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# Katharina Richert Carl Stevenson History Coal used since bronze age (2000 BC) Wood more convenient until the Industrial Revolution 1769: James Watt invents.

## Presentation on theme: "Katharina Richert Carl Stevenson History Coal used since bronze age (2000 BC) Wood more convenient until the Industrial Revolution 1769: James Watt invents."— Presentation transcript:

Katharina Richert Carl Stevenson

History Coal used since bronze age (2000 BC) Wood more convenient until the Industrial Revolution 1769: James Watt invents steam engine Wood was possible, but coal became more convenient and easier to transport

Practice Problem #1 A steam engine with a power of 6000 hp is travelling for 5 hours at full speed. How much more coal than wood is needed. Energy density of wood: 17 MJ kg -1 Energy density of coal: 34 MJ kg -1 1 hp = 0.75 kW

Therefore, the power of the engine is 4500kW (0.75 x 6000) The engine will use 4500 kJ Energy used in 5 hours = 5 x 60 x 60 x 4500 x 1000 = 81 x 10 9 J 81 x 10 9 / 17 x 10 6 = 4765 kg of wood About half the mass of coal is needed

Oil (Petroleum) Thick, sticky substance More difficult to utilize than coal for a long time 1852: Ignacy Lukasiewicz invented a method of refining crude oil to kerosene It has a higher energy density than coal and is easier to transport Liquid nature has led to many environmental disasters Energy density of kerosene: 43.1 MJ kg -1

Generation of Electricity Before use of electricity, coal was used for heat and kerosene was used for lighting Transport was very costly 1831: Michael Faradays discovery electromagnetic effects 1866: Werner Siemens: invented the dynamo (converts mechanical energy to electrical energy on a big scale) 1884: Sir Charles Pearson: invented the steam turbine

Picture of a typical coal-fired power plant The heat from the furnace boils water in the boiler that turns into steam and powers the turbine, which turns the generator and produces electricity. When the steam comes out of the turbine it is cooled, condenses and this water is returned to the boiler

Sankey Diagram of Coal Plant Chemical Energy Hot Steam Motion Electricity Friction Waste Heat Exhaust Gas

Gas-Fired Power Station More efficient than coal because there can be two stages of energies Burning gases blasted through a turbine Heat produced can be used to boil water; same as coal- fired power station

Sankey Diagram of Gas-Fired Power Station The wasted heat can also be used to heat houses. This improves the efficiency to 55%

Practice Problem #2 A steam engine with a power of 8000 hp is travelling for 3 hours at full speed. How much more coal than wood is needed?

Energy, Power, and Climate Change: Nuclear Power By: Richard Frische Ana Rodelas Lonnie Earls

Creating Nuclear Fuel Extract uranium ore from ground Enrich to include 235 U Shape fuel into cylinders and bundle as fuel rods

Chain reaction Shoot a neutron at 235 U Uranium will release energy + neutrons Neutrons will collide with more 235 U Binding energy of 235 U will increase, but it cant hold this energy so it releases it Uranium must also be a certain mass This energy is used to generate electricity Neutrons must be going a certain speed to maintain the chain reaction (controlled by moderators)

Nuclear Fusion - the difference in mass is converted to energy

Fussion: Nuclear Reactors more energy going out than in plasma as fuel Fuses together nucleii at temperature of 100 million K

Fusion: Magnetic Confinement Plasma is made to travel inside the donut shaped ring-Tokomak particles are given energy so they move faster and faster Energy to heat up the plasma comes in burst-huge energy supply needed to fuse

Fusion: Hydrogen Bomb Gives heat and compresses nucleii Gives heat and compresses nucleii Lots of energy but uncontrollable Lots of energy but uncontrollable

Advantages Advantages Advantages -Extremely high energy density -Large reserves of uranium

Disadvantages Disadvantages Disadvantages -Nuclear Waste -Meltdown-Nonrenewable Japanese Power Plant after 2010 Three Mile Island before Nuclear Meltdown

Problem 1 Number 5 on the end of topic 8 Number 5 on the end of topic 8

Problem 2 A sample of radioactive material contains the element Ra 226. The half-life of Ra 226 can be defined as the time it takes for A sample of radioactive material contains the element Ra 226. The half-life of Ra 226 can be defined as the time it takes for Athe mass of the sample to fall to ½ its original value B½ the # of atoms of Ra 226 in the sample to decay C½ the # of atoms in the sample to decay Dthe volume of the sample to fall to ½ its original value

Problem 2 A sample of radioactive material contains the element Ra 226. The half-life of Ra 226 can be defined as the time it takes for A sample of radioactive material contains the element Ra 226. The half-life of Ra 226 can be defined as the time it takes for Athe mass of the sample to fall to ½ its original value B½ the # of atoms of Ra 226 in the sample to decay C½ the # of atoms in the sample to decay Dthe volume of the sample to fall to ½ its original value

Problem 3 A piece of radioactive material now has about 1/16 of its previous activity. If the half-life is 4 hours the difference in time between measurements is approximately A piece of radioactive material now has about 1/16 of its previous activity. If the half-life is 4 hours the difference in time between measurements is approximately A8 hours B16 hours C 32 hours D60 hours

Problem 3 A piece of radioactive material now has about 1/16 of its previous activity. If the half-life is 4 hours the difference in time between measurements is approximately A piece of radioactive material now has about 1/16 of its previous activity. If the half-life is 4 hours the difference in time between measurements is approximately A8 hours B16 hours C 32 hours D60 hours

Solar Power By: Carlos Duarte & Chris Ludlow

Energy from the Sun Electromagnetic radiation from the sun 3.90 x 10 26 J Earths orbital radius 1.5 x 10 11 Solar Constant

Energy from the Sun Contd Different parts of the Earths surface receive different amounts of solar radiation. The amount recieved will also vary based on the seasons

The Solar Heating Panel Designed to capture as much thermal energy as possible. Hot water used domestically, saves electricity

Photovoltaic Cell (Solar Cell) Photons from sun are absorbed by semiconductor which emits electrons. Electric field due to semiconductors causes electrons to flow in an external circuit Voltage in single cell = small so they use many cells.

Advantages Free Renewable Clean

Disadvantages Only works during the day Affected by cloudy weather Low power output Requires large areas High initial costs

Renewable Independent Low safety risk Clean

Experimental Coastline in high demand Inconsistent Low power output

16. Waves of amplitude 1m roll onto a beach at a rate of one every 12s. If the wavelength of the waves is 120 m, calculate: a) the velocity of the waves b) how much power there is per metre along the shore c) the power along a 2km length of beach

16. A tsunami wave of amplitude of 20 m slams into the Japanese coast of Omoe peninsula with a velocity of 23 ms -1. Calculate: a)how much power there is per metre along the shore b)the power along a 1km length of beach

Wind Power By: Madeleine & Kyle

Energy Transformations Solar energy KE of wind KE of turbineElectric energy heating Earth

Mathematics Area swept out by blades = A = πr 2 Volume of air passing through turbine in one second = v A Mass of air passing through turbine in one second = v A ρ Kinetic energy m available per second Density of air ρ Wind speed v r Not 100% efficient

Advantages Very clean production Renewable source of energy Source of energy is free Disadvantages Source of energy unreliable Low energy density Some consider large wind generators to spoil countryside Can be noisy Best positions for wind generation are far from centers of population

Example problem A turbine with a turbine blade length of 54 m is operated in a wind speed of 10 m s -1. The density of air is 1.2 kg m -3. (a) How much power is in the wind passing through the turbine? (b) How much electrical power can be generated if the turbine is 20% efficient? (c) If the wind speed increased to 15 m s -1, how much power would be produced?

Example problem #2 It is required to design wind turbines for a wind farm for which the following information is available. Total required annual electrical energy output: 120 TJ Maximum number of turbines: 20 Average annual wind speed at site: 9.0 m s -1 Deduce the average power output required from one turbine is.19 MW. Estimate the blade radius of the wind turbine that will give a power output of.19MW (Density of air = 1.2 kg m -3 )

Geothermal Energy Ryan Avelar & Mykella Jones

How it works Hot water near volcano, geyser or thermal source Hot water piped to the surface by drilling to extract steam and produce electricity.

Old Faithful Energy??

Advantages Affordable and sustainable solution to fossil fuels (saves 80% of costs) Decrease emissions Direct Use Philippines, Iceland, and El Salvador - produce 25+% of electricity

Disadvantages Not Widespread Source of Energy High Installation Costs (investment) Can Run Out Of Steam May Release Harmful Gases

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