2 Persian Wars Cause of wars: Athenian support of Greek colonies in PersiaBattle of Marathon: 490 BCEWon by Athens’ phalanx,a 10 to 1 victoryRole of Pheidippides –ran 26 miles (from Marathon)to tell city of the victory,then died.
3 480 BCE – Second Invasion Battle of Thermopylae Spartans and Athenians can’t stop PersiansHistoric last stand by Leonidas and 300 SpartansAthens burned
4 Thermopylae was the scene of the heroic death of Leonidas I and his 1400 men, 300Spartans. In their attempt to stop thePersian invasion in 480 BCE. The Greekswere betrayed by a spy who told the Persiansabout a path over the mountain, attacked theGreeks from the rear, and killed all the Spartans.The Battle of Thermopylae was recordedby the Greek historian Herodotus.
5 Battle of Salamis Athens navy vs. Persian navy Persians drawn into the straitsnear SalamisPersians: More ships, but bigger shipstrapped in the little straitsAthens Wins; Persians go home
6 GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE 479 – 431BCE Height of Greek culture and developmentPericles and the Delian LeagueFor over 20 years, at Athens' height, the city was dominated bythe aloof, 'Olympian' figure of Pericles. A magnificent orator witha reputation for scrupulous honesty, Pericles deepened andextended the reforms that Cleisthenes had set in motion some50 years before.A keen patron of learningand the arts, he mastermindedthe construction of theParthenon.However, in glorifying Athens,he set it upon a collision coursewith Sparta that wouldUltimately lead to its ruin.Pericles
7 Pericles as Leader creates direct democracy Takes over Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian fleet beautify AthensPericles builds the ParthenonClassical art—values harmony, order, balance, proportion, beauty