Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon. All organic molecules contain carbon. Living organisms are made up of."— Presentation transcript:
Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon. All organic molecules contain carbon. Living organisms are made up of organic molecules and use organic molecules to function. There are four basic groups of organic compounds in the body: Carbohydrates, Lipids (fats), Proteins and Nucleic acids.
Organic Compound ElementsBuilding Blocks CarbohydratesCarbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen Simple sugars (monosaccharides) LipidsCarbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen Glycerol and Fatty Acids ProteinsCarbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Amino Acids Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nucleotides Organic Substances of the Body
Carbohydrates – The Monosaccharides A carbohydrate is a compound containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The basic building blocks of carbohydrate molecules are the Monosaccharides (Simple Sugars)–Glucose, Fructose and Galactose. fructosegalactoseglucose
Carbohydrates – The Disaccharides Two monosaccharides can form a covalent bond between them to form a disaccharide sugar. Sucrose is a compound containing a glucose joined to a fructose. Sucrose is commonly called table sugar. Maltose is a disaccharide containing two glucose molecules held together by a covalent bond. Lactose is a sugar found in milk formed by the combination of glucose and galactose.
Carbohydrates- Polysaccharides Starches 1,000s of glucose molecules linked together Plants – energy storage as starch Animals – energy storage as glycogen
Carbohydrates – The Polysaccharides When many monosaccharide molecules are joined together with covalent bonds, we have a polysaccharide. Glycogen is a polysaccharide containing many hundreds of monosaccharide subunits. Glycogen is a food stored in the body for energy. An important structural polysaccharide is cellulose. Cellulose is in wood and the cell walls of plants. You know that shirt you're wearing? If it is cotton, that's cellulose, too! Even though cellulose is formed from sugar, we cannot digest it. Do you know of an animal that can digest plant cellulose? Polysaccharides are also found in the shells of such crustaceans as crabs and lobsters as a material called chitin. Polysaccharide
Organic Chemistry - Lipids Lipids or fats are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Lipids are essential structural components of all cells especially the cell membranes. Lipids also represent an important energy reserve molecule. Gram for gram, lipids provide twice as much energy as carbohydrates. Three important lipids in the body are: triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. Fatty acid Phosphate Fatty acid TriglyceridePhospholipid Cholesterol
Triglycerides Triglycerides are lipid molecules formed from two building blocks, glycerol and three fatty acids. Triglycerides store a great deal of energy for the body. When the covalent bonds between the atoms in a triglyceride molecule are broken down, energy is released for life activities.
Phospholipids The phospholipid molecule is similar to a triglyceride except that the third fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group. Phosphate consists of one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms. The phosphate end of the molecule will dissolve in water and is said to be hydrophilic (likes water). The fatty acid end of the molecule repels water and is called hydrophobic (fears water). phosphate
Phospholipid bilayer When phospholipid molecules are mixed in water, they will form a stable bilayer structure with the phosphate heads facing the water and the water fearing fatty acid tails facing each other. This phospholipid bilayer arrangement is the basic structure of the cell membrane. Hydrophobic tails Hydrophilic heads
Cholesterol Cholesterol is an unusual type of lipid. It is made up of four rings (1, 2, 3, 4) of carbon atoms joined together by covalent bonds. Cholesterol is needed for the structure of the plasma membranes of cells. It is also used to manufacture a class of hormones called the steroids. Many baseball and football players have been accused of using steroids to illegally increase their strength. Some people have a problem with too much cholesterol in their blood. High cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood are a major cause of heart disease Cholesterol molecule
Organic Chemistry – The Proteins Proteins are very large, complex molecules composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Other elements are found in proteins in very small amounts. Protein molecules are constructed from building blocks called amino acids. There are twenty different kinds of amino acids. As amino acids are joined to each other with special covalent peptide bonds, the protein molecule grows larger and its shape becomes more and more complex. An example of a very complex protein would be hemoglobin found in the red blood cells. Typical amino acid
The Proteins - Functions Proteins carry out a wide range of functions in the body: 1.Collagen and keratin are structural proteins. Collagen holds the tissues together throughout the body and strengthens ligaments and tendons. 2.Keratin is a protein that toughens and waterproofs the skin. 3.Many hormones that regulate body functions are proteins. 4.The proteins actin and myosin permit our muscles to contract. 5.Hemoglobin is a blood protein that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. 6.Antibodies are proteins in the blood and body fluids that help to fight infections. 7.Enzymes are a special class of proteins that assist other chemicals to react with each other. These reactions are the basis of all life chemistry.
Enzymes Enzymes are referred to as catalysts. A catalyst is a substance that assists other chemical reactions to occur without being chemically changed itself. In the example to the right, molecule A and molecule B are joined together to form a new substance AB. Enzymes are needed to permit every chemical reaction in the body to occur. The most important characteristic of an enzyme molecule is its shape. The shape of the enzyme molecule must fit the shape of the specific molecules the enzyme works on like a key fits into a lock.
Basic Enzyme Reaction A basic enzyme reaction must have the following components: 1.The substrate – the material that the enzyme will act upon. 2.The enzyme – the catalyst that allows the reaction to occur. 3.The products – the substances produced through the reaction of the enzyme with the substrate. An example of the action of a typical enzyme would be the reaction produced when the enzyme catalase is exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide Water + Oxygen Catalase is found in all animal tissues. This reaction is commonly seen when peroxide is applied to an open wound. The release of oxygen in the wound kills dangerous germs. Catalase
Enzyme Characteristics 1. Enzymes are used to regulate the rate (speed) of chemical reactions. 2. All enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes. 3. Each chemical reaction in an organism requires its own specific enzyme. 4. Each chemical that is worked on by an enzyme is called a substrate. 5. Each enzyme can also be called an organic calalyst. 6. Enzymes are never changed by their reactions! They are reusable
Basis of Enzyme Action Each enzyme has a specific area for linking up with its own specific substrate. This is called an active site (the place where substrate and enzyme are attached) THE LOCK AND KEY MODEL 1.) An enzyme and substrate that are compatible link up at the active site. The shapes of the enzyme and substrate fit together like a lock and key 2.) This forms the enzyme-substrate complex where the enzyme goes to work (can put together or take apart a substrate.) 3.) The enzyme and products separate: the enzyme is ready to work on another substrate.
Examples of Enzyme Activities – Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis Two very common chemical reactions assisted by enzymes are dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. When the subunits of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are being put together to form larger molecules, water is removed by the action of an enzyme. This process is called dehydration synthesis. When large organic compounds are being broken down into their subunits, an enzyme controlled reaction adds water between the subunits. This is called hydrolysis.
The Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a very complex double stranded molecule which stores all of the information needed by the cell and the entire organism to carry out life activities. DNA is found primarily in the nucleus of the cell. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a single stranded molecule which is found in several locations within the cell. RNA carries a copy of the coded information in DNA to the place in the cell where that information will be used to manufacture enzymes needed to allow all of the chemical processes of life to occur in the cell.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - DNA DNA is a very large molecule (macromolecule) which stores hereditary information that controls the activities of every cell of the body. DNA is built up from building blocks called nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of three kinds of particles: a sugar molecule, a nitrogen base and a phosphate. deoxyribose sugar nitrogen base phosphate A DNA Nucleotide
Ribonucleic Acid - RNA RNA can be thought of as one half of a DNA molecule which carries coded hereditary information from the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm. RNA is built up from building blocks called nucleotides. A nucleotide of RNA is made up of three kinds of particles: a ribose sugar molecule, a nitrogen base and a phosphate. ribose sugar nitrogen base phosphate An RNA Nucleotide
Structure of DNA There are four kinds of nitrogen bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The nucleotides containing these bases are put together to form a structure called a double helix. A double helix has the shape of a ladder that has been twisted lengthwise so that the sides of the ladder coil around each other. The sides of the ladder are formed by sugar and phosphate groups. The rungs of the ladder consist of nitrogen bases.