Presentation on theme: "Using a Punnett Square. What is a PUNNETT SQUARE? If you know the genes of the parents, a Punnett square can be used to… show the different ways alleles."— Presentation transcript:
Using a Punnett Square
What is a PUNNETT SQUARE? If you know the genes of the parents, a Punnett square can be used to… show the different ways alleles in the sex cells can combine predict the probability of certain traits in offspring
Using a PUNNETT SQUARE One of Harry Potters best friends is Hermione Granger. Hermione is a wizard, but her parents are not. So, how did Hermione get the wizarding trait? We can use a Punnett square to figure it out…
Using a PUNNETT SQUARE A letter is chosen to represent a characteristic, such as magical powers. Having magical powers is a recessive trait, so well use: M for muggle (non-wizard) m for wizard
Using a PUNNETT SQUARE Both of Hermiones parents are muggles and both have a genotype of Mm. Genotypes: Mm x Mm (mom x dad) Phenotypes: both muggles (non-wizards)
Using a PUNNETT SQUARE Cross Hermiones parents: Mm M m
Using a PUNNETT SQUARE The cross looks like this: Mm M m MMMm M mmm
Using a PUNNETT SQUARE Each square stands for 25% of the possible offspring. Or, ¼ of the possible offspring. Mm M m MMMm M mmm
Using a PUNNETT SQUARE Remember, the recessive trait is having magical powers. Whats the probability of being a wizard? Mm M m MMMm M mmm
Expressing PROBABILITIES Can express probability several ways: 3:1 ratio of muggles to wizards 1/4 chance of being wizard 25% chance of being wizard Mm M m MMMm M mmm
Expressing PROBABILITIES can use for genotypes 25% - MM 50% - Mm 25% - mm or phenotypes 3/4 - muggles 1/4 – wizards 3:1 muggles to wizards Mm M m MMMm M mmm
Practice #1 Mendel crossed a pure-breeding purple flower (PP) with a pure-breeding white flower (pp). Complete a Punnett square for this cross. A. Which is the dominant trait? B. What are the offspring genotypes? C. For the offspring, what fraction will have purple flowers? D. What percentage will have genotype Pp?
Widows Peak No Widows Peak Widows Peak
Practice #2 A mom with a widows peak (Ww) is crossed (mates) with a dad who does not have a widows peak (ww). Complete a Punnett square for this cross. A. Which is the dominant trait? B. What are the offspring genotypes? C. What is the ratio of widows peak to no widows peak for the offspring? D.What is the ratio of Ww to ww for the offspring?
Practice #3 A man and a woman both have a cleft chin. Both have genotypes of Cc. Complete a Punnett square for a cross between them. A. Which is the dominant trait? B. What are the offspring genotypes? C. What fraction of offspring will have a cleft chin? D. What percentage will have genotype Cc?