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The Anglo-Saxons.

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Presentation on theme: "The Anglo-Saxons."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Anglo-Saxons

2 The Anglo-Saxons 450-1066 England was inviting to outsiders
mild climate rich, easily-tilled soil safe anchorage for invading ships Invaders followed the rivers Celts, Romans, Anglos, Saxons, and Normans British Inventions/Accomplishments: Stonehenge, Robin Hood, Shakespeare, theory of gravity, Industrial Revolution, radar, penicillin Magna Carta (1215)- on creating political system “by and for the people”

3 How we got there! New people mixed with old and formed the new culture
Cave dwellers lived on the island 250,000 years ago Invaders came from Iberian peninsula in 2000 BC Built Stonehenge (megaliths) on Salisbury Plain The Celts migrated from further east Reached British Isles in 600 BC Built walled farms and hut villages Druid priests conducted sacrifices in forest shrines Animism religion “spirit”

4 Roman Britain 55 BC Rome dominated Mediterranean world
Julius Caesar invaded Briton as punishment for assisting continental Celts 43 AD Claudius successfully invaded Boadicea (queen of one of British tribes) led a rebellion a few years later Romans eventually subdued most of Britain Defeated tribes were driven into the highlands of Wales and Scotland Early in the 2nd Century Emperor Hadrian built a wall 73 miles long to protect the northern boarder

5 Population became prosperous colony of 3 to 4 million people
Roads connected the towns Rural society Romans ruled Britain for nearly four hundred years 410 the city of Rome fell to German barbarians Honorius: Briton, defend yourselves Many continued to speak Latin and tried to keep up old economic and political life The Celtic mixed with Latin Country remained weak and divided

6 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Germanic tribes) began invading, looking for better/more secure and fertile land for living By 441 they had a firm foothold at the mouth of the Thames River Defeated the Celtic tribes and drove them west into the highlands of Wales Later origins of legend of King Arthur and his round table During the middle of the sixth century most of the southern low land part of the island was under the control of Angles

7 Anglo-Saxon England Religion came from German influence and tied to Norse and Scandinavian mythology Thor’s day (god of thunder and lightening) Odin’s day (god of death, poetry, and magic) Dragons (protector of treasures and death) Germanic settlers Tribal society –warrior kings- led their men into battle Always rival warriors within the tribe King gathered around him a retinue of fighting men called thanes King rewarded faithful service with treasure: rings, gold, and especially weapons Any offense to one thane had to be avenged Endless feuds between individuals and between tribes

8 Main structure was the mead-hall
Royal living quarters were a small cluster of wooden buildings surrounded by a stockade. Main structure was the mead-hall Mead is a fermented drink made from water, honey, malt, and yeast Here the king, thanes, wives, and servants gathered together Here the warriors slept after the king retired to a small outbuilding dinging poet called a scop recounted both past history and present events

9 Fame and honor mattered greatly to people
“Manly” virtues: bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship mystical aspects of reality Relatively primitive warrior bands; took over some of the old Roman towns and governmental procedures Ambitious kings began to assert an authority over other rulers, each claiming to be a ruling king or bretwalda War between principalities, tribes, and clans Law and order fell to leaders of given groups Fame and success through loyalty, especially during war Success measured in gifts Security came in development of close communities

10 Achieving unity and peace : influence of the Christian church
Anglo-Saxon Britain:pagan until 597, St. Augustine established the first archbishopric at Canterburry Converted King Ethelburt of Kent. pagan and Christian altars side-by-side Christianity was crucial for the development of the Anglo-Saxon culture

11 Brought essential skill for advanced culture- Writing
Church brought contact with the distant and ancient Mediterranean World. Brought essential skill for advanced culture- Writing Venerable Bede King Alfred Beowulf poet Church tried to teach new values to warrior-kings Compassion and cooperation instead of arrogance and violence Peak of Anglo-Saxon culture came with rule of Mercian Bretwaldas (overlord or king) of 8th C From here came most of surviving 30,000 lines of poetry and some prose Anglo-Saxon and Christian cultures combined to form a new synthesis

12 Vikings Era in England (8th Century)
Invaded from across the North Sea from Denmark and Norway Plundered coastal monasteries and towns (at first) periodically Regular attacks increased after 835 Armies appeared with fleets of up to 250 ships Commanded by Danish kings Vikings invaded and took over most of northeast and central England Norhtumbria, East Anglia, Mercia, and Essex and absorbed in to Danelaw region Followed Danish law Era of Leif Ericson

13 Alfred the Great (849-899) ruled surviving Anglo-Saxon region of Wessex (in South)
English navy: protection against Vikings Build fortified towns- Burhs (bergs) in grid pattern Manned by standing garrisons Defeated Vikings at Edington in 878 Forced them to stay in Danelaw region Second great era of Anglo-Saxon literary culture Studied and translated Latin works into Anglo-Saxon Bede’s history of England 891 (ish) began Anglo-Saxon Chronicles Year-by-year account of happenings in kingdom Greatest single source of information about the period

14 Anglo-Saxons dominated the history of England for 600 years
England (10th century) divided between Scandinavians in north and east and Anglo-Saxons in southeast and south Divided until William the Conqueror (French Norman) in 1066 Anglo-Saxons dominated the history of England for 600 years Foundations for the culture of their land Provided language Began literature Established traditions in law, government, and religion First English people

15 Elsewhere in the World Charlemagne ( ), king of the Franks, attempted to expand nation’s power Took northern Italy, northern Spain, and parts of Germany 800 declared himself Emperor of the West Attempted to renew reign of Caesars and Holy Roman Empire Mohammed (570?-632), prophet in Arabia, founded Islam Koran is a collection of his sayings Spread throughout northern Africa into Spain and India Established rich Arabic culture Striking advances in mathematics Built richly ornamented cities Sponsored poets and philosophers Islam came into conflict with developing western cultures 778 Charlemagne defeated Moslems in northern Spain

16 Mayan culture flourished in Central America (Western Hemisphere)
( ) “Old Empire” perfected a highly accurate calendar Employed elaborate hieroglyphic writing Erected large cities with massive pyramids T’ang Dynasty in China (7th Century) – most powerful nation on earth at the time Taizong ( ) emperor led nearly 50 years of peace Economic prosperity Wide-spread exportation of goods Developed arts of poetry and painting

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