Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Physics. Vocabulary alpha particle - positively charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons. (Helium nucleus) atomic mass number."— Presentation transcript:
Vocabulary alpha particle - positively charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons. (Helium nucleus) atomic mass number (A) - the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. atomic mass unit - the unit of mass equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 nucleus; the atomic mass rounded to the nearest whole number is called the mass number. atomic number (Z) - the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. beta particle - high speed electron emitted from a radioactive element when a neutron. decays into a proton binding energy - the nuclear energy that binds protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. element - a substance made of only one kind of atom. isotope - a form of an element which has a particular number of neutrons, that is, has the same atomic number but a different mass number than the other elements which occupy the same place on the periodic table.
Vocabulary mass defect - the mass equivalent of the binding energy in the nucleus of an atom by E = mc2 neutron - an electrically neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom nuclear reaction - any process in the nucleus of an atom that causes the number of protons and/or neutrons to change nucleons - protons or neutrons strong nuclear force - the force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom transmutation - the changing of one element into another by a loss of gain of one or more protons
Equations, symbols and units where E = binding energy of the nucleus Δm = mass defect of the nucleus c = speed of light = 3 x 10 8 m/s u = atomic mass unit X = element symbol A = atomic mass number (number of protons and neutrons) Z = atomic number (number of protons)
Find the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in a neutral atom of iron. # protons # protons + #neutrons 26 protons 30 neutrons neutral #protons = # electrons = 26
M2M2 M1M1 Before After M5M5 M4M4 M3M3 E o E f = < M o M f = > E o = E f + (M o -M f )c 2 E o = E f + (Δm)c 2 MASS is transferred to ENERGY
p p p p p p p n n n n n n n
p p p p p p p n n n n n n n Mass defect is responsible for the binding energy. E binding = (Δm)c 2
Transmutation of nitrogen into carbon Nuclide/particleMass (u) neutron proton
Nuclear fusion – The joining of two small nuclei to form one big one. Nuclear fission – Splitting a large nuclei to two smaller nuclei.
Binding energy per nucleon vs. mass number Binding energy Per nucleon (MeV) Mass number
Fusion Examples: NuclideMass (u)
Fission Example: If splits into and, how many neutrons will be produced? Calculate the energy released in this reaction. ZsymbolAMass (u) 92U Mo Sn