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Middle Ages.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages

2 Essential Questions Describe the effects of the Crusades.
What impact did Feudalism have on Europe? What were the political, economic, and social effects of the Black Death?

3 No Baths for 1000 years a disease that wipes out Europe survival of the fittest

4 Decline of the Roman Empire
The Middle Ages: 500 – 1500 The Medieval Period Rise of the Middle Ages Decline of the Roman Empire

5 Western Europe

6 Justinian and the Byzantine Empire
Strong Central Government Strong, well-trained military with advanced technology. Justinian the Emperor of the Byzantines codified the laws. Constantinople was the new capital of the Byzantine Empire Gradually weakened by constant battles with Persia

7 Split in the Catholic Church
In the West, the Pope was the head of the Church In the East, the Emperor of Constantinople was the most powerful church leader. Byzantines differed from the Western Christian Church on issues of religious practices. West services in Latin doesn’t believe in Icons East services in local languages Believe in Icons Christianity split into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

8 Ottoman Empire After Justinian died, the Empire was threatened by outside powers including the Seljuk Turks (the Ottomans) By the 1300’s the Ottomans had, captured Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire.

9 The Ottoman’s Muslim beliefs were later challenged by the Crusades.

10 What were the Dark Ages? After the decline of the Roman Empire:
Barbarian tribes ruled Europe Art and Learning declined St. Patrick ( Ireland) adopted Christianity He had Monasteries built that became centers for learning and culture. People came from all over to study at these monasteries Monasteries began to pop up all over Europe.

11 Religious officials had different ranks within the church structure
The Clergy Religious officials had different ranks within the church structure

12 Vikings Attack invaders who would attack by sea, raid and plunder, then be quickly out to sea again. Vikings – Germanic people called Norsemen From Scandinavia Worshipped warlike gods


14 Feudalism Think of a chess set

15 Relationship Between Lords and Vassals
Lord – The person in charge of the land Vassal- provided military service to the Lord in return for land. The relationship between lords and vassals made up a big part of the political and social structure of the feudal system Vassals had certain duties to perform for the lord All nobles were ultimately vassals of the king. The relationship between lords and vassals made up a big part of the political and social structure of the feudal system. Based on ties of loyalty and duty among nobles Nobles were both lords and vassals Ties were made official by the “act of homage” Fiefs were given to vassals by lords Lords gave vassals the right to govern the people who lived on their fiefs Lords promised to give protection to the vassals Breaking the feudal contract could mean loss of land Vassals had certain duties to perform for the lord. Helped the lord in battle Participated personally in military service 40 – 60 days a year Gave money when the lord’s daughters married and when sons were knighted Paid the lord’s ransom or took his place if he was captured Attended the lord’s court Provided food and entertainment when the lord visited All nobles were ultimately vassals of the king. Nobles provided the king with knights to form an army for defense and conquest Because of this, the real power belonged to the nobles.






21 Workers on the Manor ( Fiefdom)
There were peasant workers on the manor Serfs – workers bound to the land by contract with the nobles. (They had no freedom - they where the noble’s property.) There were two groups of workers on the manor Freemen: Usually had a skill needed by others on the manor Included seneschals and bailiffs who helped run the manor - Seneschals looked after fiefs by visiting each regularly - Bailif made sure peasants worked - Towns (called shires) also had peace-keepers known as reeves Serfs: Required to work the noble’s land Also worked their own land and gave a part of their crops to the noble Had no freedom – they were the noble’s property Peasants had no political power

22 Feudalism Manors The lords estate –
The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland and protection Serfs tended the lands, cared for the animals, maintained the estate

23 Feudalism Manors Peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from the manor Was home to 15 – 30 families Self-Sufficient community Peasants heavily taxed, including a tithe – a church tax of 1/10 their income

24 land in exchange for service
Fief land in exchange for service

25 Same thing was happening in Japan
A war between two clans lead to a clear leader, Yoritomo, became the first Shogun. supreme general of the Emperors Army. Surrounded himself with Samurai (one who serves). Each warrior lived by a code called “Bushido” After different losses, the Shogun lost money. Individual samurai chose to support their local lords for land in return for service…Feudalism.

26 Feudal Japan Religious leader with no real power Emperor Shogun
Noble in the warrior class and the leader of the Military Emperor Shogun Samurai Ronin Peasant Merchant Members of the warrior class and loyal to the Shoguns paid soldiers whose loyalty was with the leader they defended at the time. Farmers and fishermen made up 90% of the population sold goods and produce made by others. They produced nothing of value

27 A violent society Noble’s constantly fought each other Defend estates
Seize new territories Increased wealth Kept Europe fragmented Glorification of warriors, became superstars

28 The Age of Chivalry The mounted Knights were the most important part of an Army Professional solders – main obligation was to serve in battle Rewarded with land Devoted lives to war

29 The Age of Chivalry Chivalry – a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters His feudal Lord His Heavenly Lord His Queen Meant to protect the weak and the poor Be loyal, brave, and courteous

30 Is Chivalry around today?

31 The Age of Chivalry Sons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthood Page – at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trained Squire – at 14 they act as a servant to a knight Knight- at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments

32 The Age of Chivalry Tournaments – mock battles that combined recreation and combat training Fierce and bloody competitions

33 Castles and Keeps Stone castles were encircled by massive walls and guard towers Home to lord and lady, their family, knights solders, and servants A fortress of defense

34 Castles and Keeps





39 Crusades military expeditions by the Christians to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims Consequences: the Holy Land remained in Muslim control religious intolerance trade increased decrease in Popes power increase in Kings power

40 Magna Carta document signed by King John of England in 1215
1st document to limit the power of a king in Medieval Europe guaranteed certain rights to citizens

41 major developments of the Late Middle Ages
The Hundred Years War Fought between the French and English for the French throne Massively destructive Gun powder and heavy artillery Joan of Arc, a French peasant, helped change the course of the war France is victorious over England

42 Famines Population doubled Climate became colder and rainier
Harvests shrank Moved back to the city

43 The Black Death

44 Plague Biotic- disease spread by fleas and rats (living organisms)
also called the Black Plague or Bubonic Plague killed 1/3 of Europe’s population helped bring about the end of feudalism: workers were in higher demand and sought more freedom more people moved to cities

45 The Culprits

46 Septicemic Form: almost 100% mortality rate.
The Symptoms Bulbous Septicemic Form: almost 100% mortality rate.

47 From the Toggenburg Bible, 1411

48 Lancing a Buboe


50 Medieval Art & the Plague
Bring out your dead!

51 Attempts to Stop the Plague
“Leeching” A Doctor’s Robe

52 The Mortality Rate 35% - 70% 25,000,000 dead !!!

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