6Justinian and the Byzantine Empire Strong Central GovernmentStrong, well-trained military with advanced technology.Justinian the Emperor of the Byzantines codified the laws.Constantinople was the new capital of the Byzantine EmpireGradually weakened by constant battles with Persia
7Split in the Catholic Church In the West, the Pope was the head of the ChurchIn the East, the Emperor of Constantinople was the most powerful church leader.Byzantines differed from the Western Christian Church on issues of religious practices.Westservices in Latindoesn’t believe in IconsEastservices in local languagesBelieve in IconsChristianity split into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
8Ottoman EmpireAfter Justinian died, the Empire was threatened by outside powers including the Seljuk Turks (the Ottomans)By the 1300’s the Ottomans had, captured Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire.
9The Ottoman’s Muslim beliefs were later challenged by the Crusades.
10What were the Dark Ages? After the decline of the Roman Empire: Barbarian tribes ruled EuropeArt and Learning declinedSt. Patrick ( Ireland) adopted ChristianityHe had Monasteries built that became centers for learning and culture.People came from all over to study at these monasteriesMonasteries began to pop up all over Europe.
11Religious officials had different ranks within the church structure The ClergyReligious officials had different ranks within the church structure
12Vikings Attackinvaders who would attack by sea, raid and plunder, then be quickly out to sea again.Vikings – Germanic people called NorsemenFrom ScandinaviaWorshipped warlike gods
15Relationship Between Lords and Vassals Lord – The person in charge of the landVassal- provided military service to the Lord in return for land.The relationship between lords and vassals made up a big part of the political and social structure of the feudal systemVassals had certain duties to perform for the lordAll nobles were ultimately vassals of the king.The relationship between lords and vassals made up a big part of the political and social structure of the feudal system.Based on ties of loyalty and duty among noblesNobles were both lords and vassalsTies were made official by the “act of homage”Fiefs were given to vassals by lordsLords gave vassals the right to govern the people who lived on their fiefsLords promised to give protection to the vassalsBreaking the feudal contract could mean loss of landVassals had certain duties to perform for the lord.Helped the lord in battleParticipated personally in military service 40 – 60 days a yearGave money when the lord’s daughters married and when sons were knightedPaid the lord’s ransom or took his place if he was capturedAttended the lord’s courtProvided food and entertainment when the lord visitedAll nobles were ultimately vassals of the king.Nobles provided the king with knights to form an army for defense and conquestBecause of this, the real power belonged to the nobles.
21Workers on the Manor ( Fiefdom) There were peasant workers on the manorSerfs – workers bound to the land by contract with the nobles. (They had no freedom - they where the noble’s property.)There were two groups of workers on the manorFreemen:Usually had a skill needed by others on the manorIncluded seneschals and bailiffs who helped run the manor- Seneschals looked after fiefsby visiting each regularly- Bailif made sure peasantsworked- Towns (called shires) also hadpeace-keepers known asreevesSerfs:Required to work the noble’s landAlso worked their own land and gave a part of their crops to the nobleHad no freedom – they were the noble’s propertyPeasants had no political power
22Feudalism Manors The lords estate – The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland and protectionSerfs tended the lands, cared for the animals, maintained the estate
23Feudalism ManorsPeasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from the manorWas home to 15 – 30 familiesSelf-Sufficient communityPeasants heavily taxed, including atithe – a church tax of 1/10 their income
24land in exchange for service Fiefland in exchange for service
25Same thing was happening in Japan A war between two clans lead to a clear leader, Yoritomo, became the first Shogun.supreme general of the Emperors Army.Surrounded himself with Samurai(one who serves).Each warrior lived by a code called “Bushido”After different losses, the Shogun lost money.Individual samurai chose to support their local lords for land in return for service…Feudalism.
26Feudal Japan Religious leader with no real power Emperor Shogun Noble in thewarrior class and the leader of the MilitaryEmperorShogunSamuraiRoninPeasantMerchantMembers of thewarrior class andloyal to the Shogunspaid soldiers whoseloyalty was with theleader they defendedat the time.Farmers and fishermenmade up 90%of the populationsold goods and producemade by others. Theyproduced nothing of value
27A violent society Noble’s constantly fought each other Defend estates Seize new territoriesIncreased wealthKept Europe fragmentedGlorification of warriors, became superstars
28The Age of ChivalryThe mounted Knights were the most important part of an ArmyProfessional solders – main obligation was to serve in battleRewarded with landDevoted lives to war
29The Age of ChivalryChivalry – a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three mastersHis feudal LordHis Heavenly LordHis QueenMeant to protect the weak and the poorBe loyal, brave, and courteous
31The Age of ChivalrySons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthoodPage – at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trainedSquire – at 14 they act as a servant to a knightKnight- at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments
32The Age of ChivalryTournaments – mock battles that combined recreation and combat trainingFierce and bloody competitions
33Castles and KeepsStone castles were encircled by massive walls and guard towersHome to lord and lady, their family, knights solders, and servantsA fortress of defense
39Crusadesmilitary expeditions by the Christians to recover the Holy Land from the MuslimsConsequences:the Holy Land remained in Muslim controlreligious intolerancetrade increaseddecrease in Popes powerincrease in Kings power
40Magna Carta document signed by King John of England in 1215 1st document to limit the power of a king in Medieval Europeguaranteed certain rights to citizens
41major developments of the Late Middle Ages The Hundred Years WarFought between the French and English for the French throneMassively destructiveGun powder and heavy artilleryJoan of Arc, a French peasant, helped change the course of the warFrance is victorious over England
42Famines Population doubled Climate became colder and rainier Harvests shrankMoved back to the city
44Plague Biotic- disease spread by fleas and rats (living organisms) also called the Black Plague or Bubonic Plaguekilled 1/3 of Europe’s populationhelped bring about the end of feudalism:workers were in higher demand and sought more freedommore people moved to cities