Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxons 450-1066 England was inviting to outsiders England was inviting to outsiders mild climate mild climate rich, easily-tilled.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxons 450-1066 England was inviting to outsiders England was inviting to outsiders mild climate mild climate rich, easily-tilled."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Anglo-Saxons

2 The Anglo-Saxons England was inviting to outsiders England was inviting to outsiders mild climate mild climate rich, easily-tilled soil rich, easily-tilled soil safe anchorage for invading ships safe anchorage for invading ships Invaders followed the riversInvaders followed the rivers Celts, Romans, Anglos, Saxons, and Normans Celts, Romans, Anglos, Saxons, and Normans British Inventions/Accomplishments: British Inventions/Accomplishments: Stonehenge, Robin Hood, Shakespeare, theory of gravity, Industrial Revolution, radar, penicillinStonehenge, Robin Hood, Shakespeare, theory of gravity, Industrial Revolution, radar, penicillin Magna Carta (1215)- on creating political system by and for the peopleMagna Carta (1215)- on creating political system by and for the people

3 How we got there! New people mixed with old and formed the new culture New people mixed with old and formed the new culture Cave dwellers lived on the island 250,000 years ago Cave dwellers lived on the island 250,000 years ago Invaders came from Iberian peninsula in 2000 BCInvaders came from Iberian peninsula in 2000 BC Built Stonehenge (megaliths) on Salisbury Plain Built Stonehenge (megaliths) on Salisbury Plain The Celts migrated from further eastThe Celts migrated from further east Reached British Isles in 600 BC Reached British Isles in 600 BC Built walled farms and hut villages Built walled farms and hut villages Druid priests conducted sacrifices in forest shrines Druid priests conducted sacrifices in forest shrines Animism religion spirit Animism religion spirit

4 Roman Britain 55 BC Rome dominated Mediterranean world 55 BC Rome dominated Mediterranean world Julius Caesar invaded Briton as punishment for assisting continental Celts Julius Caesar invaded Briton as punishment for assisting continental Celts 43 AD Claudius successfully invaded 43 AD Claudius successfully invaded Boadicea (queen of one of British tribes) led a rebellion a few years later Boadicea (queen of one of British tribes) led a rebellion a few years later Romans eventually subdued most of Britain Romans eventually subdued most of Britain Defeated tribes were driven into the highlands of Wales and Scotland Defeated tribes were driven into the highlands of Wales and Scotland Early in the 2 nd Century Emperor Hadrian built a wall 73 miles long to protect the northern boarder Early in the 2 nd Century Emperor Hadrian built a wall 73 miles long to protect the northern boarder

5 Population became prosperous colony of 3 to 4 million people Population became prosperous colony of 3 to 4 million people Roads connected the towns Roads connected the towns Rural society Rural society Romans ruled Britain for nearly four hundred years Romans ruled Britain for nearly four hundred years 410 the city of Rome fell to German barbarians 410 the city of Rome fell to German barbarians Honorius: Briton, defend yourselves Honorius: Briton, defend yourselves Many continued to speak Latin and tried to keep up old economic and political life Many continued to speak Latin and tried to keep up old economic and political life The Celtic mixed with Latin The Celtic mixed with Latin Country remained weak and divided Country remained weak and divided

6 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Germanic tribes) began invading, looking for better/more secure and fertile land for living Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Germanic tribes) began invading, looking for better/more secure and fertile land for living By 441 they had a firm foothold at the mouth of the Thames River By 441 they had a firm foothold at the mouth of the Thames River Defeated the Celtic tribes and drove them west into the highlands of Wales Defeated the Celtic tribes and drove them west into the highlands of Wales Later origins of legend of King Arthur and his round tableLater origins of legend of King Arthur and his round table During the middle of the sixth century most of the southern low land part of the island was under the control of Angles During the middle of the sixth century most of the southern low land part of the island was under the control of Angles

7 Anglo-Saxon England Religion came from German influence and tied to Norse and Scandinavian mythology Religion came from German influence and tied to Norse and Scandinavian mythology Thors day (god of thunder and lightening) Thors day (god of thunder and lightening) Odins day (god of death, poetry, and magic) Odins day (god of death, poetry, and magic) Dragons (protector of treasures and death) Dragons (protector of treasures and death) Germanic settlers Germanic settlers Tribal society –warrior kings- led their men into battle Tribal society –warrior kings- led their men into battle Always rival warriors within the tribe Always rival warriors within the tribe King gathered around him a retinue of fighting men called thanes King gathered around him a retinue of fighting men called thanes King rewarded faithful service with treasure: rings, gold, and especially weapons King rewarded faithful service with treasure: rings, gold, and especially weapons Any offense to one thane had to be avenged Any offense to one thane had to be avenged Endless feuds between individuals and between tribes Endless feuds between individuals and between tribes

8 Royal living quarters were a small cluster of wooden buildings surrounded by a stockade. Royal living quarters were a small cluster of wooden buildings surrounded by a stockade. Main structure was the mead-hall Main structure was the mead-hall Mead is a fermented drink made from water, honey, malt, and yeast Mead is a fermented drink made from water, honey, malt, and yeast Here the king, thanes, wives, and servants gathered together Here the king, thanes, wives, and servants gathered together Here the warriors slept after the king retired to a small outbuilding Here the warriors slept after the king retired to a small outbuilding dinging poet called a scop recounted both past history and present events dinging poet called a scop recounted both past history and present events

9 Fame and honor mattered greatly to people Fame and honor mattered greatly to people Manly virtues: bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship Manly virtues: bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship mystical aspects of reality mystical aspects of reality Relatively primitive warrior bands; took over some of the old Roman towns and governmental procedures Relatively primitive warrior bands; took over some of the old Roman towns and governmental procedures Ambitious kings began to assert an authority over other rulers, each claiming to be a ruling king or bretwalda Ambitious kings began to assert an authority over other rulers, each claiming to be a ruling king or bretwalda War between principalities, tribes, and clans War between principalities, tribes, and clans Law and order fell to leaders of given groups Law and order fell to leaders of given groups Fame and success through loyalty, especially during war Fame and success through loyalty, especially during war Success measured in gifts Success measured in gifts Security came in development of close communities Security came in development of close communities

10 Achieving unity and peace : influence of the Christian church Anglo-Saxon Britain:pagan until 597, Anglo-Saxon Britain:pagan until 597, St. Augustine established the first archbishopric at Canterburry St. Augustine established the first archbishopric at Canterburry Converted King Ethelburt of Kent.Converted King Ethelburt of Kent. pagan and Christian altars side-by-side pagan and Christian altars side-by-side Christianity was crucial for the development of the Anglo-Saxon culture Christianity was crucial for the development of the Anglo-Saxon culture

11 Church brought contact with the distant and ancient Mediterranean World. Church brought contact with the distant and ancient Mediterranean World. Brought essential skill for advanced culture- Writing Brought essential skill for advanced culture- Writing Venerable Bede Venerable Bede King Alfred King Alfred Beowulf poet Beowulf poet Church tried to teach new values to warrior-kings Church tried to teach new values to warrior-kings Compassion and cooperation instead of arrogance and violenceCompassion and cooperation instead of arrogance and violence Peak of Anglo-Saxon culture came with rule of Mercian Bretwaldas (overlord or king) of 8 th C Peak of Anglo-Saxon culture came with rule of Mercian Bretwaldas (overlord or king) of 8 th C From here came most of surviving 30,000 lines of poetry and some prose From here came most of surviving 30,000 lines of poetry and some prose Anglo-Saxon and Christian cultures combined to form a new synthesis Anglo-Saxon and Christian cultures combined to form a new synthesis

12 Vikings Era in England (8 th Century) Invaded from across the North Sea from Denmark and Norway Invaded from across the North Sea from Denmark and Norway Plundered coastal monasteries and towns (at first) periodically Plundered coastal monasteries and towns (at first) periodically Regular attacks increased after 835 Regular attacks increased after 835 Armies appeared with fleets of up to 250 shipsArmies appeared with fleets of up to 250 ships Commanded by Danish kingsCommanded by Danish kings Vikings invaded and took over most of northeast and central England Vikings invaded and took over most of northeast and central England Norhtumbria, East Anglia, Mercia, and Essex and absorbed in to Danelaw region Norhtumbria, East Anglia, Mercia, and Essex and absorbed in to Danelaw region Followed Danish lawFollowed Danish law Era of Leif EricsonEra of Leif Ericson

13 Alfred the Great ( ) ruled surviving Anglo- Saxon region of Wessex (in South) Alfred the Great ( ) ruled surviving Anglo- Saxon region of Wessex (in South) English navy: protection against Vikings English navy: protection against Vikings Build fortified towns- Burhs (bergs) in grid pattern Build fortified towns- Burhs (bergs) in grid pattern Manned by standing garrisonsManned by standing garrisons Defeated Vikings at Edington in 878 Defeated Vikings at Edington in 878 Forced them to stay in Danelaw regionForced them to stay in Danelaw region Second great era of Anglo-Saxon literary culture Second great era of Anglo-Saxon literary culture Studied and translated Latin works into Anglo-SaxonStudied and translated Latin works into Anglo-Saxon Bedes history of England Bedes history of England 891 (ish) began Anglo-Saxon Chronicles891 (ish) began Anglo-Saxon Chronicles Year-by-year account of happenings in kingdom Year-by-year account of happenings in kingdom Greatest single source of information about the period Greatest single source of information about the period

14 England (10th century) divided between Scandinavians in north and east and Anglo-Saxons in southeast and south England (10th century) divided between Scandinavians in north and east and Anglo-Saxons in southeast and south Divided until William the Conqueror (French Norman) in 1066 Divided until William the Conqueror (French Norman) in 1066 Anglo-Saxons dominated the history of England for 600 years Anglo-Saxons dominated the history of England for 600 years Foundations for the culture of their land Foundations for the culture of their land Provided language Provided language Began literature Began literature Established traditions in law, government, and religion Established traditions in law, government, and religion First English people First English people

15 Elsewhere in the World Charlemagne ( ), king of the Franks, attempted to expand nations power Charlemagne ( ), king of the Franks, attempted to expand nations power Took northern Italy, northern Spain, and parts of Germany Took northern Italy, northern Spain, and parts of Germany 800 declared himself Emperor of the West 800 declared himself Emperor of the West Attempted to renew reign of Caesars and Holy Roman EmpireAttempted to renew reign of Caesars and Holy Roman Empire Mohammed (570?-632), prophet in Arabia, founded Islam Mohammed (570?-632), prophet in Arabia, founded Islam Koran is a collection of his sayings Koran is a collection of his sayings Spread throughout northern Africa into Spain and India Spread throughout northern Africa into Spain and India Established rich Arabic culture Established rich Arabic culture Striking advances in mathematicsStriking advances in mathematics Built richly ornamented citiesBuilt richly ornamented cities Sponsored poets and philosophersSponsored poets and philosophers Islam came into conflict with developing western cultures Islam came into conflict with developing western cultures 778 Charlemagne defeated Moslems in northern Spain778 Charlemagne defeated Moslems in northern Spain

16 Mayan culture flourished in Central America (Western Hemisphere) Mayan culture flourished in Central America (Western Hemisphere) ( ) Old Empire perfected a highly accurate calendar ( ) Old Empire perfected a highly accurate calendar Employed elaborate hieroglyphic writing Employed elaborate hieroglyphic writing Erected large cities with massive pyramids Erected large cities with massive pyramids Tang Dynasty in China (7 th Century) – most powerful nation on earth at the time Tang Dynasty in China (7 th Century) – most powerful nation on earth at the time Taizong ( ) emperor led nearly 50 years of peace Taizong ( ) emperor led nearly 50 years of peace Economic prosperityEconomic prosperity Wide-spread exportation of goodsWide-spread exportation of goods Developed arts of poetry and paintingDeveloped arts of poetry and painting


Download ppt "The Anglo-Saxons. The Anglo-Saxons 450-1066 England was inviting to outsiders England was inviting to outsiders mild climate mild climate rich, easily-tilled."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google