Presentation on theme: "17 European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300–1600"— Presentation transcript:
117 European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300–1600 QUIT17CHAPTEREuropean Renaissanceand Reformation, 1300–1600Chapter OverviewTime Line1Italy: Birthplace of the RenaissanceSECTION2The Northern RenaissanceSECTIONSECTION3Luther Starts the Reformation4The Reformation ContinuesGRAPHMAPSECTIONVisual Summary
217 European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300–1600 HOME17CHAPTEREuropean Renaissanceand Reformation, 1300–1600Chapter OverviewTwo great European movements—the Renaissance and the Reformation—usher in dramatic cultural and social changes. The Renaissance marked the flowering of artistic creativity, while the Reformation led to new Christian beliefs.
317 European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300–1600 HOME Time Line 1300 CHAPTEREuropean Renaissanceand Reformation, 1300–1600Time Line1300 Renaissance begins in Italy.1513 Machiavelli writes The Prince.1555 Peace of Augsburg ends religious wars in Germany.1564 William Shakespeare born.130016001455 Gutenberg Bible printed.1534 Henry VIII becomes head of England’s church, breaking ties with Rome.1558 Elizabeth I rules England.
4Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance Key Idea 1 HOME1Italy: Birthplace ofthe RenaissanceKey IdeaThe Renaissance, a period of intellectual and artistic creativity, flourishes in Italy, beginning about Versatile artists transform painting, sculpture, and literature.OverviewAssessment
5Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance Overview 1 • Renaissance HOME1Italy: Birthplace ofthe RenaissanceTERMS & NAMESOverview• Renaissance• humanism• secular• patron• perspective• vernacularMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe European Renaissance, a rebirth of learning and the arts, began in Italy in the 1300s.Renaissance ideas about classical studies, art, and literature still influence modern thought.Assessment
6Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance 1 1 HOME1Italy: Birthplace ofthe RenaissanceSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Record the main ideas from the section about the Italian Renaissance.RenaissanceI. Italy’s advantagesIII. Renaissance art and literatureII. Classical and worldly valuesA.B.C.Urban centersWealthy merchant classClassical heritageHumanismPatronage of artsNew painting techniquesFamous writerscontinued . . .
7Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance 1 1 HOME1Italy: Birthplace ofthe RenaissanceSection1Assessment2. Name three people from this section whom you regard as a “Renaissance man” or a “Renaissance woman.” Explain your choices. THINK ABOUT• the idea of the “universal man”• Castiglione’s description of such a person• which people from this section seem to match that descriptionANSWERPossible Responses:Michelangelo—architect, sculptor, painter, and poetLeonardo—painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientistIsabella d’Este—political leader and patron of the artscontinued . . .
8Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance 1 1 HOME1Italy: Birthplace ofthe RenaissanceSection1Assessment3. How did the Renaissance revolutionize European art and thought? THINK ABOUT• changes in ideas since medieval times• changes in artistic techniques• changes in artistic subjectsANSWERPossible Responses:• Renaissance scholars rejected some teachings of medieval Christianity and looked to classical writers for inspiration.• Renaissance artists revolutionized art by using perspective and a more realistic style and by glorifying the individual.End of Section 1
9The Northern Renaissance Key Idea 2 HOME2The NorthernRenaissanceKey IdeaIn the 1400s, Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe, where German and Flemish masters create distinctive works of art. The books of northern Renaissance writers and philosophers become widely available because of the invention of the printing press.OverviewAssessment
10The Northern Renaissance Overview 2 • Utopia • printing press HOME2The NorthernRenaissanceTERMS & NAMESOverview• Utopia• printing press• Gutenberg BibleMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWIn the 1400s, northern Europeans began to adapt the ideas of the Renaissance.Renaissance ideas such as the importance of the individual are a strong part of modern thought.Assessment
11The Northern Renaissance 2 2 HOME2The NorthernRenaissanceSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List important events in the Northern Renaissance.140016001455: Gutenberg prints Bible on printing press.1509: Erasmus writes The Praise of Folly.1592: Shakespeare writes plays in London.1494: Dürer studies in Italy.1516: More writes Utopia.continued . . .
12The Northern Renaissance 2 2 HOME2The NorthernRenaissanceSection2Assessment2. Choose one Northern Renaissance figure. Explain how he or she was influenced by Renaissance ideas.THINK ABOUT• the influence of humanism• the use of new techniques• the concept of the Renaissance man or womanANSWERcontinued . . .
13The Northern Renaissance 2 2 HOME2The NorthernRenaissanceSection2AssessmentPossible Responses:• Dürer was influenced by realism and classical ideas.• Van Eyck was influenced by realism and helped develop the oil painting.• Bruegel was interested in realistic details and peasant life.• Erasmus and More combined humanist and Christian values in their calls for reform.• Shakespeare was influenced by the classics and wrote in the vernacular.• Queen Elizabeth was a monarch, a poet, a patron of the arts, and a linguist.End of Section 2
14Luther Starts the Reformation Key Idea 3 HOME3Luther Startsthe ReformationKey IdeaMartin Luther, a German monk, challenges the authority of the Catholic Church and triggers the Reformation—a movement for religious reform. The Reformation spreads to England when King Henry VIII breaks ties with the Catholic Church.OverviewAssessment
15Luther Starts the Reformation Overview 3 • indulgence • Reformation HOME3Luther Startsthe ReformationTERMS & NAMESOverview• indulgence• Reformation• Lutheran• Protestant• Peace of Augsburg• annul• AnglicanMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWMartin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches.Nearly one-fourth of the Christians in today’s world are Protestants.Assessment
16Luther posts the 95 Theses. HOME3Luther Startsthe ReformationSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the main cause and several effects of Luther’s action in posting the 95 Theses.Luther posts the 95 Theses.Luther protests.Pope excommunicates Luther.Tetzel sells indulgences under false pretenses.Luther declared a heretic.Lutheran church begins.German peasants revolt.Charles V goes to war against Protestant princes of Germany.continued . . .
17Luther Starts the Reformation 3 3 HOME3Luther Startsthe ReformationSection3Assessment2. Who do you think had a better reason to break with the Church, Luther or Henry VIII? THINK ABOUT• why Luther criticized the Church• what Henry asked the pope to do for him• the Church’s response to Luther• the pope’s response to HenryANSWERPossible Responses:Luther’s reasons—legitimate complaints about indulgences and other Church problems; excommunicationHenry’s reasons—his annulments denied; pope’s political maneuverscontinued . . .
18Luther Starts the Reformation 3 3 HOME3Luther Startsthe ReformationSection3Assessment3. Which of Luther’s ideas do you think might have motivated the peasants to revolt in 1524? Explain.THINK ABOUT• Luther’s criticisms of the Church• what change the peasants demanded• the actions the peasants tookANSWERPossible Response:The equality of all Christians spurred peasants to demand an end to serfdom. Peasants disrespected Church authority by raiding the monasteries.End of Section 3
19The Reformation Continues Key Idea 4 HOME4The ReformationContinuesGRAPHMAPKey IdeaJohn Calvin develops a system of Protestant theology that gains popularity among other European reformers. To stem the spread of Protestantism, the Catholic Church initiates its own reforms.OverviewAssessment
20The Reformation Continues Overview 4 • predestination • Calvinism HOME4The ReformationContinuesGRAPHMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• predestination• Calvinism• theocracy• Presbyterian• Anabaptist• Catholic Reformation• Jesuits• Council of TrentMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWJohn Calvin and other Reformation leaders began new Protestant churches. The Catholic Church also made reforms.Many Protestant churches began during this period, and many Catholic schools are the result of Catholic reforms.Assessment
21The Reformation Continues 4 4 HOME4The ReformationContinuesGRAPHMAPSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare the ideas of reformers who came after Luther.ReformersIdeasJohn CalvinAnabaptistsCatholic ReformersPeople are sinful by nature.Ideal government is a theocracy.Only adults baptizedChurch and state separate.Church interpretation of Bible is final.Need faith and good works to be savedcontinued . . .
22The Reformation Continues 4 4 HOME4The ReformationContinuesGRAPHMAPSection4Assessment2. Which of the steps taken by Popes Paul III and Paul IV to reform the Catholic Church do you think were wise? Which were unwise? Explain. THINK ABOUT• the goals of the reforming popes• whether the steps clearly addressed those goals• possible effects of each stepANSWERPossible Responses:Wise—Calling the council of cardinals and the Council of Trent helped clarify the Catholic position on controversial issues; approving the Jesuits helped combat Protestantism and spread Catholicism.Unwise—Using the Inquisition may have made martyrs out of Protestants; creating the Index of Forbidden Books blocked the spread of new ideas.End of Section 4