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Chapter 13 Stress, Coping and Health. Table of Contents Principle types of stress include a. conflict, fear, pressure b. anxiety, conflict, change c.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Stress, Coping and Health. Table of Contents Principle types of stress include a. conflict, fear, pressure b. anxiety, conflict, change c."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Stress, Coping and Health

2 Table of Contents Principle types of stress include a. conflict, fear, pressure b. anxiety, conflict, change c. change, frustration, pressure d. frustration, conflict, anxiety –c. change, frustration, pressure

3 Table of Contents In avoidance-avoidance conflicts a choice must be made a. whether to seek any goal b. whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects c. between two attractive goal d. between two unattractive goals –d. between two unattractive goals

4 Table of Contents An organism first recognizes the existence of a threat and physiological arousal occurs during the___ stage of the general adaptation syndrome a. alarm reaction b. resistance c. exhaustion d. flight-or-flight –a. alarm reaction

5 Table of Contents The Relationship Between Stress and Disease Contagious diseases vs. chronic diseases –Biopsychosocial model –Health psychology Health promotion and maintenance –Discovery of causation, prevention, and treatment

6 Table of Contents

7 Stress: An Everyday Event Major stressors vs. routine hassles –Cumulative nature of stress –Cognitive appraisals (Lazarus) Major types of stress –Frustration – blocked goal –Conflict – two or more incompatible motivations Approach-approach, approach-avoidance, avoidance-avoidance –Change – having to adapt Holmes and Rahe – Social Readjustment Rating Scale – Life Change Units –Pressure – expectations to behave in certain ways Perform/conform

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9 Responding to Stress Emotionally Emotional Responses –Annoyance, anger, rage –Apprehension, anxiety, fear –Dejection, sadness, grief –Positive emotions Emotional response and performance –The inverted-U-hypothesis

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12 Responding to Stress Physiologically Physiological Responses –Fight-or-flight response –Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm Resistance Exhaustion

13 Table of Contents

14 Some Psychological Stressors for High School Students Life EventStress Points Divorce of parents98 Expulsion from school79 Major injury or illness77 Getting a job62 Major illness of close friend56 Peer difficulties45 Moving away41 Christmas30 Vacation25 Traffic ticket22

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16 Pituitary hormone in the bloodstream stimulates the outer part of the adrenal gland to release the stress hormone cortisol Sympathetic nervous system releases the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from nerve endings in the inner part of the adrenal glands Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Adrenal glands Cerebral cortex (perceives stressor )

17 Table of Contents Sequence of Steps in the Fight or Flight Behaviors 1. The brain appraises a situation as threatening and dangerous. 2. The lower brain structure secretes a stress hormone. 3. The stress hormone signals the adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline. 4. This causes the muscles to tense, the heart to beat faster, and the liver to send out sugar to be used in the muscles. Fight or Flight (Walter Cannon)

18 Table of Contents The General Adaptation Syndrome (Hans Selye) Defined as a series of stages the body goes through when exposed to stressful situations. 1. The alarm stage is the initial stage where the body prepares for attackeither psychological or physical. 2. The second stage is called the stage of resistance. The body uses up a great amount of energy to prepare for the stressor. 3. The third stage is exhaustion. It is marked by body exhaustion and health problems. AlarmResistance Exhaustion

19 Table of Contents Stress and Illness General Adaptation Syndrome Selyes concept of the bodys adaptive response to stress in three stages Stress resistance Phase 1 Alarm reaction (mobilize resources) Phase 2 Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 3 Exhaustion (reserves depleted) The bodys resistance to stress can last only so long before exhaustion sets in Stressor occurs

20 Table of Contents Responding to Stress Behaviorally Behavioral Responses –Frustration-aggression hypothesis –catharsis –defense mechanisms Coping - refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress. These may involve giving up and blaming oneself (learned helplessness – passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events), striking out at others aggressively (usually the result of frustration…Dollards frustration-aggression hypothesis), self- indulgement (eating, drinking, smoking, shopping), defensive coping (erecting defense mechanisms), or constructive coping (realistically appraising situations and confronting problems directly).

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22 a increases in stress b the Type A personality c low levels of social support and pessimism dhigh levels of social support and optimism Increased levels of the immune system are associated with

23 Table of Contents a.a. have an increased risk of developing cancer b.b. have a decreased risk of developing cancer c.c. have an increased risk of developing heart disease d.d. have a decreased risk of developing heart disease Research has demonstrated individuals with Type A personality

24 Table of Contents a.a. Andrew, who is a Type A personality b.b. Bill, who is a Type B personality c.c. Charles, who has high blood pressure and smokes d.d. Dennis, who is depressed Of the following individuals, who would be least likely to develop heart disease?

25 Table of Contents ANSWERS –D - high levels of social support and optimism –C - have an increased risk of developing heart disease –B - Bill, who is a Type B personality

26 Table of Contents

27 Effects of Stress: Behavioral and Psychological Impaired Task performance - people under pressure to perform may feel self-conscious, which leads to disruption of attention and choking under pressure Burnout - physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion that is attributable to long-term involvement in emotionally demanding situations…loss of meaning. Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) - re- experiencing the traumatic event in the form of nightmares and flashbacks Psychological problems and disorders Positive effects - stress can promote personal growth or self-improvement, forcing people to develop new skills, reevaluate priorities, learn new insights

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29 Effects of Stress: Physical Psychosomatic diseases Heart disease - accounts for nearly one-third of the deaths in the U.S. each year, and atherosclerosis, or gradual narrowing of the coronary arteries, is the principle cause of CHD. Risk factors for CHD include smoking, lack of exercise, high cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. Type A behavior - 3 elements strong competitiveness impatience and time urgency anger and hostility –Emotional reactions and depression Stress and immune functioning –Reduced immune activity

30 Table of Contents Stress and the Heart Type A Friedman and Rosenmans term for competitive, hard- driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people Type B Friedman and Rosenmans term for easygoing, relaxed people

31 Table of Contents Research on type A Personality Time urgency & competitiveness not associated with poor health outcomes Negative emotions, anger, aggressive reactivity High levels of hostility increase chance of all disease (e.g., cancer)

32 Table of Contents Explanatory style Optimism –use external, unstable, & specific explanations for negative events –predicts better health outcomes Pessimism –use internal, stable, & global explanations for negative events –predicts worse health outcomes

33 Table of Contents Stress and the Heart

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37 Factors Moderating the Impact of Stress Social support –Increased immune functioning Optimism –More adaptive coping –Pessimistic explanatory style Conscientiousness –Fostering better health habits Autonomic reactivity –Cardiovascular reactivity to stress

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39 Health-Impairing Behaviors Smoking - A 25 year old male who smokes two packs a day has an estimated life expectancy 8.3 years shorter than that of a similar, nonsmoker. Health risks decline quickly for those who give up smoking, but quitting is difficult and relapse rates are high Poor nutrition & Lack of exercise - have been linked to heart disease, hypertension, and cancer, among other things Alcohol and drug use - carry the immediate risk of overdose and the long-term risk of many diseases Risky sexual behavior Transmission, misconceptions, and prevention of AIDS - is transmitted through person-to-person contact involving the exchange of bodily fluids, primarily semen and blood

40 Table of Contents Stress and Disease Negative emotions and health-related consequences Unhealthy behaviors (smoking, drinking, poor nutrition and sleep) Persistent stressors and negative emotions Release of stress hormones Heart disease Immune suppression Autonomic nervous system effects (headaches, hypertension)

41 Table of Contents Promoting Health Aerobic Exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness Depression score Before treatment evaluation After treatment evaluation No-treatment group Aerobic exercise group Relaxation treatment group

42 Table of Contents Why Does Exercise Work? Exercise and Mood Releases chemicals -- norepinephrine -- serotonin -- endorphins Sense of accomplishment Improved physique

43 Table of Contents Why Does Exercise Work? Exercise and Health Strengthens heart Lowers blood pressure Lowers blood pressure reactivity to stress Moderate exercise adds two years to ones expected life.

44 Table of Contents BMI Classifications – Slide 30 BMI = 19-25; Normal; Low Risk BMI = 25-30; Moderately overweight; Some Risk BMI = 30-35; Class 1 obesity; High Risk BMI = 35-40; Class 2 obesity; Very High Risk BMI> 40; Class 3 obesity; Extreme Risk BMI > 30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5'4" person for CDC

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47 Reactions to Illness Seeking treatment –Ignoring physical symptoms Communication with health care providers –Barriers to effective communication Following medical advice –Noncompliance

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49 Stress management techniques - adapted from Monat & Lazarus (1991) Environment/Lifestyle: time management, proper nutrition, exercise, finding alternatives to frustrated goals, stopping bad habits Personality/Perception: assertiveness training, thought stopping, refuting irrational ideas, stress inoculation, modifying type A behavior Biological responses: progressive relaxation, relaxation response, meditation, breathing exercises, biofeedback, autogenics

50 Table of Contents Relaxation Response – Benson The relaxation response is perhaps best understood as a psycho-physiological state of hypoarousal engendered by a multitude of diverse technologies [techniques] (Everly, 1989, p.149) Meditation - a self-generating practice of a variety of techniques designed to induce the relaxation response by use of a repetitive focal device Progressive relaxation - relax selected muscles by first tensing then relaxing the muscles

51 Table of Contents Stress Inoculation Training developed by Donald Meichenbaum Stage 1 - education - the person is given a framework for understanding his/her stress response Stage 2 - rehearsal - the person learns to make cognitive self-statements as a form of coping and problem solving Stage 3 - application - the person uses the information and skills learned in the first two stages in actual stress situations, moving from lower to higher stress situations

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