Presentation on theme: "0 A revolution of Thought 1500s-late 1700s. Causes of the Enlightenment The Renaissance ideas of thinking for oneself, and questioning authority people."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of the Enlightenment The Renaissance ideas of thinking for oneself, and questioning authority people began to realize the following: They had unfair governments –Absolute Monarchs There was inequality in social classes There was little to no RIGHTS for the Common People
Absolute Monarchs Rulers who have unlimited power and seek to control all aspects of society.
Absolute Monarchs As Feudalism declined, absolute rulers of the kingdoms of Europe claimed Divine Right (the idea that god had chosen them to rule or he wouldnt have put them in power; therefore everything they did was gods will) –Spain – Phillip II –France – Louis XIV –Russia - Peter the Great
Absolute Monarchs Unfortunately some rulers abused their absolute power by: –Wasteful spending and expecting subjects to pay hefty taxes –Regulating religion and society –Building ridiculously large palaces and other buildings as a sign of their power –Taking away the governmental power of nobility and legislatures –Taking away the rights of the lower and middle classes. –Making laws to please themselves, regardless of previous custom or historic liberties.
Your Turn… List 3 ways that Absolute Monarchs abused their power
Peter the Greats REFORMS Government control of the Eastern Orthodox Church Reducing the power of landowners and giving land to lower-ranking families Modernizing the army
Peter the Greats REFORMS Westernizing Russia –Introduced potatoes –Started Russias first Newspaper –Ordered nobles to dress in western European fashion –Advanced education, arts, and sciences Established the capital of St. Petersburg so Russia was no longer landlocked (in ice to the north)
Your Turn… Doodle 2 ways Peter the Great Reformed Russia.
Everyday people of Europe most people in Europe were what they had always been - poor peasants in rural villages working VERY hard just to survive.
End of Absolute Monarch in England Magna Carta (1215) –A document drafted in England which gave rights to the people and took away some of the power of the king (no longer has absolute power) Constitutional / Limited Monarchy (1295) –Limits to power of monarchy! –Parliamentary Government. Parliament (a body or representatives that makes laws for a nation) is a PARTNER with the monarchy in governing the nation.
Freedoms in England during the 1600s English Bill of Rights (1689) –No suspending laws that Parliament passes –No taxes without Parliament agreeing –Freedom of speech in Parliament –No excessive bail –No penalty for going to King with complaints
Beginning of freedoms in England during the 1600s Habeas Corpus (1679) –Provides Rights of Accused Right to hear charges against you Must be brought before a judge Cant be held indefinitely without a trial
Your Turn… List three rights that English people had as a result of reforms in the government.
1) What is the Enlightenment? –An intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought the power of individuals to solve problems.
2) What is a social contract? the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, creating an organized society or government.
3) Who were the philosophes? Philosophers; people who believed that one could apply reason to all aspects of life.
4) What were the 5 main ideas of the philosophes? 1.Reason 2.Nature 3.Happiness 4.Progress 5.Liberty
5) What is Mary Wollstonecrafts argument w/ Rousseaus ideas? Womens education should not be secondary to men; women need education to be useful. Women should enter fields of medicine and politics too.
What type of Revolution is the Enlightenment? Revolution of thought.
What long term ideas are being overthrown during the enlightenment? Church and state influence each other Divine Right of Kings People dont naturally have rights inequality between social classes
What caused people to make radical change in thinking? Renaissance ideas –Importance of education –Thinking for oneself –Questioning Authority –Using Classical methods from Ancient Greece and Rome
What are the results of these changes in thinking? Many reforms Inspiration for American and French Revolution Belief in progress More secular (non religious) outlook Importance of individual.