an entrepreneur? a. a person who earns a lot of money as a singer or dancerb. a person who creates a game and sells it to a game manufacturerc. a person who starts an all-organic cleaning supplies business that employs othersd. a person who works as a highly paid computer programmer
25Answer is …c. a person who starts an all-organic cleaning supplies business that employs others
26Next … 5. What is the difference between a shortage and scarcity? a. A shortage can be temporary or long-term, but scarcity always exists.b. A shortage results from rising prices; scarcity results from falling prices.c. A shortage is a lack of all goods and services; scarcity concerns a single item.d. There is no real difference between a shortage and scarcity
27answer …a. A shortage can be temporary or long-term, but scarcity always exists!
28next…. 6. What does an economist mean by the term LAND? a. farmland onlyb. food crops grown on farmland as well as the farmland itselfc. goods and services that are produced form the landd. all natural resources used to produce goods and services
29answer …d. all natural resources used to produce goods and services!
30FIVE appealing VACATION Destinations… Section 1.2 – Opportunity CostFIVE appealing VACATION Destinations…HawaiiParisDunns River Falls, JamaicaVolunteer: What is your first choice? What is your second choice?IrelandAlaska
31Making Economic Decisions The most desirable of the options you pass up is called the Opportunity CostRank sleep, studying, and playing video games 1st, 2nd, and 3rd on a list for what you value the most
32Making Economic Decisions 1st Place is what you would choose to do2nd Place is your opportunity cost (you give it up to do option 1)
33Making Economic Decisions What other option do you have other than using 3 hours for one task?You could split your time among multiple activities!Thinking at the Margin – decision involving adding one unit and subtracting one unit, rather than all or nothing
34Making Economic Decisions OptionsBenefitOpportunity Cost0 hours studying, 3 hours sleepingF on TestNone1 hours studying, 2 hours sleepingC on Test1 hour of sleep2 hours studying, 1 hour sleepingB on Test2 hours of sleep3 hours studyingB+ on Test3 hours of sleep
35Making Economic Decisions There is a point at which you are paying the same increase in cost, but seeing lower benefitsYou must make the decision as to whether the cost is worth itThis same process is used by businesses and consumers to make decisions
36QUIZ time .. grab a partner! Number your paper 1 - 4 1. The economic concept of guns or butter means that …a. a person can spend extra money either on sports equipment or food.b. a company must decide whether to manufacture guns or butterc. a government must decide whether to produce more or less military or consumer goodsd. a government can buy unlimited military and civilian goods if it is rich enough
37answer …c. a government must decide whether to produce more or less military or consumer goods … trade off …. due to scarcity!
38next..2. If a person who wants to buy a compact disc (CD) has just enough money to buy one, and chooses CD A instead of CD B, then CD B is thea. trade-offb. opportunity costc. decision at the margind. opportunity at the margin
42next …4. A decision is made at the margin when each alternative considersa. a different trade-off than the othersb. where the most costly alternative will be.c. what the “all or nothing” alternative will be.d. cost and benefit ranked in progressive units.
43answer …c. d. cost and benefit ranked in progressive units
44Section 1.3 – Production Possibilities Curves GRAPHS….WHY do graphs sometimes show information more clearly than text or tables?
45Production Possibilities Production Possibilities Graph – shows alternatives to what an economy can produceLet’s say we can produce 2 things: Guns and Butter
47Production Possibilities Production Possibilities Graph – shows alternatives to what an economy can produceThe outer red line shows the maximum possible output with any given combinationThis is the Production Possibilities Frontier (or Curve)
48Production Possibilities To move from one point to another, the economy must make trade-offs
49Production Possibilities Any point along the line shows the economy operating at maximum efficiencyAny point below the line is underutilization – they are not getting all that they couldAny point above the line is presently impossible, until new resources are available
50Production Possibilities Why does the graph curve instead of making a straight line?Law of Increasing Costs – as production increases for one item, more and more resources are necessary to increase production of the second item! The OPPORTUNITY COST increases…
51Production Possibilities Every resource is best suited for certain types of goodsFarmland and cows make butterMetals and factories make guns and many times you hear about butter vs. guns due to military spending on weaponry using resources …To convert butter production to guns, you must sell the cows and build new factories on the land
52quiz time Number your paper 1 – 4 1. A production possibilities curve shows the relationship between the production of:a. farm goods and factory goodsb. two types of farm goodsc. two types of factory goodsd. any two categories of goods
54next …2. The line on a production possibilities curve showing the relative amounts of two types of goods produced using all resources is called thea. production possibilities frontierb. opportunity cost linec. utilization of resourcesd. maximum possible production line
56question …3. The law of increasing costs means that as production shifts from one item to another,a. the cost of production gets cheaper and cheaper.b. the cost of producing an item stays the same no matter how many are produced.c. more and more resources are necessary to increase production of the second itemd. the land costs of increasing production rise much more steeply than do the labor costs
57answer is …c. more and more resources are necessary to increase production of the second item
58and last question …4. The curve usually seen in a production possibilities frontier can be explained by:a. growth in the economyb. underutilization of resourcesc. increasing an economy’s efficiencyd. the law of increasing costs
59final answer is …d. the law of increasing costs!
60An economy that is efficient is … producing the maximum amount of goods and services .. now that’s efficient!