Presentation on theme: "2/11/20141 Bell Work November 13,2007 Fill-in the I think it means column on the Day 3 Vocabulary At First Glance sheet. –Feudalism –Manorialism –fief."— Presentation transcript:
2/11/20141 Bell Work November 13,2007 Fill-in the I think it means column on the Day 3 Vocabulary At First Glance sheet. –Feudalism –Manorialism –fief –shogun –samurai
2/11/20142 Vocabulary Feudalism –A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land. Manorialism –In medieval times, the organization of rural economy and society.
2/11/20143 Vocabulary Fief –An estate granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal system in medieval Europe. Shogun –In feudal Japan, a supreme military commander who ruled in the name of the emperor. Samurai –One of the professional warriors who served Japanese feudal lords.
2/11/20145 Around 800, Western Europe was united when the grandson of Charles Martel built an empire reaching across France, Germany, and part of Italy. This emperor is known as Charlemagne, or Charles the Great.
7 Charlemagne was very tall, with a height of 6 feet, four inches. He loved battle and spent much of his reign engaged in war. His conquests reunited much of the old Roman Empire.
2/11/20148 A Christian Emperor In 800, Pope Leo III asked Charlemagne for help in fighting the rebellious nobles in Rome. Frankish armies marched south and crushed the rebellion. On Christmas Day, the pope showed Charlemagne his gratitude by proclaiming him Emperor of the Romans.
10 The ceremony was very significant. A Christian pope had crowned a German king successor to the Roman emperors. This action served as the foundation for more power struggles between future Roman Catholic popes and German emperors.
2/11/ The popes action angered the emperor of the Eastern Roman empire in Constantinople. The eastern emperor felt that he was the only Roman ruler, and would not acknowledge the Frankish king. This conflict served to widen the split between the eastern and western Christian worlds.
2/11/ Charlemagne tried to control his many lands and create a unified Christian Europe. Working closely with the Church, he helped to spread Christianity to the people in conquered lands of the outlying areas of his empire. Missionaries converted many Saxons and Slavs. Government
2/11/ Like other Germanic kings, Charlemagne appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions. He gave them land so they would continue to support him. He sent out officials called missi dominici to check on roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice was done. Click on Map to Enlarge
2/11/ Charlemagne wanted to make his court at Aachen a second Rome. Revival of Learning:
2/11/ He set out to revive the use of Latin in his empire. Education had declined so much that even educated clergy were sadly ignorant. Charlemagne could read, but could not write. Still, he knew his officials needed to keep accurate records and write clear reports. Revival of Learning:
2/11/ Charlemagne founded a school at Aachen directed by Alcuin, a respected scholar. Alcuin hired scholars to copy ancient manuscripts, including the Bible and Latin works of history and science. Click on picture to enlarge
2/11/ After Charlemagne died in 814, his empire soon fell apart. Charlemagnes sons were unable to preserve his empire after his death.
2/11/ Many Groups attacked Charlemagnes Empire. –Muslims from North Africa –Magyar barbarians from central Asia –Vikings from the north Charlemagnes Empire was weakened and finally fell. For almost 200 years, from about , Viking raiders terrorized the coastal and river areas of Europe.
2/11/ Timeline (Add this date and information to your timeline) 800 A. D. Charlemagne was crowned ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. –This act symbolized a union of the church and state.
2/11/ Feudalism in Europe and Japan
2/11/ The Rise of Feudalism (04:47)
2/11/ European Feudalism About 500 CE, much of western Europe was left without a strong centralized government due to the breakdown of the Roman Empire. With little organized resistance, Germanic invaders raided western European cities and monasteries.
2/11/ European Feudalism Because kings were often too weak to repel the invaders, many city dwellers moved into the countryside in hopes of greater safety. As a result of the invasions, and a weak central government, a new social and political system known as feudalism developed.
2/11/ Strong local lords formed a strict code of behavior and allegiances which became the foundation of feudal life. For example, the king controlled huge tracts of land. He would give his support and a large piece of land, called a fief, to a powerful lord in return for loyalty and military support.
2/11/ This meant the lord was now a vassal of the king. The Lord would then divide up that land among his supporters, usually less powerful lords, obtaining vassals of his own.
2/11/ The Lesser Lords would do the same, dividing up the increasingly smaller land holdings to their knights. Finally, the knights would be left in direct control of the land and the peasants or townsfolk who lived there.
2/11/ The peasants were expected to grow food, tend the land, and provide military support to the feudal lords. Under European feudalism, there was very little opportunity for social advancement.
2/11/ The Feudal Economy Feudal lords and knights lived in a manor house on a large estate. The economy that grew up around the lord's home is known as manorialism.
2/11/ Castles, Manors, and Feudalism (03:14)
2/11/ The Feudal Economy Under this system, everyone had a well-defined place in the social structure. Many nobles became knights, mounted warriors, who lived according to a code of conduct called chivalry.
2/11/ They were expected to be honest, brave, and loyal to their word. Most peasants were serfs, meaning they could not leave their lord's lands without permission. The serfs farmed and provided manual and military labor for the lord, and in return, he protected them and gave them a few acres to farm for themselves.
2/11/ SHOGUN LEADS FEUDAL JAPANESE SOCIETY (03:36)
2/11/ Feudal Japan Japan's feudal period lasted from the 12th century until the 19th century. During this period, society was divided in different classes. At the top, was the Emperor, although he had little real power.
2/11/ Feudal Japan Japan was ruled by the Shogun, who was a military leader with near absolute control. The most successful was the Tokugawa Shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 until 1868
2/11/ In Japan, the real political and military power was in the hands of the shogun. Much like in Europe, the shogun distributed lands to his loyal vassals, who were called daimyo. The daimyo then granted lands to their warriors, the samurai.
2/11/ Japanese warriors lived according to a code of conduct known as bushido, which was even stricter than that in Europe. A disgraced samurai was expected to perform seppuku (commit suicide) in order to maintain his family's honor.
2/11/ MIDDLE AGES IN EUROPE (05:19)
2/11/ Comparison of Feudalism in Europe and Japan EuropeJapan Nobilityking, lord, lesser lord emperor, shogun, daimyo Warriorsknightssamurai Code of conduct chivalrybushido Evolution Both practices developed in response to the need for security and stability Both helped preserve law and order Both had well-defined social roles
2/11/ Japan and Europe Feudalism There are similarities and differences between Japanese and European feudalism. Both seem to have developed from a blending of concepts of centralized imperial rule with traditional tribal organization and personal bonds of loyalty.
2/11/ Japan and Europe Feudalism In Europe these ingredients originated from the Roman Empire and the Germanic tribes. Japan's feudal tradition can be traced to T'ang China and the uji organization in early Japan.
2/11/ Feudalism developed slightly later in Japan than in Europe (12th and 9th centuries, respectively). This delay could have been due to Japan's isolation and the lack of foreign invasions.
2/11/ However, both systems began with strong legalistic attitudes and stressed vassal-lord obligations, designed to ensure the allegiance of the former in periods of constant warfare. The legal foundations were, however, very different in the Japanese and European feudal systems: –European feudalism was grounded in Roman legal structure –Japan feudalism had as its basis Chinese Confucian morality.
2/11/ Timeline (Add this date and information to your timeline) 900 A. D. Feudalism began to spread across western Europe
2/11/ Student Directions Use your notes and the next two slides to Compare Feudalism in Europe with Feudalism in Japan. Write your information on the Venn Diagram
2/11/ Comparison of Feudalism in Japan and Europe Japan Europe